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Commercially available anti-sapstain chemicals in New Zealand - An update
1987 - IRG/WP 3416
Six anti-sapstain chemicals or mixtures (NaPCP plus borax, Haipen 5F, Mitrol PQ375, Busan 1009, Protek S, Pinefol 50W) are available as commercial treatments in New Zealand. A further two (Hylite 20F and Isothon-35) have shown potential in field and mill trials and will be available for use. A number of other formulations are under evaluation.
J A Drysdale

In search of alternative antisapstain chemicals for use in Papua New Guinea
1988 - IRG/WP 3472
The paper presents results of antisapstain field trials from three locations in Papua New Guinea as part of the Research Centre's programme to find suitable antisapstains to replace the hazardous sodium pentachlorophenate. Effectiveness of seven tested chemicals varied between indigenous pines (Araucaria cunninghamii, Araucaria husteinii) and white coloured hardwoods (Alstonia scholaris, Pterocymbium beccarii) but not between sites. The indigenous pines required lower chemical concentration for same level and period of protection than white coloured hardwoods like amberoi and white cheesewood. Period of protection ranged from four weeks to a maximum of 16 weeks depending on chemical concentration and species of timber. Potential chemicals recommended for use as antisapstain include Celbrite T, Busan 1009, Penacide and Woodguard E.S. and Woodguard E.C.
A Oteng-Amoako

Observations on the colonization of freshly-felled timber treated with prophylactic chemicals by mould and sapstain fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1394
Field tests using freshly felled pine sapwood were set up to determine the effectiveness of a range of antisapstain compounds and to study the problems of colonization by mould and sapstain fungi. Differences were recorded both in the overall performance of the compounds and also their selectivity in controlling specific fungal types. These results were found to be useful in gaining a better understanding of biocide - fungal interactions.
G R Williams, D A Lewis

Proposed standard laboratory method for testing fungicides for controlling sapstain and mould on unseasoned lumber
1977 - IRG/WP 292
This laboratory method is for determining the effective concentration, or concentration for zero growth (CGo), for fungicides or preparations of fungicides which are potentially useful in protecting packaged or unseasoned lumber in storage and shipment from biodeterioration by sapstain fungi and moulds. The test is rapid and may be completed in three weeks and gives a good indication of the toxicity of a chemical against sapstain fungi and moulds.
A J Cserjesi

Selective adsorption of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and movement of actives into wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30103
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, NeXgenâ and Busanâ Sap Stain Preventative (Busan 1009), at three product concentration levels. Concentrations of active ingredients (NeXgen: CTL (chloro-thalonil) and MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate); Busan 1009: TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole) and MTC) were monitored with respect to the amount of material dipped. Selective adsorption (removal of actives from the suspension at greater than simple volumetric transfer rates) varied with formulation and active ingredient, and increased with decreasing product concentration. Movement of active ingredients into dipped boards was monitored for 30 days after dipping. Mobility order was MTC >> TCMTB > CTL. Surface depletion characteristics were obtained for each active ingredient.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

Field trials of anti-sapstain products. Part 1
1991 - IRG/WP 3675
The results obtained in two field tests of anti-sapatain products, carried out in four locations in Portugal, are presented. Boards from freshly cut logs were hand-dipped, close staked and left to dry for periods from four to six months. The results obtained seem to indicate that some of the products tested performed at least as well and sometimes better, than a 3% NaPCP solution which was used as control product.
L Nunes, F Peixoto, M M Pedroso, J A Santos

The identification and preservative tolerance of species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from freshly felled timber
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1553
The surface disfigurement of antisapstain treated timber by preservative-tolerant fungi remains a major problem in stored timber. Identification of a range of isolates of Trichoderma based on microscopic morphological characteristics was found to be imprecise due to the variable nature of this organism. In addition, studies to compare visual (morphological) characteristics of these isolates with their tolerance to the antisapstain compound methylene-bis-thiocyanate (MBT) using minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) tests showed no clear correlations. Isoenzyme electrophoresis was used to investigate the taxonomic relationships between species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from antisapstain field trials and to identify physiological differences between 30 isolates of Trichoderma which show tolerance to MBT at concentrations ranging from less than 4 ppm to 34 ppm. Results indicate that there is considerable variability in the preservative tolerance of different Trichoderma isolates from particular locality. This highlights the need for field testing of an antisapstain compound in the same locality and under the same conditions in which it will be used in practice.
R J Wallace, R A Eaton, M A Carter, G R Williams

