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In search of alternative antisapstain chemicals for use in Papua New Guinea
1988 - IRG/WP 3472
The paper presents results of antisapstain field trials from three locations in Papua New Guinea as part of the Research Centre's programme to find suitable antisapstains to replace the hazardous sodium pentachlorophenate. Effectiveness of seven tested chemicals varied between indigenous pines (Araucaria cunninghamii, Araucaria husteinii) and white coloured hardwoods (Alstonia scholaris, Pterocymbium beccarii) but not between sites. The indigenous pines required lower chemical concentration for same level and period of protection than white coloured hardwoods like amberoi and white cheesewood. Period of protection ranged from four weeks to a maximum of 16 weeks depending on chemical concentration and species of timber. Potential chemicals recommended for use as antisapstain include Celbrite T, Busan 1009, Penacide and Woodguard E.S. and Woodguard E.C.
A Oteng-Amoako

Selective adsorption of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and movement of actives into wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30103
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, NeXgenâ and Busanâ Sap Stain Preventative (Busan 1009), at three product concentration levels. Concentrations of active ingredients (NeXgen: CTL (chloro-thalonil) and MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate); Busan 1009: TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole) and MTC) were monitored with respect to the amount of material dipped. Selective adsorption (removal of actives from the suspension at greater than simple volumetric transfer rates) varied with formulation and active ingredient, and increased with decreasing product concentration. Movement of active ingredients into dipped boards was monitored for 30 days after dipping. Mobility order was MTC >> TCMTB > CTL. Surface depletion characteristics were obtained for each active ingredient.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

Effects of timber surface properties and dipping conditions on uptake of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and ultimate effects on efficacy against mould and staining organisms
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30073
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, and the resultant surface retentions of active ingredients MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate), CTL (chlorothalonil) or TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole) were monitored by chemical analysis. Surface retentions increased with suspension concentration and surface roughness, and decreased with initial timber moisture content. Dipping time beyond 20 seconds, timber basic density and earlywood content had little effect. Relatively low surface retentions, produced by dipping smoother boards with higher initial moisture contents, provided lower protection against mould and stain during seasoning than higher retentions. Equations describing the effect of surface retention on efficacy were developed for both formulations, and retentions providing complete protection under the conditions of the test were determined.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

Laboratory evaluation of potential antisapstain treatments for Pinus radiata
1983 - IRG/WP 3237
Twelve formulations were tested in the laboratory using a 'mini' board test for effectiveness on Pinus radiata (D. Don) against sapstain, mould and decay fungi. Three formulations, sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) plus borax, Haipen 50 WP, and Mitrol 375, are used commercially in New Zealand. Busan 1009 (0.5% product), IWD Product A (0.2% ai), IWD Product B (0.3% ai), Fennotox S2 (0.4% product) and Woodguard E.C. (0.5% product) have potential as antisapstain treatments. Kilstain, XP-3359, Celbrite-M81 and Acticide THP were ineffective at the concentrations tested. Formulations containing methylene bisthiocyanate were susceptible to the mould Trichoderma viride.
J A Drysdale

A shower test protocol for measuring antisapstain wash-off from small individual log billets
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50069
According to New Zealand Timber Industry Federation statistics New Zealand exported 4,835,000 m³ of logs in 1994 and it is estimated that c. 20% were anti-sapstain treated. Loss of preservative from logs as a result of rain impact after application is of considerable concern both with respect to potential loss of efficacy and environmental contamination. Whilst Environment Canada have a proposed standard for assessing run off from anti-sapstain treated sawn lumber, the method does not readily allow for the evaluation of anti-sapstain treated logs under relevant time frames, or conditions, for the New Zealand situation. In addition, most of the other available and commercially relevant leaching, or shower tests, were designed to evaluate leaching from vacuum-pressure treated square sawn lumber, or round posts. A test method, loosely based on established methods and developed with the support of industry, is described which quantifies the leaching, or surface run-off of preservatives (ie. anti-sapstain products) from small (£ 45 cm diameter) treated log billets under real time, or accelerated conditions. The method also allows for the influence of several key variables on leaching / surface run-off from anti-sapstain logs to be quantified through manipulation of shower test rig parameters such as: water droplet size & flow rate; log coverage; spray jet shape or angles and shower period (intermittent or single dose).
A J Pendlebury, H Pearson

