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Sentry®, a new antisapstain formulation for protecting logs and lumber. - Part 2: protection of lumber
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30189
Recent research conducted by Forest Research, Chemcolour Industries (NZ) Ltd. and Fletcher Challenge Forest Ltd. has resulted in the development of antisapstain formulations that meet the efficacy requirements of the New Zealand Forest industry for export logs. One treatment, called Sentry®, is now poised for commercial use in New Zealand for treating export logs, having undergone an extensive suite of field and mill trials over a two year period. This paper presents results of field trials set up to determine the efficacy of Sentry® on block stacked radiata pine. Sawn timber was collected from a local mill, sawn into 1 meter lengths, dipped in antisapstain solution, and block stacked prior to assessment of surface fungal degrade after 6, 12 and 15 weeks over a period including a severe hazard New Zealand summer. The higher concentrations of the commercial standards were required to achieve adequate protection of block stacked radiata pine in storage for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, Sentry®, at the lowest concentration tested (equivalent to 0.125% methylene bis thiocyanate (MBT) plus 0.025% 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (isothiaz.), gave equivalent protection to the highest concentrations of all the commercial standards (0.6% 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) plus 4.8% didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC); 0.15% carbendazim plus 0.15% copper-8-quinolate (Cu-8): 0.6% MBT plus 0.6% chlorothalonil). The high level of protection achieved by Sentry® was in part attributed to the broad spectrum of fungicidal activity offered by MBT plus isothiaz. and the micro-emulsion system used.
R N Wakeling, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter, I Dorset, R Kuluz, J Wakeman

Evaluation of a new anti-sapstain formulation
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30035
A new anti-sapstain mixture, which consists of 2% IPBC (3-iodo-2-propynylbutyl carbamate) and 1.5% DCOI (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one), was evaluated by three methods in the laboratory. A standardized test (JWPA standard 2) demonstrated that the new anti-sapstain formulation was highly effective in controlling growth of monocultures of five test fungi on wood substrate. When exposed to mixed spore suspension, the formulation performed better than TCP-based commercial product. A larger scale laboratory tests and supplemental trials at sawmills also supported a satisfactory performance of the formulation to protect freshly sawn timber from moulds and sapstain fungi.
K Tsunoda, H Kumagai, M Sakurai

Xylophene AS™, the challenge of developing a modern antisapstain formulation for the french market
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30250
In France Sodium Pentachlorophenol (NaPCP) has been used for more than 40 years for the protection of freshly cut and unseasoned lumber. The French sawmill industry requires a protection of 6 months and maximum 10% surface infection by moulds and/or sapstain fungi. However, this active substance did have some serious environmental flaws and no authorisation was granted for a direct contact of NaPCP treated timber with foodstuffs. During the last fifteen years many new formulations were put on the French market for the temporary protection of maritime and Scots pine. Many products gave varying degrees of protection (from a couple of weeks to maximum 4 months) and the required food-contact allowance was not possible with most of these formulations. For those reasons, DYRUP-XYLOCHIMIE put significant R & D resources into the development of a modern antisapstain formulation that met the efficacy requirements of the French industry, which had a favourable toxicological and environmental profile and could obtain a food-contact allowance without restrictions. A close collaboration with active ingredients suppliers such as JANSSEN PHARMACEUTICA NV and TROY CORPORATION was obtained as well. An internal developed field test was used to study the comparative efficacy of several fungicides (azaconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, metconazole, IPBC, carbendazim, isothiazolone and quaternary ammonium compounds) against bluestain and moulds. Based on the field efficacy several combinations of IPBC, propiconazole, carbendazim and isothiazolone were finally retained. Official laboratory tests (NF X 41-547) succeeded by internal field tests revealed a good compromise for a new formulation containing propiconazole, carbendazim and IPBC. This formulation was then officially tested according to the French standards : NF X 41-547 laboratory test and NF X 41-549 field test. Toxicological and ecotoxicity data were also gathered and a complete food contact allowance was obtained by the French Ministry of Economy; Finances and Industry. The formulation was then put on the market as XYLOPHENE AS™ and has now been in practical use for more than three years in several French sawmills with satisfactory results.
E Wozniak, L Cubizolles, N Delourme Fonseca, A R Valcke, J Gors

