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Protection of southern pine using N,N-Napthaloylhydroxylamine: Field tests, soft-rot cellars and aquatic bioassay leach testing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30204
Recent environmental restrictions are limiting the use of broad-spectrum biocides for wood preservation. There is an urgent need for new, sharply targeted, environmentally benign wood preservatives. N'N-Napthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA), a water-soluble calcium-precipitating agent, has been shown to inhibit decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi in soil-block tests and prevent damage by Eastem subterranean termites under lab conditions. In order to further evaluate the capacity of NHA to prevent decay and termite damage, SYP stakes were pressure treated with three concentrations of NHA (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0%) and CCA (1.0%) and placed in-ground at the Harrison Experimental Forest, Gulfport, Mississippi, in June, 1997. Similarly, treated sticks were placed in soft-rot fungal cellars at FPL. One percent NHA-treated stakes were also leached for 72 hours in water and the leachates tested by an acute, five dilution bioassay using Ceriodaphnia dubia in EPA Protocol 600/4-90/27F. Results to date: 1) NHA stakes (0.5 and 1.0%) are as durable as CCA; 2) NHA does not inhibit soft-rot fungi and, 3) NHA is a relatively benign molecule with LD50 130-fold less than copper for C. dubia.
D M Crawford, F Green III

Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility in soils, bioaccumulation and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Unless required in special circumstances, the assessment does not apply to birds and mammals as the normal use of preservative treated wood is not expected to involve any noteworthy exposure of these groups. Approval of wood preservatives will be based on a general assessment of the environmental risk associated with the normal use of wood treated with the preservative in a realistic worst case situation. The assessment may address other aspects such as disposal and total life cycle.
J Larsen

A rapid field bioassay technique with subterranean termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1188
Details are summarised of a field procedure which is designed to ensure continuous exposure to a replenishing termite biomass. After pre-baiting to determine the presence and identification of a termite hazard, test specimens (35 x 35 x 250 mm³) are installed vertically in the ground adjacent to and in contact with bait specimens of the same dimensions and interconnected by susceptible feeder strip.
C D Howick, J W Creffield

International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in Australia, France, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Unites States of America. Solutions of these two wood preservatives were prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loading of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments were carried out at the Division of Forestry and Forest Products in Melbourne. The treated specimens were dispatched to the participating researchers who subjected these specimens to attack by their test termite species, and have now returned the specimens to Melbourne. This paper reports the amount of wood consumed and the mean mass loss (%) on both treated and untreated wood blocks by the termites in the various laboratory bioassays.
J R J French

Use of biossay to determine CCF and CCB preservative retentions in treated Pinus sylvestris
1984 - IRG/WP 2216
The retention of each a copper/chromium/boron and copper/chromium/fluoride preservative in pressure treated pinepoles was tested by bioassay using Aspergillus niger as test fungus. Small samples of 5 mm³ were taken from various depth of the poles and placed on potato-dextrose agar plates. The inhibition of fungal growth depends on the preservative retention in the cubes and corresponds closely to results obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
J C Moreschi, H Willeitner

Creosote movement from treated wood immersed in fresh water: Initial PAH migration
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50201
Creosote has a long history of successful use as a wood preservative, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this preservative have raised environmental concerns, particularly when creosote-treated wood is used in aquatic environments. A number of models have been developed to predict the risk of creosote use in aquatic environments, but one limitation of these models is a lack of data on the initial rates of creosote migration from treated wood. We examined the effect of flow rates on creosote migration from freshly treated wood immersed in fresh water. Creosote component levels declined to a steady state within 7 days, suggesting that creosote migration decreased sharply after an initial spike. The data will be used to enhance existing predictive models.
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell, J Simonsen, S T Lebow

A selective-choice laboratory bioassay technique with Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) (Isoptera: Termitidae)
1983 - IRG/WP 1176
This paper presents a laboratory bioassay technique for simultaneous exposure of a variety of specimens to the same termite biomass. Details of the technique are given in a small scale selective-choice assessment with Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) in which timber species susceptibility is compared together with the efficacy of sub-lethal concentrations of protective compounds.
C D Howick, J W Creffield, P R Burridge

