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A method for screening termite baits using Coptotermes lacteus mounds
1984 - IRG/WP 1237
A method with several variations designed to rapidly screen potential bait substrates using Coptotermes lacteus mounds is described. The equipment used in this method is relatively inexpensive, readily prepared in the laboratory, and easily installed into active mounds in the field. Bait substrates are in continuous contact with a 'high termite hazard', and may be monitored with ...
J R J French, P J Robinson


Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollut...
J R J French


Evidence supporting the use of termite baiting systems for long-term structural protection
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10377
The efficacy of the Sentricon Colony Elimination System containing Recruit II termite bait (0.5% hexaflumuron) in controlling active subterranean termite infestations has been demonstrated in numerous studies. This baiting system and other termite baiting systems are now widely used, and generally accepted, tools for remedial termite control in North America, Hawaii, and other parts of the world. ...
J K Grace, N-Y Su


Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro® bait
1982 - IRG/WP 1163
Amdro® - treated paper towels were introduced into two field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite in Hawaii. At the concentration of 180 ppm, the toxicant bait was ineffective one month after the introduction. At higher concentrations (> 6,400 ppm), the baits were eaten initially; however, one week after introduction, termites avoided or covered the baits. The 15,000 ppm baits supress...
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III


Controlling Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestations in buildings with bait boxes
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10372
This paper describes the results of a commercial pest control operators use of the CSIRO bait box procedure in controlling infestations within buildings of subterranean termites ('termites') of the genus Coptotermes. Polystyrene bait boxes (480 x 330 x 210 mm3) were filled with alternate layers of corrugated cardboard and kiln-dried hardwood strips of Eucalyptus regnans F. Meull....
J R J French, T Boschma


Laboratory evaluation of chemicals as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1293
Laboratory procedures are described for screening chemicals against subterranean termites. Fast-acting compounds with persistent termiticidal activity are identified in tests using a soil substrate, and slower-acting bait toxicants are evaluated in a series of tests using cellulose substrates....
S C Jones


Evaluating the Exterra Termite Interception and Baiting System in Australia
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20267
The Exterraä Termite Interception and Baiting System (Ensystex Inc., Fayetteville, NC) was evaluated in a field experiment near Townsville, Australia. Cellulose-acetate powder containing either 0.05% weight/weight (w/w) or 0.25% w/w chlorfluazuron (Requiemä) was tested for its efficacy in eradicating colonies of the mound-building subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Thirte...
B C Peters, S Broadbent


Justification for use of mirex in termite control
1988 - IRG/WP 1346
In August 1987, organochlorines were withdrawn in North America from use in termite control. This has left the industry and the community with reduced options in long term protection of wood and wood products. A case is presented to justify the use of the slow-acting stomach termiticide, mirex, under special permit, for use only in the bait-block method of termite control. This method, while not a...
J R J French


Effects of methoprene on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1987 - IRG/WP 1322
Methoprene affected differentiation and survival of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in laboratory studies. At 5, 9, 13, and 17 weeks, superfluous intercastes and presoldiers were produced when termites were allowed to feed on concentrations of 1,000 and 2,000 ppm methoprene in wood blocks. Colony numbers were significantly reduced after 13 and 17 weeks of exposure to the insect growth regulator. Te...
S C Jones


A method to evaluate the effeetiveness of bait application using a transferred nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20161
Although a survey of monitoring stations can tell us the decline of termite activity after application of baits, it seems questionable to conclude an eradication of a Whole colony of subterranean termites if the termites move out their foraging territory. Only reliable method to ensure the success of bait application is to determine the absence of living termites in their nest in accordance with a...
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura, H Matsuoka, Y Hikawa


Susceptibility of softwood bait stakes to attack by subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20037
Sapwood stakes of Australian-grown Araucaria cunninghamii (hoop pine), Pinus elliotii (slash pine), Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and North American-grown Pinus sp. (southern yellow pine) were exposed to subterranean termite attack in an in-ground bioassay. Stakes in bait containers and bare stakes were attacked by Coptotermes acinaciformis and Schedorhinotermes intermedius. Basic susceptibility of...
B C Peters, R T Murray, C J Fitzgerald


Immunogold localisation of catalytic domain of endocellulase in the cellulosic substrates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10205
The reaction of catalytic domain of endocellulase on the cellulosic substrates was visualised by using immunogold labelling procedures to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Polyclonal antibody was produced against the catalytic domain of endo-l, 4-ß-glucanase (EGI) from a ruminal anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus albus F-40. Immuno-TEM works showed th...
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kyu Ho Myung, K Ohmiya, S Karita


Preference of the Formosan subterranean termite for wood previously damaged by conspecifics
1988 - IRG/WP 1338
In a laboratory choice test, groups of termites from five colonies of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were presented with wood blocks which had sustained previous termite damage: 1) by nestmates, 2) by conspecifics from another colony, 3) by another termite species, Reticulitermes virginicus Banks, and 4) no damage. Coptotermes formosanus preferred wood previously damaged by conspecifics over that ...
J P La Fage, K S Delaplane


Colony elimination of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae) by bait system
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10189
Following a two-year estimation of the foraging populations and territory of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) by triple mark recapture program at Uji campus of Kyoto University, bait stations (commercialized products containing hexaflumuron) were set up in the foraging territory in October 1995 to eliminate the colony. Inspections demonstrated that the number of test stakes with foraging termites d...
K Tsunoda, H Matsuoka, T Yoshimura, K Yamauchi