Sentry®), a new antisapstain formulation for protecting logs and lumber. - Part 1: advances in protection of New Zealand radiata pine logs
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30188
Until recently antisapstain formulations gave approximately 10 weeks protection to radiata pine logs and even within this time frame protection was often not consistent. Industry requires 20 weeks protection. The degree of protection sought by industry is in the order of 90-95%. For example, this equates to a maximum of 5 - 10% surface cover of sapstain in the first whole veneer produced from a peeler log. Recent research conducted by Forest Research, Chemcolour Industries (NZ) Ltd and Fletcher Challenge Forest Ltd. has resulted in the development of antisapstain treatments that meet the efficacy requirements of industry. This has been achieved by overcoming the underlying difficulties of treating logs: 1. deliverling an even layer of fungicide to the inherently non-homogenous logs surface, that remains intact for the duration of the protection period sought, 2. arresting inevitable pre-infection by sapstain fungi that occurs during commercial log handling regimes, by using specially formulated mixtures of fungicides of different mobility. One of these treatments, called Sentry®, is now poised for commercial use in New Zealand for treating export logs having undergone an extensive suite of field and mill trials over a two year period. Results of mill trials of Sentry® used on full size logs are presented. The consistently high levels of protection demonstrated by Sentry® in a large number of field trials, on-shore and export commercial mill trials, represents a quantum leap of performance for radiata pine logs over protection given by previously availabie formulations.
R N Wakeling, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter, I Dorset, R Kuluz, J Wakeman, T Price, B Nairn

Wood preservation in Poland
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30362
Dynamic growth of market demand for wooden elements and articles, generated in Poland increase of interest in industrial preservation. Today, Poland is a substantial producer and exporter of wood made products. Majority of exported wood - approximately 70% - is scotch pine (Pinus silvestris L.), which, due to its natural durability, requires preservation.
A Kundzewicz

In search of alternative antisapstain chemicals for use in Papua New Guinea
1988 - IRG/WP 3472
The paper presents results of antisapstain field trials from three locations in Papua New Guinea as part of the Research Centre's programme to find suitable antisapstains to replace the hazardous sodium pentachlorophenate. Effectiveness of seven tested chemicals varied between indigenous pines (Araucaria cunninghamii, Araucaria husteinii) and white coloured hardwoods (Alstonia scholaris, Pterocymbium beccarii) but not between sites. The indigenous pines required lower chemical concentration for same level and period of protection than white coloured hardwoods like amberoi and white cheesewood. Period of protection ranged from four weeks to a maximum of 16 weeks depending on chemical concentration and species of timber. Potential chemicals recommended for use as antisapstain include Celbrite T, Busan 1009, Penacide and Woodguard E.S. and Woodguard E.C.
A Oteng-Amoako

Microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion as a soil termiticide
1991 - IRG/WP 1478
The efficacy and the mode of action of a microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated. The physicochemical property that this formulation does not allow the active ingredient to diffuse through the capsule wall contributed to a long lasting efficacy and safety for the men spraying. The residual effect of the fenitrothion microcapsule in soil was revealed as well as that of chlordane in the laboratory test. It was clarified that the transmission of poisoning through the worker's self- and mutual grooming behavior contributed to the efficacy of this formulation. And it was suggested that the transmission of poisoning of fenitrothion through mutual grooming led to the collapse of a colony.
H Teshima, T Itoh, Y Abe

Selective adsorption of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and movement of actives into wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30103
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, NeXgenâ and Busanâ Sap Stain Preventative (Busan 1009), at three product concentration levels. Concentrations of active ingredients (NeXgen: CTL (chloro-thalonil) and MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate); Busan 1009: TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole) and MTC) were monitored with respect to the amount of material dipped. Selective adsorption (removal of actives from the suspension at greater than simple volumetric transfer rates) varied with formulation and active ingredient, and increased with decreasing product concentration. Movement of active ingredients into dipped boards was monitored for 30 days after dipping. Mobility order was MTC >> TCMTB > CTL. Surface depletion characteristics were obtained for each active ingredient.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is due to differences in methodology employed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the seawater used (e.g. temperature, salinity, pH and oxygen content) affect emission rate. So too do the specifics of the treatment process especially the preservative formulation used, and pre- and post-treatment handling of the wood. The nature of the treated wood samples is also important, with misleadingly high estimates being obtained from samples with unrepresentatively high proportions of cross-cut surfaces. A suggested strategy for developing an informative and standardised methodology is discussed. To form useful models of impacts of leaching, emission rates need to be considered in conjunction with site-specific information regarding a) water exchange rates between the area where leaching occurs and the sea, and b) the extent of partitioning of leachate between the water column, biota and sediment. The risk of environmental impact may be reduced by modification to treatment procedures and by careful planning of installation.
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton

