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Bending Properties of FRT OSB
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40600
Fire retardant treated (FRT) oriented strandboard (OSB) and plywood of different widths were tested in static bending to determine width effects. Results were consistent with previous width effect studies and showed that increasing specimen width results in a decrease in sample MOR properties among all the sample groups tested in this study. Increasing sample width for OSB samples leads to more ...
J M Hill, H M Barnes, S Q Shi


Bending properties of treated western hemlock plywood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40064
This study investigated the mechanical properties of western hemlock plywood after treatment with waterborne preservatives and redrying. Unlike previously reported results for southern pine plywood, western hemlock plywood was more sensitive to redrying temperature than to preservative treatment. Generally, western hemlock plywood was affected by temperature and other variables. Losses in mechanic...
H M Barnes, A Khouadja, D E Lyon


A Preliminary Report on the Properties of Engineered Wood Composite Panels Treated with Copper Naphthenate
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40294
This paper reports on our preliminary investigation of the properties of randomly oriented strandboard which had waterborne or powdered copper naphthenate (CuN) incorporated into the board during manufacture. When compared to zinc borate-treated controls (ZnB), the mechanical properties of strandboard (MOR, MOE, work-to-maximum load, internal bond strength) were not adversely affected by treatmen...
J W Kirkpatrick, H M Barnes


Bending properties of TCMTB-treated Southern pine sapwood using supercritical carbon dioxide impregnation process
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40080
The effects of elevated pressure and treatment with thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB) on the bending properties of Southern pine sapwood were evaluated at pressures ranging from 1,800 to 3,600 psi. All bending properties were affected to some extent by supercritical fluid treatment. Modulus of elasticity and work to maximum load were not significantly affected by pressure levels. Modulus of...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, S Kumar, E S Demessie, K L Levien, J J Morrell


The effect of hemicellulose degradation on the mechanical properties of wood during brown rot decay
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20219
Incipient decay of wood by brown rot fungi causes measurable strength losses in wood before measurable weight loss occurs. Previous studies have shown that the high levels of strength loss that occur during incipient brown rot decay may be related to loss in hemicellulose. This paper investigates the effect of decay on hemicellulose composition and the relationship to the mechanical properties of ...
S F Curling, C A Clausen, J E Winandy


Bending & tensile properties of vapor boron-treated composites
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40228
North American composites including laminated veneer lumber, oriented strandboard, and medium density fiberboard were treated by vapor boron technology and subsequently tested in static bending. Tensile properties were also determined for the two composite boards. The study was designed as 3 x 2 factorial with three treatment levels and two mill locations for each composite type. In general, mil...
H M Barnes, R J Murphy, B K Via


Strength properties of preservative treated pine and spruce wood after super-heated steaming
1984 - IRG/WP 3313
Possible changes of strength properties of CCF pressure impregnated pine and spruce with subsequent steaming at 110°C respective 120°C for 30 min were examined. For spruce analysis of variance indicated that none of the processes had a significant effect on bending strength, compression strength and the corresponding modulus of elasticity as well as on impact bending strength and shear strength ...
R-D Peek


Supercritical fluid treatment: Effects on bending strength of white spruce heartwood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20008
The effects of supercritical carbon dioxide on wood strength were evaluated using white spruce heartwood, a species known to be especially susceptible to collapse during exposure to higher pressures. The effects of pressures of 2000 or 3600 psig and temperatures of 40 or 80°C were evaluated using 30 or 60 minute exposure periods. No significant differences were noted in modulus of rupture or modu...
S M Smith, J J Morrell, E Sahle-Demessie, K L Levien


Bending properties of wood after its decay with Coniophora puteana and subsequent modification with selected chemicals
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40146
Mechanical properties of wood are often decreased due to decay processes caused by biotic and/or abiotic factors. Damaged wooden elements (e.g. historical structures) can be reinforced by more methods, including their modification with convenient chemicals. This paper presents influences of selected chemicals on basic bending properties (modulus of elasticity - MOE, modulus of rupture - MOR) of so...
L Reinprecht, S Varinska


Changes in some important mechanical and physical properties of untreated and treated mining timber after exposure to the conditions of a colliery
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20082
Each of salt treated and untreated mining timber (wedge) pairs with 5x15 cm² cross-section and 155 cm length prepared from Scots pine, Bornmüller's fir and oriental beech was cut in the small standard test specimens to determine changes in some important mechanical and physical properties, 13 month after exposure to the conditions of Kozlu Hard Coal Mines in the depth of 52 m. Thus, the...
A Bobat


High-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test – Part 1: A new tool for quality control of thermally modified timber
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20346
Thermal modification processes improve durability and dimensional stability of wood, but the strength properties, especially the dynamic ones, are compromised and need to be considered with respect to industrial quality control. Results from standard dynamic strength testing, such as impact bending tests, suffer from high variability, and therefore require a high number of replicates. To overcome ...
C Brischke, A O Rapp, C R Welzbacher


Bending Properties of Southern Pine Treated with Micronized Preservative Systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40414
This study indicates that treatment of southern pine with micronized copper systems have no deleterious effect on the residual strength property values. No statistical differences between wood treated with micronized systems and water-treated controls were noted when means were compared using either Tukey’s test or S-N-K mean comparison tests. Using the more discriminating Least Squares anal...
H M Barnes, G B Lindsey, J Hill, M Pompeo, R Hodge