Effect of leaching temperature and water acidity on the loss of metal elements from CCA treated timber in aquatic conditions. Part 2: Semi-industrial investigation
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-13
In continuation of previous leaching research on the quantification and modelling of metal elements released from CCA treated timber, a series of experiments has been carried out dealing with the influence of temperature and pH of the relative aquatic environment. The leaching method used is the Dutch prestandard for building materials, a long term static leaching test simulating practical bank-shoring situations. Parameters of study are type of fixation, wood species and specimen profiles. With decreasing water temperature, significantly less leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic is observed. An outdoors/indoors temperature ratio of 0.7 could be established. Increasing acidity of the leaching water mainly enhances the release of copper, whereas chromium and arsenic show a minimum leaching tendency at neutral pH. Both conditioning chamber fixation and steam fixation prove to be effective in fixing the metal elements in the wood substrate. With steam fixed timber, however, a higher loss of copper is observed during the early leaching cycles, due to the presence of copper salts on the wood surface. With regard to specimen profiles, boards in comparison with posts demonstrate a remarkable resistance to leaching of active ingredients, presumably due to the different heartwood/sapwood distribution and the specimen dimensions. In conclusion, the observations made confirm the results obtained from previous leaching studies. Converting the emission data into leaching fluxes, a highly correlated double logarithmic flux formula is regarded the best tool for curve fitting, however, for a limited time span. Other models which are more suitable for extrapolation of emitted quantities over a longer period of time are still under investigation. Likewise, proprotional metal ratios versus retention levels highlight the relativity of experimental data obtained with standard emission tests.
G M F Van Eetvelde, W J Homan, H Militz, M Stevens

Laboratory and field evaluation of Plasmite Reticulation System using bifenthrin as a chemical barrier within wall cavities against subterranean termites.
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20307
Laboratory and field bioassays undertaken to demonstrate Plasmite Reticulation system effectively delivers the termiticide (bifenthrin) within a simulated wall cavity at the required concentration. The chemical assay indicated that the amount of bifenthrin sampled at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25m along the simulated reticulation system tested (30m) exceeded the manufacturer’s minimum recommendation of 0.0044%m/m. Results of the laboratory bioassay, using Coptotermes acinaciformis, indicated that the concentrations of bifenthrin present in the soil core samples at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25m were extremely toxic and prevented termite penetration of bifenthrin treated soil in laboratory bioassays immediately after field soil treatment. No penetration of any soil core samples was observed in the field test against Coptotermes lacteus.
J R J French, B M Ahmed, J Thorpe, A Anderson

Correlation between a laboratory bioassay and field trial conducted to determine the termiticidal effectiveness of bifenthrin
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20248
Details are given of a laboratory bioassay and field trial undertaken to determine the termiticidal effectiveness of the synthetic pyrethroid bifenthrin, when impregnated into Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood specimens. Results show a strong correlation between the laboratory and field methods of evaluation. Protection threshold limits obtained were the same for the two test species of termite employed, Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Lower and upper threshold limits obtained for M. darwiniensis in both the laboratory and field were 10 and 20 g/m3. The threshold limits for C. acinaciformis were not determined, but must be less than the lowest retentions tested (<2.5 g/m3 in the laboratory and <5 g/m3 in the field).
J W Creffield, K Watson

Laboratory simulation of leaching from creosote treated wood in aquatic exposures
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50157
Creosote has a long history of use as a preservative particularly in industrial wood products, but its use has come under increasing scrutiny as a result of concerns about its potential effects on aquatic and terrestrial non-target organisms. Despite its long use, there is relatively little data on the rates of creosote loss in many exposures. In this report, we describe small scale leaching tank procedures for evaluating migration from creosote-treated Douglas-fir lumber exposed at 35°C under 0 flow rate conditions. Creosote component concentrations in the water column were quantified using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography. As expected, migration rates were higher for lower boiling point fractions. Leaching in the first eight hours followed a linear relationship for acenaphthene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene. Chemical concentrations arrived at a steady state after 24 hrs of leaching. Concentrations of all creosote components tested tended to be lower than their reported water solubilities, suggesting that other factors were influencing migration. Further analyses of the leaching system are planned. The results will be used to expand a model that simulates creosote loss from treated wood in flowing fresh water.
Ying Xiao, J Simonsen, J J Morrell

