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The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses. Part 2
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10001
J Bech-Andersen


An attempt to evaluate wood resistance against fungal decay in non-sterile conditions by measuring the variation of resistance to bending test
1988 - IRG/WP 2308
The main object of this work was to determine the variation of strength on large test specimens of wood (800 x 45 x 45 mm³) when exposed to accelerated fungal attacks close to natural conditions, out of test vessels. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) and the modulus of rupture (MOR) have been assessed. Thereby, the natural resistance of the wood species to fungal decay, the efficiency of preservati...
L N Trong


Decay resistance of wood removed from poles treated with Trichoderma
1989 - IRG/WP 1386
Wood blocks removed from a distribution pole previously treated with a biological control product (Binab FYT pellets) were exposed in soil block tests to selected basidiomycetes. The blocks were removed from regions of poles where Trichoderma colonization had been confirmed by extensive sampling and computer mapping of microbial inhabitants. The results indicate that material from pole interiors c...
A Bruce, B King, T L Highley


The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses. Part 1
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2389
J Bech-Andersen


Monographic card on Antrodia serialis
1984 - IRG/WP 1145
G Seehan


Effect of asphyxiation on wood decay fungi treated with argon and nitrogen gas
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10452
The effects of low-oxygen conditions, achieved with either argon or nitrogen gas, on the viability of wood decay fungi Coniophora puteana, Antrodia vaillantii and Trametes versicolor, cultivated on PDA medium and infected wood samples, were examined. The fungal cultures were exposed to low oxygen concentration (below 10 ppm) for one to five weeks in hermetically sealed vessels. Anoxic treatment di...
C Tavzes, F Pohleven, M Janisek, R J Koestler


About the relations between the natural durability of some tropical species and their extractives content
1983 - IRG/WP 1208
G R Y Déon


Experience with an industrial scale-up for the biological purification of CCA-treated wood waste
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50095
The biological purification of CCA-treated wood waste was tested in co-operation of the BFH and the Italian impregnation plant SoFoMe. Chipped poles were infested with the chromium and arsenic tolerant brown-rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii which can transform in the laboratory ca. 90% of the chromium and arsenic into watersoluble salts. These can be leached to 100-200 ppm residual metal content. Th...
H Leithoff, R-D Peek


Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50145
Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology Center and Biodeterioration res...
B Illman, V W Yang, L Ferge


Determination of absorption, accumulation and transport of copper in mycelium of some wood decay fungi
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10323
Copper compounds are common wood preservatives. However, tolerance of some wood decay fungi to copper compounds has been observed recently. Therefore, we tried to elucidate possible causes of this phenomenon. We investigated uptake, accumulation and secretion of copper in the mycelium of potentially copper tolerant fungi (Antrodia sp.) and non tolerant fungus Trametes versicolor. We observed that ...
F Pohleven, S Breznikar, P Kalan, M Petric


Microbial decomposition of salt treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-22
Specialized microorganisms which are able to convert fixed inorganic preservatives from treated wood into water soluble components are investigated. A number of brown rot fungi like Antrodia vaillantii have been isolated from cases of damage and examined under unsterile conditions with CCA-, CCB-, CCF- and CC-treated wood at retention levels of at least 50% higher than recommended for wood in grou...
R-D Peek, I Stephan, H Leithoff


Evaluation of bacteria for biological control of wood decay
1990 - IRG/WP 1426
Laboratory soil-block and agar-block tests were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of bacteria as biological control agents against 5 brown-rot and 3 white-rot fungi. Pretreatment of Southern pine and sweetgum with a bacterial solution prevented decay in agar-block tests. However, the bacteria were generally ineffective in preventing decay in Southern pine, Douglas-fir, sweetgum and yellow popla...
R Benko, T L Highley


Decay in window joinery in Sweden
1977 - IRG/WP 390
Systematic investigations of decay in window joinery in Sweden have not been undertaken until very recently. One might guess that one of the reasons for the minor interest is that this type of joinery did not rot strikingly faster than people expected. In the last 10-15 years, however, house owners, tenantowners, building societies and others have repeatedly argued that windows do rot more than in...
B Henningsson


Intraspecific variability of durability of Wapa courbaril (Eperua grandiflora) against Antrodia sp. and Coriolus versicolor: effect of radial and height position in the stem
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10531
The variation of a lesser-used species, Eperua grandiflora attacked by brown and white rot has been examined. Trees of this specie showed differences in their behaviour against the type of rot used and also showed evidence of intra and inter tree variation. The “tree” effect is very significant concerning natural resistance. In the same way, there is variation of durability observed according ...
N Amusant, J Beauchêne, M Fournier


Growth of the copper tolerant brown rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii on different substrates
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10121
In recent years the copper tolerant brown rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii caused severe damages on impregnated wood in ground contact. The pattern of decay gave the impression that impregnated wood was even more severely attacked than unimpregnated. To investigate this question more closely laboratory tests were carried out. In a "choice test" Antrodia vaillantii grew preferably towards CC-impregna...
H Leithoff, I Stephan, M-T Lenz, R-D Peek