Observations on the failure of anti-sapstain treated timber under non-drying conditions
1990 - IRG/WP 1437
A range of bacteria and yeasts were isolated from antisapstain treated timber and fresh sawdust. Solution samples containing 100 ppm of TCMTB in a nutrient medium were inoculated with these organisms and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. The levels of TCMTB remaining in solution were determined by HPLC analysis after this time. Results indicated high losses of active ingredient for a range of organisms. These results suggest that active biodetoxification of organic biocides could occur in a short period of time during storage of antisapstain treated timber under favourable conditions. The implications of these results are discussed.
G R Williams

Austrian field test method for anti-sapstain chemicals
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20020
Although Austria is a small country, the annual consumption of anti-sapstain products ranks to approximately 500 tons annually. In 1994, only three products will be approved by the Austrian Wood Preservation Committee (AWPEC). There is demand for a field test method, which demonstrates the efficacy of an anti-sapstain product and consequently implies the acceptance and approval of product by the AWPEC. Present field test was carried out in 1992 and 1993. The results were evaluated after six months storage of test stacks. A TCMTB based product was used as a reference. The results show that the AFPRL method proves very suitable for the simulation of practical situation in Austrian treatment plants, where pine and/or spruce are treated periodically and where different methods of stack storage are applied.
R Gründlinger, M Brandstätter, H Melzer, O Janotta

Ecotoxicological risks of anti-sapstain preservatives washed off from treated timber
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50144
A field method for ecotoxicity assessment of rain water wash-off from anti-sapstain treated timber was developed. In the course of this study freshly sawn timber treated with 1.5% Busan 30 L (reference preservative) and a control stack with untreated pine were exposed to weathering. The run-off water was ecotoxicologically tested with organisms from three trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Kirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna). Results show, that the highest ecotoxicity can be detected immediately after treatment and within the first 4 weeks of storage - depending on the precipitation: high rainfall during the first month of exposure significantly increases ecotoxicity. Covering the treated stack provides sufficient protection of timber against leaching of chemicals and further on significantly minimises the environmental risk. Results suggest either storage of anti-sapstain treated timber in saw mills underneath a roof or, when stored outside, protection of treated stacks by coverage.
G Aschacher, R Gründlinger

Effects of timber surface properties and dipping conditions on uptake of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and ultimate effects on efficacy against mould and staining organisms
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30073
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, and the resultant surface retentions of active ingredients MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate), CTL (chlorothalonil) or TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole) were monitored by chemical analysis. Surface retentions increased with suspension concentration and surface roughness, and decreased with initial timber moisture content. Dipping time beyond 20 seconds, timber basic density and earlywood content had little effect. Relatively low surface retentions, produced by dipping smoother boards with higher initial moisture contents, provided lower protection against mould and stain during seasoning than higher retentions. Equations describing the effect of surface retention on efficacy were developed for both formulations, and retentions providing complete protection under the conditions of the test were determined.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

The use of bifluorides-diffusion in remedial treatments
1983 - IRG/WP 3256
A description is given about the experience to date of a 14 years' development to bring bifluorides-diffusion from laboratory evaluation to commercial service application. The described treatment is an adjunct to good design and not a replacement for it. The process is also used with an injection method for the remedial treatment of premature decayed external joinery.
H F M Nijman

An evaluation of anti-apstain chemicals in Queensland, Australia
1986 - IRG/WP 3374
Five formulations were evaluated for potential use as antisapstain chemicals. Tolcide FSM (0.01, 0.02, 0.04%), Koppers N.P.-1 (0.70, 0.35, 0.25%), Kathon WT (0.10, 0.25, 0.40%) and Sinesto B (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5%) offer potential as antisapstain treatments. An incorrect stock of Busan 1009 was used resulting in unacceptable results.
L E Leightley