Surface retentions of PCP, TCMTB and MTC obtained during a field trial of antisapstain formulations
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20002
Formulations containing NaPCP or TCMTB and MTC were included as reference products in a recent field trial of antisapstain formulations in Queensland. Retentions of these actives on the surface of treated sawn Pinus elliottii were monitored by ultrasonic solvent extraction of excised samples and analytical determination by high performance liquid chromatography. Distribution of actives with depth and longitudinal position were monitored for the particular dipping/draining schedule employed, and related to dip concentration and time since dipping. The analytical data provide a direct measure of surface retention in terms of active ingredients per unit area, the assessment method preferred by WG II Sub-group 3 at IRG 23. Even if only applied to these reference treatments, such analysis would facilitate comparison between trials conducted using widely varying treatment regimes and conditions.
D E Ferlazzo, M D Needham, M J Kennedy

Commercial antisapstain chemicals in New Zealand
1980 - IRG/WP 3142
Almost all sawn timber of exotic softwoods (principally Pinus radiata) and a large proportion of indigenous sawn timber receives an antisapstain chemical treatment to prevent fungal degrade during subsequent seasoning, storage, or transportation (if exported). Antisapstain chemicals are also widely used to protect freshly peeled round produce during drying. A further, specialised, use is as the fungicidal additive to concentrated boron salt solutions used in boron diffusion treatment of sawn timber; such timber is very prone to mould and stain during the diffusion period. In all cases, the chemical is applied to green timber by momentary immersion in the solution, or by spray. The amount of solution that remains on the surface of dipped timber is very small; solution uptake by dipping green 100 x 50 mm² rough-sawn timber is approximately 18 litres/m³ - equivalent to 1 gal/100 bd ft of 4 x 2 in². The concentration of chemical in solution is that shown by experimentation or experience to be necessary to inhibit almost all fungal growths for a period of 3-4 months. However, adjustment to solution concentrations is often necessary if full cost-effectiveness of the treatment is to be achieved. For example, in winter and early spring chance of fungal infection is usually low, so solution concentrations can be reduced. In contrast, wet warm summers tend to promote fungal degrade and so solution concentrations need to be increased. The condition of the timber also dictates concentrations. Rough-sawn timber absorbs more solution than planer-gauged material, so concentrations must be increased if gauged timber is to obtain adequate protection. This is of particular concern when mills attempt to gauge timber before boron treatment; lack of mould and stain control has limited this worthwhile development. Since antisapstain treatment results only in a superficial deposit of fungicide on the surface of green timber it is merely a preventive, or prophylactic, treatment. The full success of an antisapstain chemical in preventing fungal degrade therefore depends on the timber being free of infection at time of application. Prompt handling between felling, conversion, and antisapstain treatment is a prerequisite of treatment.
J A Butcher

A microscopic study on the effect of IPBC/DDAC on growth morphology of the sapstaining fungus Ophiostoma piceae
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10191
An exploratory study was performed to probe into fungal/wood/fungicide interactions using Ophiostoma piceae, a common sapstaining fungus on unseasoned radiate pine. Treated (1% solution containing IPBC (0.07% w/w) and DDAC (0.60% w/w)) and untreated radiate pine wafers were inoculated with O. piceae and examined microscopically over a ten days incubation time. The results of the study showed that while prolific spore germination and mycelial growth of O. piceae occurred on untreated radiate pine, spore deformation and lysis was observed on treated radiate pine. Using Trypan blue, a vital stain, it was found that some swelled spores remained viable during incubation for ten days suggesting that IPBC/DDAC mode of action is to delay the process of spore germination.
Ying Xiao, B Kreber

Field evaluation of alternative antisapstain chemicals
1982 - IRG/WP 3198
Seven alternative antisapstain formulations containing four different active ingredients were field tested during the summer and fall of 1981. The test was designed to evaluate the potential long term effectiveness of PQ-8 (Chapman Chemical Co.) containing copper-8-quinolinolate, Busan 30 (Buckman Laboratories) containing 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole, BL2398 (Buckman Laboratories) containing a mixture of 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole and methylene bis-thiocyanate, Xyligen K30F (BASF) containing the potassium salt of N-nitroso-N-cyclohexyl hydroxylamine and three formulations, Polyphase (Troy Chemical Corp.), Woodbrite NTX (Van Waters & Rogers) and Argosy (Aero-Pak Ltd.) containing 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate as active ingredient. The tests were evaluated after three months and again after five months. Protection of hemfir lumber comparable to a 0.65% w/w chlorophenoxide treatment was achieved with 0.8% active PQ-8, 2.0% active Busan 30, 0.8% active BL2398, 1.0% active Polyphase, 1.0% active Woodbrite NTX and 1.0% active Argosy treatments. Xyligen K30F treatment at the 1.0% active level was ineffective.
D V Plackett