New technique for inoculation of wood wafers with fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20113
A pilot study is described for determining the best possible method for inoculating fungi onto the surface of wood wafers for sapstain control studies. Direct inoculation and spray inoculation are compared on water soaked and malt extract broth soaked wood wafers. The best growth of fungal hyphae across the surface of the wood wafers was achieved following spray inoculation onto malt extract broth soaked wood wafers.
J Snow, P Vinden

Some tests on ES - AS 11, a novel anti-sapstain formulation, and its properties
1987 - IRG/WP 3399
The results of some tests with the formulation ES - AS 11 are given. The formulation is an attempt to improve the performance of an anti-sapstain chemical by: 1) increasing its penetrability 2) uniquely combining its active ingredients. Very short times of treatment (dipping not longer than 5 seconds), low concentrations of active ingredients, and lower toxicological and environmental risks may be a promising result.
U Straetmans

Relationship between stacking, location and antisapstain preservatives on visible degrade of Eucalyptus regnans and Pinus radiata boards
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20162
An antisapstain trial was established at a Eucalyptus hardwood sawmill in Victoria, Australia. The trial incorporated two commercial formulations of antisapstain preservatives, used at four different concentrations on both hardwood (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell) and softwood (Pinus radiata D. Don) boards. The trial also utilised different stacking methods (block-stacked, sticker-stacked, and block-stacked and wrapped in black plastic) and included replicates placed both outside in the drying yard, and inside under cover from the elements. The variation in stacking methods and in location was used to provide a variation in the fungal hazard. Worst degrade (mean of 83% at 36 weeks) was obtained for the hardwood block-stacked outside and wrapped in black plastic. Lesser extents of degrade were obtained for sticker-stacked hardwood outside (4.3%) and sticker-stacked hardwood under cover (1.2%). Degrade of softwood was less than that of hardwood under all conditions. Statistical analysis of the trial indicated that the probability of any individual hardwood board deteriorating outside was nearly 4 times greater than for a board kept undercover. In addition, the probability of degrade of a hardwood board which was block-stacked and wrapped in black plastic was 3.4 times that of a hardwood board which was block-stacked but not wrapped, which in turn was 10 times that of a hardwood board which was sticker-stacked. The probability of degrade in untreated hardwood timber was 20 times that of degrade in preservative-treated hardwood timber, with variations in preservative concentration having an insignificant effect. Over all conditions the probability of hardwood timber deterioration was 5 times that of the softwood. The results of this trial confirmed that timber stored closely stacked and under poorly ventilated conditions suffered a higher visible degrade, as expected for sapstain fungi. However, although preservatives effectively reduced visible degrade under all storage conditions and at all concentrations tested, selection of correct storage conditions was also an important part of minimising degrade.
J Snow, P Vinden, S M Read

Effects of timber surface properties and dipping conditions on uptake of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and ultimate effects on efficacy against mould and staining organisms
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30073
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, and the resultant surface retentions of active ingredients MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate), CTL (chlorothalonil) or TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole) were monitored by chemical analysis. Surface retentions increased with suspension concentration and surface roughness, and decreased with initial timber moisture content. Dipping time beyond 20 seconds, timber basic density and earlywood content had little effect. Relatively low surface retentions, produced by dipping smoother boards with higher initial moisture contents, provided lower protection against mould and stain during seasoning than higher retentions. Equations describing the effect of surface retention on efficacy were developed for both formulations, and retentions providing complete protection under the conditions of the test were determined.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

The Role of Coformulants in Preventing Bacterial Biotransformation of IPBC
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10436
The inhibitory effects of disodium tetraborate decahydrate and benzalkonium chloride (BAC), two common coformulants of IPBC in antisapstain treatments, on an IPBC-transforming enterobacterial isolate ‘W1’ were determined by their effect on the specific growth rate constant in vitro. The IC50s of IPBC, BAC and borate were found to be 0.46, 0.026 and 5.7 mM respectively. The IC50 of the Arch antistain product AntibluTM Select was 0.024 mM, based on its BAC content. Although their IC50’s were significantly different, it was clear that the vast majority of the bacterial toxicity of the AntibluTM Select was due to its BAC content. The degradation of 0.4 mM IPBC by the bacterium W1, as measured by the accumulation of its degradation product, iodide, in liquid culture, was completely inhibited by BAC concentrations greater than 18 μM, and the toxicity of the spent culture medium to Aspergillus niger, as measured by an antibiotic assay disc assay, was not ameliorated above this concentration. Below 18 μM, the toxicity of the spent broth was significantly reduced, and the accumulation of iodide occurred rapidly. Demonstrating the toxicity of BAC to bacteria, and its consequent inhibition of IPBC degradation in vitro, are indicative of the importance of coformulation in controlling bacteria that might otherwise cause preservative loss, and of their significance in determining the ultimate environmental fate of cobiocides.
S R Cook, D J Dickinson