Characterization of Poria indoor brown-rot fungi
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10094
The heterogeneous group of "Poria" fungi causing brown rot in buildings and also of wood in ground contact comprises Antrodia vaillantii, Antrodia serialis, Antrodia sinuosa, Antrodia xantha and Tyromyces placenta. These fungi have similar morphological appearance and biology. Their nomenclature has a confusing history and is still not uniform. As a consequence, misinterpretations may occur. SDS p...
O Schmidt


rDNA-ITS sequence of Serpula lacrymans and other important indoor rot fungi and taxon-specific priming PCR for their detection
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10298
Taxon-specific priming polymerase chain reaction (TSPP) is a powerful molecular tool for fungal diagnosis. For its application to indoor rot fungi, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the main fungal species causing wood rot in European buildings was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ITS region was sequenced. The complete sequences are present...
O Schmidt, U Moreth


Changes of EPR spectra of wood, impregnated with copper based preservatives, during exposure to Antrodia vaillantii
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10355
Spruce wood (Picea abies) samples were impregnated with two different aqueous solutions: copper(II) octanoate with ethanolamine or copper(II) sulfate (cCu = 1,0 x 10-2 mol/l). Impregnated and unimpregnated test pieces were exposed to wood rotting fungus Antrodia vaillantii. Some strains of this fungus are known as copper tolerant. After four weeks of exposure to A. vaillantii, we could not detect ...
M Humar, M Petric, F Pohleven, M Šentjurc


Copper tolerance of various Antrodia vaillantii isolates
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10406
Copper based preservatives have been extensively used in the field of wood preservation. However, several brown-rot fungi to be tolerant to copper and consequently, efficacy of copper based wood preservatives may not be sufficient. Copper tolerance is especially by some fungi that are closely aligned to or included in genus Antrodia. The highest copper tolerance was found at some strains of wood r...
F Pohleven, A Malnaric, M Humar, C Tavzes


Fungal degradation of wood treated with metal-based preservatives. Part 1: Fungal tolerance
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10163
In recent years, concerns have arisen about the leaching of heavy metals from wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), particularly because of the large amount of CCA treated wood that will be discarded in the coming years. The long term objectives of this work are to determine the fate of copper, chromium and arsenic with the aging and potential decay of CCA-treated wood, and to develop...
B Illman, T L Highley


Correlation between modulus of elasticity, mass losses and FTIR spectra of copper treated decayed wood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10580
The composition of copper-based preservatives will change from copper-chromium to copper-ethanolamine, due to environmental demands. The most important drawback of copper-impregnated wood is the presence of tolerant fungal organisms that have developed an ability to degrade such preserved wood. In order to elucidate these processes, specimens (0.5×1.0×15 cm) made of Norway spruce (Picea abies) w...
M Humar, B Bucar, F Pohleven


Effect of Cinnamomum kanehirae Extractives on the Compositions of the Fermentation Broth of Antrodia cinnamomea
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10632
The fruiting body of Antrodia cinnamomea, called niu-chang-chih, is well known and highly prized in Taiwan as a folk medicine. This fungus is endemic to Taiwan and the growth of which is restricted to the inner heartwood cavities of another endemic tree species, Cinnamomum kanehirae. The fungal basidiomes have been used for treating food and drug poisoning, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypertension, ...
Ruo-Yun Yeh, Yuan-Min Shen , Shang-Tzen Chang


Wood decay fungi from New Zealand leaky buildings – PCR identification (Part 2) and aerial spore trapping
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10649
Prior to this study, it was not know which species of decay fungi caused decay in New Zealand leaky buildings. Use of molecular biology methodology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and subsequent DNA sequencing, as well as classical mycological techniques based on morphology, has enabled identification of decay fungi and has provided insight into their relative importance based on isolation frequ...
D Stahlhut, R L Farrell, R Wakeling, M Hedley


Antifungal activity of essential oils against common wood degrading/decaying fungi
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30465
Despite the wide use of essential oils in pharmaceutical and food industry as antimicrobial agents, their use as wood preservatives has not been fully explored. In this study, 12 essential oils were screened in nutrient medium for their antifungal activity against 8 common mould, sapstain or decay fungi. Subsequently, one essential oil, eugenol was evaluated for decay resistance in an agar/wood ...
T Singh, C Chittenden


A rapid microscale assay for determining growth of wood inhabiting fungi against Lactobacillus metabolites
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20412
Lactobacillus sp. are well known for their ability to produce secondary metabolites with potent inhibitory activity against a wide range of bacterial species and there is increasing evidence to support their antifungal activity. These metabolites are often screened in laboratories using microscale 96-well plate optical density assays. The objective of this study was to develop an optical density a...
D O’Callahan, T Singh, I McDonald


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