Laboratory evaluation of water repellents as antisapstain treatment additives
1986 - IRG/WP 3382
Water repellent formulations consisting of five paraffin wax emulsions, three polyethylene wax emulsions, two polybutadiene resin emulsions, a polyester emulsion, and a ß-pinene polymer emulsion were subjected to water repellency tests on radiata pine sapwood. With one exception, the parafin wax emulsions were more effective water repellents than the alternative formulations and one of the paraffin wax emulsions (Paracol 800A) was selected for inclusion in laboratory antisapstain tests. The results showed there was no improvement in fungicidal effectiveness of NaPCP/borax, Busan 1009 (Buckman Laboratories), or Mitrol PQ375 (Kenogard) with addition of this water repellent.
D V Plackett, C M Chittenden

A field trial to assess the potential of antisapstain chemicals for long-term protection of sawn radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3375
Seven chemical formulations were tested as antisapstain treatments for freshly sawn radiata pine sapwood (90x50 mm²). Each formulation was used with and without a water-repellent additive and was sprayed on to 1 m long boards. The boards were then stacked into "mini" packets and stored unprotected from the weather for 6 months. Haipen 50w (at 0.2 or 0.4% active) and NaPCP (1% active) plus 1.5% borax were the most effective formulations. The wax water repellent (1% Paracol 800A) did not appear to enhance the performance of any treatment, and with some treatments adversely affected fungicidal effectiveness. This requires further investigation.
J A Drysdale

Wood preservation in Poland
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30362
Dynamic growth of market demand for wooden elements and articles, generated in Poland increase of interest in industrial preservation. Today, Poland is a substantial producer and exporter of wood made products. Majority of exported wood - approximately 70% - is scotch pine (Pinus silvestris L.), which, due to its natural durability, requires preservation.
A Kundzewicz

Screening potential preservatives against stain and mould fungi on pine timber in Zimbabwe
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30063
The search for environmentally and toxicologically safer chemicals for use in the timber preservative industry against stain and mould fungi has been intensified during the past few years. Results of field tests with two chemicals previously evaluated in the laboratory are presented. The conventional sodium pentachlorophenate was the more efficacious chemical against stain and mould fungi, providing up 90% control at a concentration of 2.5%. A potential alternative, Stopstain a borate-based chemical, gave results only slightly better than the untreated control timber, at a concentration of 5%. Unless the environmental cost and toxicological hazards of traditional chemicals are highlighted the newer and safer chemicals will be reluctantly accepted by industry as they are regarded as being prohibitively expensive.
A J Masuka

The evaluation of synergistic effects of chemicals on fungicidal efficacy in crossed-paper tests
1991 - IRG/WP 2383
The mixing effects of wood preservatives were evaluated using the crossed-paper technique. Two filter paper strips (0.7 x 8 cm²) were treated by soaking with different chemicals [fungicides, a termiticide (chlorpyrifos or phoxim), a surface-active agent, a synergistic agent, and a stabilizer], and placed at right angles to each other on a fully grown mycelial mat of a test fungus in a Petri dish. When the four organoiodine fungicides were incorporated with chlorpyrifos or surface active agent, only 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) showed the desirable synergistic effect against every wood-decaying fungus tested. Other fungicides did not always tend to produce the synergistic effect with the addition of a surface active agent. 4-Chlorophenyl-3-iodopropargyl formal (IF-1000) appeared to indicate an undesirable antagonistic effect when mixed with either chlorpyrifos or a surface active agent. 3-Bromo-2, 3 diiodo-2-propenylethyl carbamate (EBIP) did not show any synergistic action by mixing with chlorpyrifos and/or a surface active agent, although the fungicidal enhancement was induced satisfactorily by mixing the fungicide with chlorpyrifos, a stabilizer and/or a synergistic agent, especially against Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor. Similarity of the results obtained in the present investigation and in the previous laboratory decay tests leads to the conclusion that the crossed-paper technique is suitable for the evaluation of the mixing effect of chemicals on fungicidal efficacy.
Dong-heub Lee, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi

Programme section 3, Wood protecting chemicals
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30159
IRG Secretariat

