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A practical method to evaluate the dimensional stability of wood and wood products
1990 - IRG/WP 2342
This paper presents a new simple method to evaluate wood and wood products for their resistance to swelling and to assess wood preservatives for their ability to dimensionally stabilize treated wood exposed to water. Permeable wood of various dimensions and treated with different preserving chemicals have been measured for swelling in the radial and tangential direction during immersion in liquid ...
J P Hösli

Physical and biological properties of albizzia waferboards modified with cross-linking agents
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40043
Chemically-modified low-density waferboards with cross-linking agents were produced using a fast-growing species of hardwood albizzia (Paraserienthes falcata Becker) as a raw materials and isocyanate resin as a glue adhesive. For the chemical modification, the vapor-phase formalization of the boards and the pad-dry-cure treatment of wafers with cross-linking agents were employed. The vapor-phase f...
S Yusuf, Y Imamura, M Takahashi, K Minato

Improvement of some technological and biological properties of poplar wood by impregnation with aqueous macromolecular compounds
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3721
Poplars (Populus spp) belong to the most important tree species in afforestation programs of the Netherlands. Due to their rapid growth, the wood quality is usually low. Therefore, studies were performed to elucidate whether some technological properties and the resistance against fungal attack could be improved by impregnation with water-soluble resins. The results showed that swelling and shrink...
R D Peek, H Militz, J J Kettenis

Influence of different resin treatments on the dimension stability of wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40090
The dimension stability of wood is considered to be an important contribution to its durability and its performance in practice. A number of different treatments have been developed to improve the dimension stability of wood. One applied method is the treatment of wood with monomers or resins. The application of appropriate impregnation conditions seemed to be essential to enhance the efficiency o...
M Sailer, A O Rapp

Diffusion into and bulking of the wood cell wall with polystyrene glycols (PEG)
1991 - IRG/WP 3660
The diffusion and equilibrium distribution of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the cell walls of red pine (Pinus resinosa) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) were followed by analysing the free lumen solution concentration of vacuum treated wafers at various times after treatment. PEG was more-or-less excluded from the cell walls of wood, depending on the wood species and PEG molecular weight. ...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, D Alexander, C Holzscherer

Water-based silicones on wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30144
Five waterbased silicones commonly used on masonry where tested as water repellents for wood. The Water Repellent Effectiveness was determined by swellometer-tests and by measuring the water uptake of samples after 24 hours complete immersion and by immersion in a water level of 4 mm for 24 hours. The different methods are compared and discussed. Artificial and natural weathering was performed to ...
D Lukowsky, R D Peek, A O Rapp

Investigation of the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) for thermal modification
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40275
In this study the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) was examined for thermal modification. Comparative experimental investigations were performed with silver fir and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) after thermal treatments. Besides properties, which characterize the quality of heat treatments, like dimensional stability and resistance against fungal attack, strength properties of the...
C Brischke, A O Rapp

Influences of the hydro-thermal treatment on physical properties of beech wood (Fagus orientalis)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40303
Influences of the hydro-thermal treatment on physical properties of beech wood were studied. Wood specimens (2×2×2cm) were treated in two steps. At first step, samples were treated at 160,180 & 200ºC for 4, 5 & 6 hours. At second step, treated samples were cured based on their first step treatment temperatures (160,180 & 200ºC) for 16 hours. The treated samples were soaked in water...
B Mohebby, I Sanaei

Dimensional stabilization and decay resistance of wood treated with brown-rotted lignin and copper sulfate
1990 - IRG/WP 3608
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential usefulness of brown-rotted lignin (BRL) as a dimensional stabilization and copper complexing agent for wood treatment. For dimensional stabilization, aqueous solutions of the lignin extract were combined with either copper sulfate, glyoxal or other additives. Anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) values as high as 42% were obtained with wood treated...
L Jin, D D Nicholas, T Schultz

The use of natural and synthetical tannins to improve the dimensional stability and durability of beechwood (Fagus sylvatica)
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30016
Synthetical tannins and natural extractives of oak, spruce and chestnut have been combined with different fungicides to make the wood more dimensionally stable and more durable. The anti-shrink-efficiency and the improvement of the durability of different synthetical and natural tannins have been evaluated. The results make clear, that an application of the mentioned agents for common use cannot b...
H Militz, W J Homan

Biological resistance of furfuryl alcohol-treated wood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3703
Biological resistance of FFA (furfuryl alcohol)-treated wood was investigated in relation to the rise of ASE (anti-swelling efficiency) resulting from the treatment. Sapwood blocks of Japanese red pine, cedar and beech were vacuum-impregnated with various concentrations of aqueous FFA solutions to get the target levels of% (w/w) RL (resin loading). Air-dried blocks were kept in an oven at 120°C f...
J Y Ryu, Y Imamura, M Takahashi

Quantification of methylene bis thiocyanate in wood and its effect on a sapstain fungus Ophiostoma floccosum
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10591
The mobility and concentrations of MBT at different depths of wood billets (200 mm long, 40 mm in diameter) were determined using NMR spectroscopy and ICP-ASE, and then correlated the effect of wood MBT concentrations on growth of O. floccosum in a bioassay using stereomicroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The 13C NMR spectra showed the presence or absence of MBT in wood but w...
T Singh

Evaluation of Water Repellency of Treated Wood Using Several Alternative Methods
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20419
In this study, the results of water repellency testing using a digital swellometer method for water-borne organic-preservative systems with water repellent additives are reported. The findings suggest that the traditional method of using matched untreated controls as a reference developed from historic solvent-based treatments for determination anti-swelling efficacy (ASE) may underestimate the a...
L Jin, A F Preston

Estimating the heat treatment intensity through various properties of thermally modified timber (TMT)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40459
The suitability of different measures for prediction of the heat treatment intensity was investigated. Therefore, the resistance to impact milling (RIM), the lightness L*, the equilibrium moisture content (EMC), the anti swelling efficiency (ASE) and the total amount of soluble carbohydrates (TSC) of heat treated specimens were correlated with corresponding fungal resistance achieved by heat treat...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, A O Rapp

Improvement of the biological performance and dimensional stability of two tropical woods by thermal modification
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40605
Pink cedar wood and rubberwood were thermally modified at 230°C in air for 4 h or for 8 h, and then subjected to bending, compression and hardness tests to evaluate the effect of the treatment on these mechanical properties. The biological performance of the modified wood was also determined, according to EN113, and the dimensional stability measured by means of the anti-swelling efficiency. The ...
M M González-Peña

The effect of acetylation on physical properties of beech (Fagus orientalis) and Alder (Alnus subcordata) wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40759
In this study the effect of acetylation on physical properties such as water absorption, volumetric swelling and anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) of beech and alder were investigated. After 24 hours soaking in acetic anhydride, in order to achieving two surface of weight gains, acetylated samples were heated in oven at 120 0C for 90 and 360 minutes. Then water absorption and dimensional stability in...
M Akhtari, M Arefkhani