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Fumigation as a remedial treatment: A review of North American literature
1983 - IRG/WP 3253
The development of the use of fumigants for eliminating decay in timber and roundwood in North America is reviewed. Initial experiments on oak wilt identified volatile chemicals which eradicated decay in roundwood. Subsequently, extensive experimentation on Douglas-fir poles in service showed that treatment with chloropicrin eliminated internal decay for more than ten years. Vorlex was also quite ...
J N R Ruddick

Diffusion of bifluorides and borates from preservative rods in laminated beams
1991 - IRG/WP 3644
Laminated beams from spruce, pine and larch were treated with two preservative rods, based on bifluorides and octaborate respectively. After 3 and 6 months placed in different climates (65% r.h., 100% r.h., water) the diffusion of the active ingredient was measured. After the 6 months period, the diffusion of the bifluorides was, in all species, ca. 5 times larger than the diffusion from octaborat...
H Militz

A laboratory evaluation of the susceptibility to biological attack of glued laminated pine timber
1991 - IRG/WP 2387
In the scope of a research programme concerning the use of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) to produce glued laminated timber structures in Portugal, the natural durability of this material was checked by using laboratory test methods. An European standard, EN 113, was used to test durability against basidiomycetes and a test method developed at LNEC for termites was adapted for this purpose. From t...
L Nunes, H Cruz

A deflection test for monitoring decay in miniature beams
1986 - IRG/WP 2269
A laboratory apparatus for assessing decay in small stakes is described. It involves the measurement of deflection in a static bending apparatus using a displacement transducer linked to a microcomputer. Measurements are non-destructive, rapid, accurate and automatic and decay can be assessed repeatedly over long time periods....
S M Gray

Essais de collage de bois traités pour la réalisation d'éléments de charpente lamellées. (+ abstract dated September 1971, Influence du traitement de préservation sur le collage d'éléments de charpente lamellés collés et efficacité vis-a-vis de larves néonates)
1971 - IRG/WP 203
Le but du travail est de vérifier les propriétés générales d'une poutre lamellée collée après traitement des éléments la composant au moyen de formulations insecticides et fongicides commerciales à solvant clair dans les conditions les plus usuelles de fabrication. Les essences utilisées ont été: Epicéa - Pin sylvestre - Sapin de Douglas en planches rabotées de 80 cm de lo...
J Guillemain-Thévenot

Borate diffusion in wood from rods and liquid product. Application to laminated beams
1988 - IRG/WP 3482
In the aim to use borate preservatives (fused rods and boracol) in fields of building construction other than external joineries, tests of diffusion of borate rods and secondary boracol, were carried out on different species of woods exposed to different moisture conditions. Tests were also applied on laminated beams very often subjected to high moisture contents and thus decay of rot fungi. Diffu...
D Dirol

Influence of preservative treatment on the glueing of the members of glued laminated frames and effectiveness with respect to newly hatched larvae of the house longhorn beetl
1971 - IRG/WP 203 E
The object of the work is to check the general properties of a glued laminated beam after treatment of the members composing it by means of commercial insecticidal and fungicidal formulations in clear solvent under the most common conditions of manufacture. The species used have been spruce, redwood and Douglas fir in planed boards of 80 cm long, 14 cm wide and 20 mm thickness at about 12% moistur...
J Guillemain-Thévenot

Bending strength of heat-treated spruce and pine timber
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40242
Heat-treatment of spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) beams (45 x 145 mm) gave a reduction in bending strength of approximately 50%. The bending stiffness (modulus of elasticity) only decreased by 3.5%. Tests were carried out according to EN 408. Another effect of the heat-treatment was increased variation in bending strength. The 5th percentile value of the bending strength, the so c...
C Bengtsson, J Jermer, F Brem

Preservation of coppice wood for the fabrication of glued beams or panels
1987 - IRG/WP 3427
In this survey we will examine the specific problems concerning the conservation and the preservation of timber (issued from trunks of small diameter corresponding to products of clearings or coppices) destined for the fabrication of solid reconstituted elements. Thus for six metropolitan species of wood, we first characterized the biological deteriorations which occur after felling and their kine...
G R Y Déon, R Schwartz

Decay rates and strength and stiffness loss in foundation beams
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1563
The TNO Centre for Timber Research has executed an extensive research programme into the rate of decay in foundation beams, as a result of lowering of ground water tables. The aim of the research was to develop a method, predicting the decrease in strength and stiffness in beams, due to wood decay during drytime of foundation beams. With the calculated extremes in decay, the damage caused by local...
P Esser, H S Buitenkamp

Diagnosis of failures in wood beams from historical house in Banská Štiavnica – Relations between ultrasonic measurements and bending properties
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20437
Various degrees of rot and other damages in ceiling beams with dimensions of 6500-8800 x 160-200 x 240-310 mm (length x height x width) situated in one historical bourgeois house in the UNESCO town Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia were determined visually and by the PUNDIT-plus ultrasonic device. Subsequently, for seventeen of the most bio-damaged fir (Abies alba Mill.) beams chosen for exchange were ...
L Reinprecht, M Pánek

Moisture distribution in glulam beams with natural cracks observed with CT Scanning before and after rain
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20534
The way cracks in outdoor wooden constructions affect durability is an interesting topic, since a certain amount of cracks can always be found naturally in wood and glued laminated wood. The question in this was, can cracks lead water into the wood and thereby increase the risk for decay and reduce strength and service life. Moisture balance, i.e., water absorption and water distribution were stud...
K Sandberg

Decay resistance of beams made from thermally modified Scots pine and Norway spruce after 6 years’ exposure in ground contact
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40806
In the present study the resistance of beams treated by ThermoWood® process was studied in ground contact and the results given are based on a “modified” EN 252 test. After six years’ exposure clear differences were found between untreated Scots pine and Norway spruce beams and treated ones. In all cases thermal modification improved the performance. Thermally modified pine heartwood showed...
S Metsä-Kortelainen, H Viitanen