The influence of formulation on the behaviour of LOSP's during industrial impregnation of spruce
1986 - IRG/WP 3387
Evidence is presented that the comparative behaviour of two LOSP formulations during impregnation treatment of spruce cannot be predicted purely on the basis of their physical characteristics (viscosity, surface tension and contact angle) nor on the extent of their 'passive' penetration into pine sapwood.
L D A Saunders, D M Zuvencko

Conditions and possibility of nanobiocides formulation for wood protection
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30467
During development of nanobiocides for wood protection the need to identify mineral composition of wood in respect of trace elements and nourishing conditions of wood destroying fungi in relation to these elements was discussed.
J Wazny, A Kundzewicz

Penetration of deltamethrin in micro-emulsion formulation after injection in wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40068
In the Netherlands (and some other European Countries) the remedial treatment of death watch beetle is still a problem. This is because the larvae of this insect penetrate the central heartwood of mainly large oak beams. The heartwood is difficult to treat. The preventive treatment of wood boring insects has only recently been permitted in the Netherlands. Since 1989 injection of insecticides is recommended by the Dutch Association of Pest Control Companies (in Dutch this is the NVO for short, and member of CEPA). New methods of treatment are expected from the use of water-dilutable insecticides, for example deltamethrin in a micro-emulsion formulation. At this moment, this deltamethrin micro-emulsion is the only water-dilutable insecticide for use on wood with a registration in the Netherlands. TNO has measured the difference in penetration after injection of wooden beams of both deltamethrin in organic solution and deltamethrin in the water-soluble micro-emulsion. This work was part of a government project to study potential reduction in emission of organic volatiles (KWS 2000, see IRG/WP 94-20030). Results on European oak show a better penetration of deltamethrin from the micro-emulsion formulation compared with the organic solvent formulation. Better results were obtained from high pressure injection than low pressure. Results indicate that most redistribution of deltamethrin occured shortly after injection. From these results, the number of injection points for remedial treatment of death watch beetle in oak can be reduced by using deltamethrin in a micro-emulsion.
P Esser, W L D Suitela

Generic code of good practices for wood protection facilities. Part 1: Wood protection (antisapstain) facilities
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50003
In general, the potential of high toxicity (aquatic and human) of wood protection (antisapstain) chemicals dictates the need to protect the environment and humans from its harmful effects. This document is a compendium of recommendations for the design and operating practices of wood protection facilities. The suggested recommendations focus on achieving the objectives of protecting the environment and workers in a wood protection facility from harmful exposure to wood protection chemicals.
G Das, V N P Mathur

Laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil formulation for stain and mold control on rubberwood and maple
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30175
We evaluated the efficacy of several chlorothalonil and carbendazim fungicides (F1 and F2), etc. in the control of mold and stain fungi on rubberwood and maple. The results showed that these formulations effectively inhibited the selected fungal species such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp. (P71H), Aureobasidium pullulans, Ceratocystis minor (C-188), Ceratocystis pilifera (RWD 9472) in laboratory tests.
Mingliang Jiang, T L Highley, L Ferge, T L Woods

A laboratory bioassay on the termiticidal efficacy of a chlorothalonil formulation and a chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos formulation to Mastotermes darwiniensis Frogatt
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30004
Results of a laboratory bioassay on the efficacy of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) to the Australian subterranean termite Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt are given. Specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood were treated to three retentions of each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2 + 0.2, 6.4 + 0.4 and 12.8 + 0.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos a.i. All specimens (including controls) were subjected to an artificial leaching/volatilisation weathering schedule prior to the bioassay. Results showed that all three retentions of each formulation were successful in protecting specimens from significant attack by Mastotermes darwiniensis. The results also indicated that the chlorothalonil in oil formulation appeared to have had an antifeedant effect on Mastotermes darwiniensis. The results of the bioassay were sufficiently encouraging to warrant an evaluation of the two preservative formulations in the field.
J W Creffield, N Chew