Laboratory tests on light organic solvent preservatives for use in Australia. - Part 6: Soft rot resistance of three fully formulated preservatives on different timber substrates
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30245
The above-ground soft rot resistance of substrates treated with three fully formulated light organic solvent preservatives (Cuprivac Green WR, Impresol WR 205 and Vacsol) was studied using a modified vermiculite burial method. The substrates were sapwood of Pinus elliottii and P. radiata and heartwood of Eucalyptus regnans, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Shorea sp. (a lower and a higher density source) an...
G C Johnson, M A Tighe, J D Thornton


Field test results for the elimination of subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) colonies by a bait system containing the IGR hexaflumuron
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10222
Field studies were conducted at Chichijima (Ogasawara Islands, Tokyo) to determine the effectiveness of a termite bait system (commercial name: Sentricon* system) containing hexaflumuron (Insect Growth Regulator: IGR) in the elimination of subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) colonies. The level of subterranean termite activity on Ogasawara Islands is high resulting in extensive damage to...
K Suzuki, Y Morita, K Yamauchi


Analysis of D-glucose metabolism of wood decay fungi using 13C-NMR and 13C-labeled substrates
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10475
D-Glucose metabolism is thought to be important during wood decay by fungi, not only for anabolic and catabolic purposes of central metabolism, but also as a potential source of peroxide required by extracellular peroxidases. There has been some confusion in the literature as to whether this peroxide-generating activity is of the glucose 1-oxidase or pyranose 2-oxidase (glucose 2-oxidase) type wi...
T H de Koker, M D Mozuch, P J Kersten


Bait box technique for remedial subterranean termite contro
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10115
The bait box technique, as described in this paper, was first used as a method to apply the dust toxicant, arsenic trioxide, to large numbers of aggregated subterranean termites. Over the last twelve years or so the technique has been refined, and in recent years, gained acceptance as an alternative subterranean termite control measure by members of the Australian pest control industry. This baiti...
J R J French, B M Ahmed, D M Ewart


Environmental fate of copper-based wood preservatives in different soil substrates - Part 2: Study of the metal sorption and migration potential under simulated rainfall
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-21 b
In order to examine the potential environmental impact of spillages of the saltborne wood preservative CCA in treatment plants, four large scale experiments are set-up so as to follow the water transport and ion mobility in various field soils. A plastic container is filled with a sand, silt, clay and potting soil, made up at their respective bulk density and wetted to a given moisture content. U...
G M F Van Eetvelde, R Hartmann, J M Mwangi, H S Öztürk, M Stevens


Contribution to the knowledge of wood-rotting fungi in Brazil. Part 1: Occurrence and distribution of fungi on different substrates from the Manaus region, Amazonas State
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10096
A total of 945 spezimens of fungi were studied with regard to their distribution on ditterent substrates, abundances and economic importance. The samples came from the collection ot the Wood Pathology Laboratory of CPPF/INPA in Manaus, Brazil. Altogether, 163 spezies and 87 genera were identified. The following genera Trametes, Auricularia, Panus, Rigidoporus and Hymenochaete were represently by m...
M Aparecida de Jesus


Estimation of oral toxicity of boron as a bait toxicant and the trophallactic effects between individual members of termite colonies.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10495
In recent years, because of the favourable environmental characteristics of boron, researchers in the wood preservation industries have refocussed on the use of boron as a major wood preservative against wood-destroying insects. Currently the greatest use of boron compounds is in remedial treatments. Boron has been found to have slow-acting toxicity against subterranean termites. Because of thi...
B M Ahmed


Acceleration of boric acid uptake into the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki using steamed larch wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10353
Laboratory tests were done to measure the efficacy of addition of steamed larch (Larix leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Gord.) heartwood extracts for the uptake of boric acid against the termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Paper discs were treated with the water-soluble fraction obtained from hot-water extracts of steamed larch wood (S-Water) with or without 0.01-2.0% boric acid, followed by expos...
W Ohmura, S Doi, S Ohara


Practical applications of steamed larch wood to a termite bait system using chlorfluazuron
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10464
Less chemical strategies are required for decrease of damages to residents from chemicals such as organic phosphates and carbamates those are usually used to prevent termite attacks on wooden buildings. One of the strategies is a bait system that has already been employed in the termite-infested areas. We tried to use steamed larch wood as a monitor wood and a bait matrix to stimulate feeding acti...
S Doi, S Shibutani, K Hanada, T Miyahara


Environmental fate of copper-based wood preservatives in different soil substrates - Part 1: Screening of the metal adsorption potential
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-21 a
In treatment plants, spillage of wood preservatives onto soil may be of environmental concern. This potential soil contamination served as an objective for a screening study. Three different mineral soils, a mineral substrate and two horticultural substrates are examined for their sorptive potential of copper through mixing with wood preservative solutions. Depending on the soil/substrate charact...
G M F Van Eetvelde, J M Mwangi, F Tack, R Hartmann, M Stevens


Sulfluramid, a new bait concept for the control of termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30075
The annual cost of preventing, controlling and repairing the damage done by termites in the United States of America is in the billions of dollars. Current termite control methodology is generally effective in the control of termite activity. However, new technology (termite foams, termite baits, physical barriers) is emerging which has or will provide new tools to control termites. This report ce...
J B Ballard, T K Porter


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