Diagnosis of failures in wood beams from historical house in Banská Štiavnica – Relations between ultrasonic measurements and bending properties
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20437
Various degrees of rot and other damages in ceiling beams with dimensions of 6500-8800 x 160-200 x 240-310 mm (length x height x width) situated in one historical bourgeois house in the UNESCO town Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia were determined visually and by the PUNDIT-plus ultrasonic device. Subsequently, for seventeen of the most bio-damaged fir (Abies alba Mill.) beams chosen for exchange were ...
L Reinprecht, M Pánek


Hydrothermal modification for upgrading the durability properties of soft deciduous wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40494
To extend the application potentialities of soft deciduous wood, upgrading the durability properties, hydrothermal modification (HTM) of aspen alder and birch wood was investigated. The treatment was conducted in a multifunctional laboratory device WTT. In the previous cases it has been found that the treatment at 160oC improves the durability insufficiently. The modification at 180oC ensured a hi...
B Andersons, I Andersone, V Biziks, I Irbe, J Chirkova, E Sansonetti, J Grinins, H Militz


Effect of Nano-Silver Treatment on Densified Wood Properties. Part One: Swelling, Recovery Set, Bending Strength
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40533
In this research the effect of Nano-Silver treatment on compressed wood properties, was studied. Wood specimens were cut from Popolus alba (poplar) and impregnated with Nano-Silver and water. Then the saturated samples were compressed through radial direction in a hot press under pressure of 6 MPa, for 1 and 4 hours. The temperatures of press were 150°C and 175°C. Swelling (24h), recovery set ...
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, B Jamnani, M Ali Khaje


Study on the Effect of Combined Nanosilver-Hygrothermal Treatment on Wood Properties
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40581
In this study, the impregnation process with nanosilver solution, before hygrothermal treatment was carried out to investigate its effect on some physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Russian imported spruce (Picea abies). Wood specimens were impregnated with nanosilver solution (400ppm) in an impregnation tank under pressure of 0.25 Mpa, for 20 minutes....
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, A Karimi, B Jamnani, M Ebrahimi


Study on the Effect of Combined Nanosilver-Hygrothermal Treatment on Wood Properties
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40581
In this study, the impregnation process with nanosilver solution, before hygrothermal treatment was carried out to investigate its effect on some physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and imported Russian spruce (Picea abies). Wood specimens were impregnated with nanosilver solution (400ppm) in an impregnation tank under pressure of 0.25 Mpa, for 20 minutes....
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, A Karimi, B Jamnani, M Ebrahimi


Changes of fungicidal, mechanical and sorption properties of wood during above ground outdoor exposure
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20513
The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate differences in mechanical, fungicidal, and sorption properties of four different wood species (sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), common beach (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and copper-ethanolamine (CuE) impregnated Norway spruce (Picea abies)) that were exposed in the 3rd use class (CEN, 1992) for periods between 4 and 30 months...
N Thaler, M Humar


Combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D impregnation on properties of southern yellow pine wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40637
In this study, samples of southern yellow pine sapwood were first thermally modified and then treated by the alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) wood preservative. Two heating temperature (180℃ and 220℃) and two concentrations of ACQ-D solution (0.9% and 1.35%) were used in the experiments. The combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D on leaching performance, mechanical prope...
Wang Wang, Yuan Zhu, Jinzhen Cao


Impact of fungal decay on the bending properties of wood
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20671
Wood used outdoors is generally prone to fungal degradation, and its impact on the structural integrity of wood is an immanent factor for service life planning with timber. Wood decayed to very small mass losses can suffer from a significant reduction in mechanical strength and elastic properties. Hence, the latter are preferred indicators to detect decay in wood durability studies. Numerous previ...
S Bollmus, P B van Niekerk, C Brischke


Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examinati...
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph


Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no...
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley


Wood furfurylation process and properties of furfurylated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40289
The first processes for “furfurylation” of wood (wood modification with furfuryl alcohol) were developed several decades ago. Furfuryl alcohol is a renewable chemical since it is derived from furfural, which is produced from hydrolysed biomass waste. Over the last decade modernised processes for furfurylation of wood have been developed. These new processes are based on new catalytic systems a...
M Westin, S Lande, M Schneider


Effect of medium-term degradation of beech wood by erosive (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and lignin-selective (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) strains of white rot fungi on its selected physical properties
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40292
At the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology a fungal delignification of normal and tension beech wood by erosive and lignin-selective strains white-rot fungi has been studied. The pre-treatment of both kind of wood samples was accompanied by partial delignification and apparent changes of their physical properties influencing the polar liquids penetration....
R Solár, S Kurjatko, M Mamonová, J Hudec


Di-sodium fluorophosphate, a new fluorine containing, water-borne wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 3373
The physical, chemical properties of Di-sodiumfluorophosphate (Na2PO3F) are compared with those of a trade-mark SF-salt. The opposition of biological activity and toxicological data showed that Di-sodiumfluorophosphate may be a suitable alternative to SF-salts ( based on MgSiF6)....
D Seepe, W Metzner


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