Preservative treatments of window components with a water-based borate formulation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40171
Factory finished window joinery components were treated with an aqueous borate preservative in order to investigate penetration and retention levels, associated drying times; and the potential impact of using a water-based treatment on finished items. It was found that by using borates applied by light double vacuum schedules, it was possible to meet standards for penetration and retention, to air dry components within 48 hours; and to avoid other potentially significant negative impact usually associated with aqueous treatments. It is also suggested that current penetration requirements are inappropriate for mobile preservatives. This initial study indicates that it is possible to replace organic solvent carried preservatives with water-borne technology. The potential impact within Europe is of significance as most authorities have introduced mandatory requirements to move from solvent to aqueous systems where it is shown possible to do so. These treatments have now been adopted commercially by some treaters in the UK and are being considered by window manufacturers in Germany and Sweden.
J Jermer, J D Lloyd

Effectiveness of a newly registered antisapstain preservative in preventing stain of Eucalypt timber in Australia
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30229
An antisapstain trial was conducted on two sites (Alexandra and Trentham) in order to establish the concentration of a newly registered antisapstain preservative (consisting of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) & 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) & disodium octoborate (boron)) needed to prevent stain of Eucalypt timber. After 20 weeks of exposure at the Trentham site, the water treated boards had a mean fungal degrade of 98.8%. Those boards treated with the BAC & IPBC & boron at 1.5, 2.25 and 3.5% had a mean degrades of 31, 10.4 and 12% respectively. Boards treated with DDAC & IPBC 1% had a mean degrade of 18.8% at 20 weeks exposure. After 8 weeks exposure at the Alexandra site, the water treated boards had a mean fungal degrade of 75%. Those boards treated with the BAC & IPBC & boron at 2.25% had a mean degrade of 10.8%. BAC & IPBC & boron at all concentrations tested at both locations was effective in preventing the stain found on the control (water treated) boards after 8 and 20 weeks exposure.
J Snow, P R S Cobham, N Ryan

Properties of plywood and Oriented Strand Board manufactured with an organic insecticide incorporated in the adhesive formulation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40174
The efficacy of Fipronil as an insecticide has been established by laboratory and field experiments and commercial use against a broad range of insect pests for various crops. It can be used by either foliar or soil application. Development is underway for the non-agricultural uses of fipronil. Research is ongoing for the control of ants, cockroaches, fleas, ticks, houseflies, mosquitoes, termites and other pests. Several countries in the world have experienced extensive termites damage. The protection of structural and non-structural cellulosic products against termites may be required in the near future. With the increase uses of wood composites in wide ranging applications, protection against termites will represent one of the criteria of material selection. Fipronil was added in the formulation of adhesive during the laboratory manufacture of plywood and oriented strand board. The average MOE and MOR from of plywood was about 1.1 to 1.2 million psi and 8000 to 9100 psi, respectively. Shear strength and wood failure varies from 191.6 to 239.9 psi and 73% to 92%, respectively. Analyses of variance showed that statistically there were no significant different of all properties tested between fipronil concentration (0 - 375 ppm) at 5% level. This study indicates that fipronil has no affect on MOE and MOR under bending regime, and on the shear strength and the wood failure. After 18 months above and ground contact exposure in Gainesville, Florida, a level of 150 to 200 ppm successfully control the termite attack.
D P Kamdem, J H Hope, A Jermannaud

Inadequacies in preservative retention and formulation as contributory causes of premature failure of CCA-treated vineyard posts
1984 - IRG/WP 3280
Analyses of severely decayed or failed vineyard posts and examination of stake test data on effectiveness of copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) preservatives have suggested two contributory causes of premature failure of vineyard posts: 1. Preservative retentions in posts are such that after 15 years' exposure some decay is inevitable. 2. The high arsenic, low chrome formulations with which the posts were treated are less effective in controlling decay than low arsenic high chrome formulations previously used in New Zealand, on the performance of which many concepts of CCA effectiveness are based.
M E Hedley

Laboratory evaluation of potential antisapstain treatments for Pinus radiata
1983 - IRG/WP 3237
Twelve formulations were tested in the laboratory using a 'mini' board test for effectiveness on Pinus radiata (D. Don) against sapstain, mould and decay fungi. Three formulations, sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) plus borax, Haipen 50 WP, and Mitrol 375, are used commercially in New Zealand. Busan 1009 (0.5% product), IWD Product A (0.2% ai), IWD Product B (0.3% ai), Fennotox S2 (0.4% product) and Woodguard E.C. (0.5% product) have potential as antisapstain treatments. Kilstain, XP-3359, Celbrite-M81 and Acticide THP were ineffective at the concentrations tested. Formulations containing methylene bisthiocyanate were susceptible to the mould Trichoderma viride.
J A Drysdale

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