Laboratory evaluation of chemicals as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1293
Laboratory procedures are described for screening chemicals against subterranean termites. Fast-acting compounds with persistent termiticidal activity are identified in tests using a soil substrate, and slower-acting bait toxicants are evaluated in a series of tests using cellulose substrates.
S C Jones

Commercially available anti-sapstain chemicals in New Zealand - An update
1987 - IRG/WP 3416
Six anti-sapstain chemicals or mixtures (NaPCP plus borax, Haipen 5F, Mitrol PQ375, Busan 1009, Protek S, Pinefol 50W) are available as commercial treatments in New Zealand. A further two (Hylite 20F and Isothon-35) have shown potential in field and mill trials and will be available for use. A number of other formulations are under evaluation.
J A Drysdale

Mould resistance of lignocellulosic material treated with some protective chemicals
1984 - IRG/WP 3294
Effectiveness of preserving lignocellulosic material against moulding by treatement with water solutions of commercial wood preservatives and mixtures of various inorganic salts was investigated and compared with the effectivenes of sodium pentachlorophenoxide and boric acid.
K Lutomski

Field trials of anti-sapstain products. Part 1
1991 - IRG/WP 3675
The results obtained in two field tests of anti-sapatain products, carried out in four locations in Portugal, are presented. Boards from freshly cut logs were hand-dipped, close staked and left to dry for periods from four to six months. The results obtained seem to indicate that some of the products tested performed at least as well and sometimes better, than a 3% NaPCP solution which was used as control product.
L Nunes, F Peixoto, M M Pedroso, J A Santos

Observations on the colonization of freshly-felled timber treated with prophylactic chemicals by mould and sapstain fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1394
Field tests using freshly felled pine sapwood were set up to determine the effectiveness of a range of antisapstain compounds and to study the problems of colonization by mould and sapstain fungi. Differences were recorded both in the overall performance of the compounds and also their selectivity in controlling specific fungal types. These results were found to be useful in gaining a better understanding of biocide - fungal interactions.
G R Williams, D A Lewis

Proposed standard laboratory method for testing fungicides for controlling sapstain and mould on unseasoned lumber
1977 - IRG/WP 292
This laboratory method is for determining the effective concentration, or concentration for zero growth (CGo), for fungicides or preparations of fungicides which are potentially useful in protecting packaged or unseasoned lumber in storage and shipment from biodeterioration by sapstain fungi and moulds. The test is rapid and may be completed in three weeks and gives a good indication of the toxicity of a chemical against sapstain fungi and moulds.
A J Cserjesi

Efficacy of anhydrides as wood protection chemicals - II. Performance against soft rot fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30174
Pine sapwood modified with various anhydrides and with butyl isocyanate was tested for its resistance to soft rot decay. Small stakes were exposed for 20 months in unsterile soil in a fungal cellar test. Wood modified with butyl isocyanate performed better than any of the anhydrides tested, with a threshold level of protection (less than 3% weight loss) at 12% weight percent gain (WPG). Stakes acetylated to 15% WPG did not give complete protection against soft rot. Stakes modified with alkenyl succinic anhydride showed increasing resistance to soft rot with WPG up to about 10% WPG, above which no further improvements were evident. Succinic anhydride and phthalic anhydride treated stakes showed little or no noticeable protection.
S C Forster, M D C Hale, G R Williams

The effectiveness test of chemicals against Serpula lacrymans
1984 - IRG/WP 2222
The effectiveness tests of wood preservatives against Serpula lacrymans were conducted in accordance with Japan Industrial Standard A 9302 and Japanese Wood Preserving Association Standard No. 1. Also, the soil treatment test against this fungus was carried out with two chemicals. The preservatives tested without Creosote oil (out of JIS) had sufficient preservative effect against Serpula lacrymans. Flutolanil for soil treatment had full effect for suppression of the hyphal growth of Serpula lacrymans onto the soil surface.
S Doi

Point sur la réglementation et contraintes administratives
1990 - IRG/WP 3575
J H Moneger

Evaluation of the effectiveness of three microbiocides in the control of sapstains
1982 - IRG/WP 3212
Results of field test on the effectiveness of BUSAN 30, CAPTAN, FOLPET against mould and sapstain in Pinus elliottii are presented. The viability of use of FOLPET in Brazil as an alternative to sodium pentachlorophenate is also discussed.
S Milano, J A A Vianna Neto

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