Susceptibility of softwood bait stakes to attack by subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20037
Sapwood stakes of Australian-grown Araucaria cunninghamii (hoop pine), Pinus elliotii (slash pine), Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and North American-grown Pinus sp. (southern yellow pine) were exposed to subterranean termite attack in an in-ground bioassay. Stakes in bait containers and bare stakes were attacked by Coptotermes acinaciformis and Schedorhinotermes intermedius. Basic susceptibility of these timbers was evaluated with regard to potential as termite monitoring devices. Variation between timbers and variation between termite species are described. The relevence of these data to suppressing foraging populations of subterranean termites, in Australia, using insect growth regulators, is discussed.
B C Peters, R T Murray, C J Fitzgerald

Susceptibility testing protocol for powderpost beetles in Australia
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20242
Several species of lyctine (powderpost) beetle are able to attack a range of hardwood timbers in Australia. Powderpost beetles infest only the starch-containing sapwood of certain hardwoods and do not infest softwoods. Attack by powderpost beetles on susceptible timber in Australia is almost inevitable and may continue until the food resource is completely utilised. Prevention of powderpost beetle attack is preferable to curative measures. The Australian hardwood resource is increasingly being obtained from younger regrowth and planted forests rather than mature forests. The resource is also beginning to include other species not previously utilised. There is no information on lyctine susceptibility of these species of eucalypts, hybrid eucalypts and some acacias. Some of these timbers are not widely utilised, yet may have unique properties on the world market for high-value niche applications. Consumer legislation places constraints on the sale and use of susceptible timber in the States of New South Wales and Queensland. Currently, the majority of these timbers are regarded as provisionally susceptible in both States due to the lack of testing and historical record. For the first time in Australia, a sampling and testing protocol to establish lyctine susceptibility of timber species is detailed. The usefulness and limitations of the protocol are discussed.
B C Peters, J W Creffield, R H Eldridge

Development of an Australasian protocol for assessment of wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20043
The Australasian Wood Preservation Committee (AWPC) is currently developing a suite of assessment procedures (protocols) for the biocidal efficacy of wood preservatives for approval in Australasia (Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji). Protocols are being prepared for the six hazard levels recognised in the relevant standards of member countries and represent the minimum procedures required to provide biocidal efficacy data which may be needed to obtain preservative approval and registration by the appropriate regulatory authorities. The protocols cover a combination of laboratory and/or field testing. This document presents a brief outline of the proposed format of the protocols.
W D Gardner, H Greaves, M E Hedley, K J McCarthy, J Norton

Evaluating the potential of modified wood for use in marine environments using a short-term laboratory bioassay
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10525
Chemically modified wood may be an alternative to preservative treated timber for marine structures. In this study a screening laboratory test using the wood-boring isopod crustacean Limnoria quadripunctata was used to assess the durability of chemically modified Pinus sylvestris, Pinus radiata and Picea sp. Most of the treatments used a combination of one of two of types of the resin dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) and phosphobutane tricarboxylic acid (PBTC). Untreated Pinus sylvestris sapwood was used as a non-durable comparison. Small test sticks from different types of modified wood were prepared and leached in seawater for 8 days prior to the experiment. A wood stick with a Limnoria and 4 ml of seawater was placed in each 12mm diameter well of a cell culture chamber. The number of faecal pellets produced by the animals was measured under these forced feeding conditions, and activity and mortality was recorded. With some treatments, no faecal pellets were produced, with others more faecal pellets were produced than with untreated Pinus sylvestris. Non-production of faecal pellets was sometimes due to mortality, but in some treatments there were also evidence of antifeedant effects as there was no evidence of acute toxicity Limnoria. However, some moribund animals were observed in these treatments and there was significant reduction in the number of pellets produced, so chronic toxicity may be suspected. The Arkofix type of DMDHEU gave significantly higher protection against borers than DMDHEU NG. A dose-dependent suppression of pellet production by PBTC was also detected.
L M S Borges, S M Cragg, M van der Zee

Laboratory bioassay on the termiticidal efficacy of two ACQ formulations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30199
The termiticidal efficacy of two ammoniacal copper quaternary ammonium formulations (ACQ) was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay using two species of subterranean termites, Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Five retentions (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kg/m3 of active ingredient) of each ACQ formulation (MitrexACQ and ACQ97) were assessed in sapwood specimens of the softwood Pinus radiata D. Don and compared with the same retentions of the conventional benchmark preservative CCA (Tanalith C). All specimens (including controls) were subjected to an artificial weathering schedule prior to the bioassay. Under the conditions of the laboratory bioassay, both MitrexACQ and ACQ97 showed considerable potential as water-borne preservatives for preventing significant attack of P. radiata sapwood from two of Australia&apos;s most economically significant species of termite. At each of the retentions tested, MitrexACQ and ACQ97 performed comparably or better than equivalent retentions of CCA.
J W Creffield, A F Preston, N Chew