Some tests on ES - AS 11, a novel anti-sapstain formulation, and its properties
1987 - IRG/WP 3399
The results of some tests with the formulation ES - AS 11 are given. The formulation is an attempt to improve the performance of an anti-sapstain chemical by: 1) increasing its penetrability 2) uniquely combining its active ingredients. Very short times of treatment (dipping not longer than 5 seconds), low concentrations of active ingredients, and lower toxicological and environmental risks may be a promising result.
U Straetmans

Anti-stain field trials in British Columbia
1981 - IRG/WP 3174
Four alternative anti-sap stain chemicals were subjected to a four month field evaluation during the summer of 1980. The test, established at a Vancouver Island sawmill, was designed to evaluate the potential long-term effectiveness of sodium tribromophenate (Velsicol Ltd.), Biocom XX (Bramco Industries) containing methylene bis-thiocyanate, Woodbrite NTX (Van Waters & Rogers Ltd.) containing 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butyl carbamate and Mitrol 48 (Kenogard) containing guazatine acetate and quaternary ammonium chlorides, on hemfir and Douglas fir. Sodium tribromophenate was found to give surface protection equivalent to that of chlorophenate treated controls. Biocom XX was also effective, although the active ingredient came out of solution at the required treating solution concentration. Woodbrite NTX and Mitrol 48 were found to be ineffective on either species group under the test conditions.
D V Plackett

A comparative field test of the effectiveness of anti-sapstain treatments on radiata pine roundwood
1986 - IRG/WP 3376
Peeled radiata pine posts were sprayed with one of six antisapstain formulations, with and without a wax water-repellent additive, to evaluate the protection given by each treatment. After 3 months' outside storage the best treatments tested were 4% product Busan 30, 2% product Busan 1009, and 2% active sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) with 1.5% borax. After 6 months' storage posts sprayed with Busan 30 were of sounder appearance than those sprayed with Busan 1009 or NaPCP plus borax. The effect of a water repellent on the moisture content of posts and on the severity of the fungal degrade was variable between treatments and requires further research.
J A Drysdale, R M Keirle

Production of preservative-treated wood in some countries
1990 - IRG/WP 3598
This report presents figures of the production of preservative-treated wood and wood treated with anti-stain chemicals in 26 and 20 countries respectively from all over the world.
J Jermer

Framework document for an international code of good practices for wood preservation and wood protection (anti-sapstain) facilities
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3683
At the Kyoto meeting, the Health & Safety committee agreed to form a task force to prepare a global plan for writing a code of good practices (Code) for wood protection and preservation facilities (Doc. No. IRG/WP/3681). The Canadian document had been presented to the IRG group earlier (Doc. No. IRG/WP/3447) and similar documents were solicited from other countries for preparing a framework document to assist in the task. Documents were received from Germany, France, UK, and Sweden. These documents provided information on similar efforts toward establishing a Code in those countries. The guiding principles for preparing the Code will be to reduce or eliminate the releases of preservative/anti-sapstain chemicals in the environment and to minimize the workers' exposure to these chemicals for their health and safety. The recommended practices should be based on the current knowledge of existing technology and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the chemicals. Cooperation of all stakeholders, that is, industry, chemical supliers, regulatory bodies, workers, and other interest groups, in the preparation and approval of the Code should be sought to increase its credibility, usefulness, and effeness. It is proposed to develop a model Code which can be adopted in whole or with modifications in any country, reflecting the site-specific conditions, legislation, and the state of technological sophistication in the industry. The work to date has been conducted ad hoc with the cooperation of Dr. Peek (Germany), Monsieur Ozanne (France), and Dr. Chris Coggins (UK), and the authors acknowledge their assistance in supplying the documents. Based on the available information, it is suggested that the enclosed table of contents be used in the preparation of the framework document for the Code. A task force will be formed to prepare and present the final Code at the next meeting.
V N P Mathur, G Das

Seasonal effects of the field evaluation on wood preservatives against mold fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20087
For the purpose of the amelioration of field test methods, commercial preservatives against mold fungi were tested under two different seasons, in winter and in summer. The specimens were bundled and set over the water bath and all these systems were covered with plastic film. At top of the system under film, black films for regeneration of sunlight were put in, and windows for changing air were reserved in summer. The visual evaluation of damage (rating 0-4) was done periodically. The results obtained as follows. 1.) The evaluation values after 2 months in winter were simmilar results as those after 3 weeks in summer. 2.) The fungicides, mixture of nitoril compound and organo nitrogen sulfuric compound, mixture of thiocyanate compound and organo nitrogen sulfuric compound, were obtained good results in field. Those percentage of the specimens rating under 1 were more than 50% and those mean rating were not more than 2. 3.) In the case of organo iodide compound, the results in winter were good but in summer were not so good.
K Suzuki, Y Sugai, K Ryugo, D Watanabe

