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The identification and preservative tolerance of species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from freshly felled timber
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1553
The surface disfigurement of antisapstain treated timber by preservative-tolerant fungi remains a major problem in stored timber. Identification of a range of isolates of Trichoderma based on microscopic morphological characteristics was found to be imprecise due to the variable nature of this organism. In addition, studies to compare visual (morphological) characteristics of these isolates with t...
R J Wallace, R A Eaton, M A Carter, G R Williams


Observations on the failure of anti-sapstain treated timber under non-drying conditions
1990 - IRG/WP 1437
A range of bacteria and yeasts were isolated from antisapstain treated timber and fresh sawdust. Solution samples containing 100 ppm of TCMTB in a nutrient medium were inoculated with these organisms and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. The levels of TCMTB remaining in solution were determined by HPLC analysis after this time. Results indicated high losses of active ingredient for a range of organis...
G R Williams


A comparative field test of the effectiveness of anti-sapstain treatments on radiata pine roundwood
1986 - IRG/WP 3376
Peeled radiata pine posts were sprayed with one of six antisapstain formulations, with and without a wax water-repellent additive, to evaluate the protection given by each treatment. After 3 months' outside storage the best treatments tested were 4% product Busan 30, 2% product Busan 1009, and 2% active sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) with 1.5% borax. After 6 months' storage ...
J A Drysdale, R M Keirle


The use of bifluorides-diffusion in remedial treatments
1983 - IRG/WP 3256
A description is given about the experience to date of a 14 years' development to bring bifluorides-diffusion from laboratory evaluation to commercial service application. The described treatment is an adjunct to good design and not a replacement for it. The process is also used with an injection method for the remedial treatment of premature decayed external joinery....
H F M Nijman


A status report on code of good practices
1991 - IRG/WP 3679
Code of Good Practices - Anti Sapstain documents, presented to IRG meetings in the past, are the basic documents for health and safety of the workers and the environment in Canada. The BC Ministry of Environnment has now issued regulations in the area of effluent discharge. While Pentachlorophenols (PCP) are not used by the industry, the documents are still used as a guideline document for the oth...
V N P Mathur, G Das


An evaluation of chemical treatments for the protection of radiata pine logs from fungal degrade
1986 - IRG/WP 3377
Busan 30, Busan 1009, Mitrol PQ375. and sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) plus have been evaluated as antisapstain treatments for the long-term protection of debarked radiata pine logs. After 3 months' winter-spring storage, treated debarked logs had less surface and internal sapstain than 'control' logs. After 6 months' storage all logs had internal sapstain ...
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley, J A Butcher


Laboratory evaluation of potential antisapstain treatments for Pinus radiata
1983 - IRG/WP 3237
Twelve formulations were tested in the laboratory using a 'mini' board test for effectiveness on Pinus radiata (D. Don) against sapstain, mould and decay fungi. Three formulations, sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) plus borax, Haipen 50 WP, and Mitrol 375, are used commercially in New Zealand. Busan 1009 (0.5% product), IWD Product A (0.2% ai), IWD Product B (0.3% ai), Fennotox...
J A Drysdale


Detoxification of methylene bisthiocyanate by bacteria isolated from freshly felled, anti-sapstain treated timber
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10017
The microbial defacement of freshly-felled timber treated with organic biocides continues to be a major problem in stored lumber. As part of a study to investigate the depletion in chemical activity of methylene-bis-thiocyanate (MBT) in green timber, bacteria were isolated from freshly-felled boards of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima Arnold) previously treated with different biocides. The...
R J Wallace, R A Eaton, G R Williams


A report on the development of "Technical Recommendations Document for the Canadian wood preservation and protection facilities"
1987 - IRG/WP 3447
The wood preservation and wood protection industry uses chemicals which are similar. However, because the methods of applications of preservatives are different in wood preservation (pressure treatment) and wood protection (surface treatment) plants, their problems need to be resolved separately. As a part of a federal strategy to protect the environment and human health from potentially toxic com...
G Das, V N P Mathur


A report of the Technical Recommendations documents for the Canadian Wood Protection and Preservation Facilities and an environmental study of storm water runoff from anti-sapstain treatment plants
1988 - IRG/WP 3478
With the completion of the Final draft of the Technical Recommendations (TR) documents for the Wood Preservation and Wood Protection Industry, there are naturally questions on what is expected from these documents and how Environment Canada and Provincial regulatory agencies may interact with the wood preservation industry. In general, it is expected that the Canadian Wood Preservation and Protect...
G Das, V N P Mathur


Protection of pine sawtimber and sawn timber against blue stain in Poland
1983 - IRG/WP 3193
The purpose of this paper is the synthesis of more important results of basic and applied research that have been grouped in the following problems: 1.: Fungi causing blue stain in the pine wood, occurring in Poland. 2.: Moisture content changes of pine sawtimber and sawn timber as the factor of blue stain producing fungi development. 3.: Effect of sapwood moisture content on the degree of wood st...
E Tarocinski, M H Zielinski


Commercially available anti-sapstain chemicals in New Zealand - An update
1987 - IRG/WP 3416
Six anti-sapstain chemicals or mixtures (NaPCP plus borax, Haipen 5F, Mitrol PQ375, Busan 1009, Protek S, Pinefol 50W) are available as commercial treatments in New Zealand. A further two (Hylite 20F and Isothon-35) have shown potential in field and mill trials and will be available for use. A number of other formulations are under evaluation....
J A Drysdale