The preventive actions of three commercial wood preservatives against Dinoderus minutus
1984 - IRG/WP 1233
Dinoderus minutus is one of the most common pest insects for the bamboos. For preventing the damages of this insect, the preventive treatment of bamboos with preservatives is necessary. But because of the environmental reasons, only limited insecticides are available in Japan. The author determined the preventive effects of three commercial products against Dinoderus minutus by the medium of the Buckwheat Cake and also by a bamboo (Phyllostachys bambusolides). The results obtained were severer than ones of Lyctus brunneus. In the case of dipping treatment of the bamboo, Fenitrothion is more effective than two other preservatives (Chlordane and Phoxim).
K Suzuki

A laboratory bioassay on the termiticidal efficacy of a chlorothalonil formulation and a chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos formulation to Mastotermes darwiniensis Frogatt
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30004
Results of a laboratory bioassay on the efficacy of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) to the Australian subterranean termite Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt are given. Specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood were treated to three retentions of each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2 + 0.2, 6.4 + 0.4 and 12.8 + 0.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos a.i. All specimens (including controls) were subjected to an artificial leaching/volatilisation weathering schedule prior to the bioassay. Results showed that all three retentions of each formulation were successful in protecting specimens from significant attack by Mastotermes darwiniensis. The results also indicated that the chlorothalonil in oil formulation appeared to have had an antifeedant effect on Mastotermes darwiniensis. The results of the bioassay were sufficiently encouraging to warrant an evaluation of the two preservative formulations in the field.
J W Creffield, N Chew

Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 2: Laboratory fungal bioassays
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20204
Extracts from sawmill residues of the naturally durable white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla were tested for fungicidal activity in a series of laboratory bioassays. The effects of different extraction solvents, techniques and sources of material on the biocidal efficacy of the resultant extracts were evaluated. Soil jar decay tests were used initially however, contractual time constraints necessitated the development of a more rapid screening technique. A modified sapwood agar media was developed and found to be suitable for testing the extracts. It could be applied to other non-diffusible wood preservatives. Ground white cypress sapwood was impregnated with a range of concentrations of various extracts and gamma irradiated. The treated sterilised sawdust was suspended in water agar. The media were inoculated with a white rot, Lopharia crassa, or a brown rot fungus Polyporus verecundus. Growth of the isolates was monitored for four weeks, enabling dose responses to be accurately determined. Methanol was determined to be the most effective extracting solvent, and toxic threshold values of the methanol extracts were estimated. Fractions of the total extract were also compared. Most fungicidal activity was found in the most abundant fraction, which contained significant proportions of terpenes and other non-polar, low boiling point compounds.
M A Powell, L M Stephens, L Francis, M J Kennedy

Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50145
Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology Center and Biodeterioration research unit at the USDA-FS Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), Madison, Wisconsin, and from FPL field sites. The 95 isolates had originally been taken from at least 66 sites from around the United States. Isolates were screened in a bioassay (known as the &apos;choice test&apos;) for tolerance to CCA, ACQ, creosote and pentachlorophenol. A tolerant rating was based on fungal growth toward or on treated wood, with 17 tolerant to CCA, 21 to ACQ, 12 to creosote and 5 to pentachlorophenol. Decay capacity of the tolerant isolates was determined as percent weight loss by the ASTM D-1413-76 soil bottle method. We identified 8 isolates for experiments on preservative remediation. Isolates of Meruliporia incrassata and Antrodia radiculosa gave the highest percent degradation of ACQ and CCA-treated wood. Several A. radiculosa isolates and a Neolentinus lepideus isolate grew on creosote-treated wood, but had only a 4-5% weight loss. In this paper we discuss the potential use of decay fungi to degrade or remediate preservative-treated wood.
B Illman, V W Yang, L Ferge