A field test with anti-sapstain chemicals on sawn pine timber in Finland
1986 - IRG/WP 3368
Fourteen formulations, each in two concentrations, were tested for effectiveness against sapstain, mould and decay on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a field test in South-Finland. The trial was commenced in June 1985 and finished in October 1985. During the test the boards were infected mainly by mould fungi. In kiln dried boards the protective effects of nine and in green boards of four treatments were better than the effect of the tested formulation of sodium chlorophenoxides at 1.5%
L Paajanen

The use of chlorothalonil for protection against mold and sapstain fungi. Part 1: Laboratory evaluation
1989 - IRG/WP 3515
Laboratory screening of chlorothalonil alone and in combination with other fungicides was conducted against six mold and sapstain fungi. The most promising treatments appear to be chlorothalonil supplemented with CCA or copper-8-quinolinolate. Field tests have been implemented.
J A Micales, T L Highley, A L Richter

Evaluation of an alkyl ammonium compound as a fungicide to control sapstain and mould during diffusion storage
1984 - IRG/WP 3282
An alkyl ammonium compound ('Akzo' ES 255) was evaluated for its effectiveness against mould and sapstain during diffusion storage of boron-treated rubber wood. Though ES 255 at 1.0% concentration was effective against mould (71%) and sapstain (89%) it is less satisfactory compared to 0.5% sodium pentachlorophenoxide against mould (92%) and sapstain (98%).
R Gnanaharan

Tebuconazole - a new triazole fungicide for wood preservation
1991 - IRG/WP 3680
The great potential of Tebuconazole for wood preservation is demonstrated. Test carried out by official institutes shown that Tebuconazole is particularly effective against wood-rotting basidiomycetes strains. The efficacy of Tebuconazole against the brown rot Gloeophyllum trabeum is outstanding: the toxic value measured in accordane with EN 113, without·ageing, after leaching (EN 84) and after evaporative ageing (EN 73) are below 0.051 kg/m³.
O Exner

Thermotolerant mould growth in dehumidifier kilns in New Zealand
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10169
Growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variottii is common on wood dried in dehumidifier kilns that operate within a temperature range of 35-55°C. Aspergillus fumigatus causes an unacceptable blue / grey discolouration of the woods surface and prolonged exposure to spores during handling of mouldy wood can cause health problems amongst timber workers. A survey of dehumidifier kiln operators in New Zealand was carried out to ascertain the extent of the problem and investigate control options. Significant growth only occurred if initial wood moisture content was above 80%. Results suggested that this was because high relative humidity (98-100%), for periods in excess of 5 days, was a requirement for extensive and profuse growth to occur. Only 3 of the 26 antisapstain treatments tested using a 3 week laboratory trial gave control of Aspergillus fumigatus at 40°C. Fumigation with 4 ppm (mg/litre of air) of formaldehyde gas controlled growth of Aspergillus fumigatus for periods up to 5 days and a second fumigation was often needed for long drying cycles (> 12 days). It seems likely that growth of thermotolerant moulds became a problem when use of pentachlorophenate as an antisapstain treatment was phased out (1988-89). Laboratory trials showed that this was one of the few fungicides that controlled Aspergillus fumigatus.
R N Wakeling, J G Van der Waals

Effect of borate on uptake and efficacy of an anti-sapstain treatment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30380
The potential for using borates to enhance uptake and efficacy of propiconazole-based anti-sapstain chemicals was assessed on ponderosa pine sapwood wafers. Borates had no consistent effect on either net solution absorption or propiconazole distribution in the wood. Even small amounts of borate, however, markedly improved the performance of propiconazole against fungal discoloration. These results are consistent with previous tests of borate addition to other fungicides and highlight the potential for using less expensive ingredients to boost the performance of more costly biocides.
Jianju Luo, Hua Chen, J J Morrell

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