In search of alternative antisapstain chemicals for use in Papua New Guinea
1988 - IRG/WP 3472
The paper presents results of antisapstain field trials from three locations in Papua New Guinea as part of the Research Centre's programme to find suitable antisapstains to replace the hazardous sodium pentachlorophenate. Effectiveness of seven tested chemicals varied between indigenous pines (Araucaria cunninghamii, Araucaria husteinii) and white coloured hardwoods (Alstonia scholaris, ...
A Oteng-Amoako


Observations on the colonization of freshly-felled timber treated with prophylactic chemicals by mould and sapstain fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1394
Field tests using freshly felled pine sapwood were set up to determine the effectiveness of a range of antisapstain compounds and to study the problems of colonization by mould and sapstain fungi. Differences were recorded both in the overall performance of the compounds and also their selectivity in controlling specific fungal types. These results were found to be useful in gaining a better under...
G R Williams, D A Lewis


Proposed standard laboratory method for testing fungicides for controlling sapstain and mould on unseasoned lumber
1977 - IRG/WP 292
This laboratory method is for determining the effective concentration, or concentration for zero growth (CGo), for fungicides or preparations of fungicides which are potentially useful in protecting packaged or unseasoned lumber in storage and shipment from biodeterioration by sapstain fungi and moulds. The test is rapid and may be completed in three weeks and gives a good indication of the toxici...
A J Cserjesi


Selective adsorption of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and movement of actives into wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30103
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, NeXgenâ and Busanâ Sap Stain Preventative (Busan 1009), at three product concentration levels. Concentrations of active ingredients (NeXgen: CTL (chloro-thalonil) and MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate); Busan 1009: TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole) and MTC) wer...
M J Kennedy, T L Woods


Field trials of anti-sapstain products. Part 1
1991 - IRG/WP 3675
The results obtained in two field tests of anti-sapatain products, carried out in four locations in Portugal, are presented. Boards from freshly cut logs were hand-dipped, close staked and left to dry for periods from four to six months. The results obtained seem to indicate that some of the products tested performed at least as well and sometimes better, than a 3% NaPCP solution which was used as...
L Nunes, F Peixoto, M M Pedroso, J A Santos


Austrian field test method for anti-sapstain chemicals
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20020
Although Austria is a small country, the annual consumption of anti-sapstain products ranks to approximately 500 tons annually. In 1994, only three products will be approved by the Austrian Wood Preservation Committee (AWPEC). There is demand for a field test method, which demonstrates the efficacy of an anti-sapstain product and consequently implies the acceptance and approval of product by the A...
R Gründlinger, M Brandstätter, H Melzer, O Janotta


Ecotoxicological risks of anti-sapstain preservatives washed off from treated timber
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50144
A field method for ecotoxicity assessment of rain water wash-off from anti-sapstain treated timber was developed. In the course of this study freshly sawn timber treated with 1.5% Busan 30 L (reference preservative) and a control stack with untreated pine were exposed to weathering. The run-off water was ecotoxicologically tested with organisms from three trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Kirchneri...
G Aschacher, R Gründlinger


Effects of timber surface properties and dipping conditions on uptake of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and ultimate effects on efficacy against mould and staining organisms
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30073
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, and the resultant surface retentions of active ingredients MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate), CTL (chlorothalonil) or TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole) were monitored by chemical analysis. Surface retentions increased with suspension concentration and surface rou...
M J Kennedy, T L Woods


The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and ...
M Van der Zee, W J Homan


Anti-stain field trials in British Columbia
1981 - IRG/WP 3174
Four alternative anti-sap stain chemicals were subjected to a four month field evaluation during the summer of 1980. The test, established at a Vancouver Island sawmill, was designed to evaluate the potential long-term effectiveness of sodium tribromophenate (Velsicol Ltd.), Biocom XX (Bramco Industries) containing methylene bis-thiocyanate, Woodbrite NTX (Van Waters & Rogers Ltd.) containing ...
D V Plackett


Framework document for an international code of good practices for wood preservation and wood protection (anti-sapstain) facilities
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3683
At the Kyoto meeting, the Health & Safety committee agreed to form a task force to prepare a global plan for writing a code of good practices (Code) for wood protection and preservation facilities (Doc. No. IRG/WP/3681). The Canadian document had been presented to the IRG group earlier (Doc. No. IRG/WP/3447) and similar documents were solicited from other countries for preparing a framework do...
V N P Mathur, G Das


An evaluation of anti-apstain chemicals in Queensland, Australia
1986 - IRG/WP 3374
Five formulations were evaluated for potential use as antisapstain chemicals. Tolcide FSM (0.01, 0.02, 0.04%), Koppers N.P.-1 (0.70, 0.35, 0.25%), Kathon WT (0.10, 0.25, 0.40%) and Sinesto B (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5%) offer potential as antisapstain treatments. An incorrect stock of Busan 1009 was used resulting in unacceptable results....
L E Leightley


Seasonal effects of the field evaluation on wood preservatives against mold fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20087
For the purpose of the amelioration of field test methods, commercial preservatives against mold fungi were tested under two different seasons, in winter and in summer. The specimens were bundled and set over the water bath and all these systems were covered with plastic film. At top of the system under film, black films for regeneration of sunlight were put in, and windows for changing air were r...
K Suzuki, Y Sugai, K Ryugo, D Watanabe


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