Laboratory evaluation of borate formulations as wood preservatves to control the subterranean termite coptotermes acinaciformis (isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Australia
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30266
The termiticidal efficacy of Borocol (sodium octaborate tetrahydrate), boric acid, bore-ester-7 and tri- methyl borate was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Seasoned sapwood blocks of Pinus radiata D. Don, and Eucalyptus regnans (F. Muell) were impregnated with the various borate compounds. There were marked differences in mass loss and mortality rate of the termite used in the bioassay units for different boron retentions. After 8 weeks the result suggested that, borate was toxic to termites in laboratory bioassay even at 0.20% m/m BAE and caused significant termite mortality. However, termites were not deterred from attacking the borate treated timber at higher retentions of > 2.0% m/m BAE. These laboratory results indicated that the minimum borate treatment required to protect timber against termites attack and damage was > 1.0% m/m BAE.
B M Ahmed, J R J French, P Vinden

Chemical evaluation of borate treated pine sapwood attacked by the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20003
Sapwood of hoop (Araucaria cunninghamii Ait. ex D. Don) and slash (Pinus elliottii Englem.) pines were treated by Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) to provide test specimens. The concentration of boron was defined by chemical analyses of the timber, in the zone of primary attack by the termite being bioassayed. A common method of definition of preservative retention, weight uptake of preservative fluid of known concentration, was compared to the chemical assay method for slash pine treatments. Analyses of gradient zones reflect the variable concentration of boron within test specimens. The test specimens were exposed to field termite colonies in a clear of ground completely protected from weather and wetting situation. Termite response was determined by mass loss over 5 weeks and modelled.
A R Moffat, B C Peters

Establishing standard principles for laboratory bioassays of termiticides with subterranean termites - progress, problems and prospects
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10013
Laboratory bioassays of termiticides, including wood preservatives, aim to give an indication of the likely concentrations effective in preventing damage to timber products and other materials in the field. In laboratory bioassays field conditions should be simulated as closely as possible. With a wide range of procedures in use around the world it may often be difficult to compare results between laboratories. Standardizing a number of principles could provide a solution to this problem. We discuss several topics of termite biology, pointing either to limitations in the extent to limitation in the extent to which standardization can be achieved or to the need for further collaborative research between laboratories: optimal physical environment for the test termites; variations in termite vigour and behaviour between colonies of a given species; origin of test termites, i.e. from feeding sites (traps) or the nest; group size; correlation between the size of test timber specimens and feeding activity of the termites; test duration. Satisfactory standardization of bioassays with subterranean termites, if it can be achieved, is a more complex and involved endeavour than implied from discussions at recent IRG meetings.
M Lenz, J W Creffield, Zhong Yun-hong, L R Miller

Estimation of oral toxicity of boron as a bait toxicant and the trophallactic effects between individual members of termite colonies.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10495
In recent years, because of the favourable environmental characteristics of boron, researchers in the wood preservation industries have refocussed on the use of boron as a major wood preservative against wood-destroying insects. Currently the greatest use of boron compounds is in remedial treatments. Boron has been found to have slow-acting toxicity against subterranean termites. Because of this characteristic, boron compounds may also be used as termite bait toxicants. The effect of boric acid on an individual donor termite was investigated in laboratory bioassays Trophallactic transfer of boron by these individual termites to other orphaned group of termite workers was conducted and the effects on the recipient groups recorded. It was believed that, this sequence of tests would provide a greater understanding of the carrying ability of ‘bait toxicant’ by individual termites, and allow estimates of the threshold toxicity of boric acid and termite survival rates to be determined. The bait matrix was Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell sawdust impregnated with various formulations of boric acid solutions in the laboratory. The result suggests that the toxicity of boron is dose dependent and it critical for the termites to ingest sufficient amounts of boron. But the mode of toxicity of boron has not yet been fully explained.
B M Ahmed

Qualifying ecotoxicity research on tropical hardwood leachates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50096
Almost as a rule, quantification and identification of various types of environmental contamination is grounded on chemical evaluation principles. Yet for monitoring surface water pollution, aquatic bio-assays may provide a more direct way to assess the potential hazard of environmental samples. A battery of such tests is experienced onto leachates of tropical hardwoods used in ground and water contact. Four of seven wood species tested exhibited no acute toxic profile, whilst afzelia, afrormosia and mainly merbau revealed a considerable toxicity response for all organisms tested. These results, although at screening level, demonstrate the natural toxicity of particular tropical hardwood extractives towards the aquatic compartment. Hence, a welcome source of information is obtained, so as to weigh the ecotoxicity results previously gathered on preservative treated wood.
G M F Van Eetvelde, P Marchal, M Stevens

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