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Silicic acid-Boric acid complexes as wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30273
A silicic acid monomer aqueous solution (SAMS) or colloidal silicic acid solution (CSAS) was combined with various metal compounds or boric acid. Agents where SAMS or CSAS was combined with boric acid gave good protection against decay caused by the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris, the treated wood (Cryptomera japonica D. Don) specimens after the leaching test maintained a high resistance to...
H Yamaguchi


Synergistic effect of boron on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing conidial germination of sapstain and mold fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1565
We evaluated the synergistic effect of boron (4% BAE solution of Tim-Bor or 4% boric acid) on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi using plate bioassay, Southern yellow pine and sweetgum block tests, and green pine log sections: sapstain -- Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi -- Aspergillus nig...
S C Croan, T L Highley


Response of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus) to Cellulose Insulation Treated with Boric Acid in Choice and No-Choice Tests.
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10532
The tunneling ability of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki through a cellulose insulation material containing11.1% boric acid was tested in choice and no-choice bioassays. We examined tunneling behavior and mortality of termites exposed to treated and untreated insulation material in miniature simulated wall voids. In a choice test termites tunneled through untreat...
M E Mankowski, J K Grace


Boron treatments for the preservation of wood - A review of efficacy data for fungi and termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30037
Boron treatments have been used for many decades for protection of timber from biological attack and also as a fire retardant treatment. In recent years there has been an increased interest in boron treatments as an option for protection of structural timbers' e.g. timber framing used in termite risk areas. This paper reviews efficacy data for both fungi and termites relevant to this end-...
J A Drysdale


Preliminary results of investigations on screening test of chemical compounds suitable for the preservation of lignocellulosic materials against biodeterioration
1976 - IRG/WP 262
This paper investigates the possibilities of reducing the time needed for the determination of the effectiveness of chemical compounds from the point of view of their eventual application to lignocellulosic materials for preservation against decay and soft-rot....
K Lutomski, S S Neyman


Comparative investigations on the influence of wood seasoning, wood properties and temperature on the toxic values of wood preservatives against Hylotrupes egg larvae
1970 - IRG/WP 28
Comparative tests carried out at three institutes indicated the influence of kiln temperature, position of wood specimens in the cross sectional area and test temperature on the toxic values determined in accordance with DIN 52165 with egg larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus L.). The preservatives applied were boric acid in distilled water and g-benzene-hexachloride dissolved i...
G Becker, T Hof, O Wälchli


Options for accelerated boron treatment: A practical review of alternatives
1985 - IRG/WP 3329
Boron wood preservatives are almost exclusively applied by momentary immersion and block diffusion storage. Alternative techniques are described which can be used to accelerate boron treatment. Diffusion coefficients have been derived to define the acceleration of diffusion with increasing temperature. Schedules are described for pressure impregnation of green timber, involving steam conditioning,...
P Vinden, T Fenton, K Nasheri


Movement of boron from fused boron rods implanted in Southern pine, Douglas fir, red oak, and white oak timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30061
This paper reports the distribution of boron from fused boron rods installed into six-inch (15.2 cm) square timbers of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, red oak and white oak exposed aboveground. The composition and size of rods was: sodium borate and sodium borate-copper oxide (8.5 x 100 mm²); sodium borate-copper, sodium borate and boric oxide-copper oxide (12 x 76 mm²). The boric acid equivalent wa...
T L Highley, L Ferge


The influence of boric acid on respiratory quotients and methane production of subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10136
The toxicity of boron compounds to subterranean termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus) was studied by analysing changes in the levels of oxygen uptake respiratory quotients and methane production. Termites were fed with filter paper treated at different levels of boric acid, the RQ was evaluated by constant volume manometry and the methane production by gas chromatography. Results are discussed in re...
L Nunes, D J Dickinson


A new approach to the maintenance problems of wooden railway sleepers
1986 - IRG/WP 3392
The microenvironment of wooden railway sleepers is being investigated to assess their condition to determine the necessary treatment, repair and replacement criteria. The research work involves the development of an integrity tester to determine the condition of sleepers, a remedial treatment of sleepers by selective application of boric acid and a synthetic repair system....
W Beauford, P I Morris.


Diffusion treatment plants (Latin America - Africa)
1974 - IRG/WP 333
B N Prasad


In-situ pressure injection for preservation of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muel Arg.)
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3688
Rubber wood is widely used for the manufacture of furniture, doors for housing and packing cases. However in an untreated condition it is highley susceptible to sapstain and decay fungi and borers. Its utility gets considerably reduced if the wood is not treated well in time. Preservative treatment has to be given within the period of felling and transport to prevent not only loss of structural pr...
H S Ananthapadmanabha, V R Sivaramakrishnan


Ground contact performance of wood treated by the MSU process
1990 - IRG/WP 3609
Environmental concerns have prompted a renewed interest in accelerated fixation schemes for CCA-treated wood. Results from stake tests of southern pine (Pinus sp.) treated using a conventional Bethell cycle are compared with matched stakes treated using the MSU Process. The effects of adding boric acid to the preservative formulation are also discussed. Differences among test plots are discussed....
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, R W Landers


Vapour boron treatment of wood based panels: Mechanism for effect upon impact resistance
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40036
Samples of medium density fibreboard, chipboard and oriented strandboard (OSB) were treated to two retentions of boric acid by a vapour phase treatment. The results of a range of mechanical tests were reported by Hashim et al. (1992, 1993) in which a small reduction in impact resistance was observed. Several investigations were carried out to study how and where this loss in impact resistance occu...
R Hashim, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson, J Dinwoodie


Sterilization of mango wood (Mangifera indica L.) without heat
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30065
Researches revealed that boric acid can play an important role for sterilizing wood instead of heating. Wet (green) mango boards (Mangifera indica L.) were pressure treated in treating cylinder at initial vacuum of 508 mm Hg for 15 minutes and impregnation pressure of 7 kg/cm² for 4 hours with 5% solution (w/v) of 1:1:1 commercial grade (95% pure) sodium dichromate, copper sulphate and boric acid...
A K Lahiry


The reliability of colouring methods for the determination of biflourides and boron in spruce wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20036
From practical reasons, qualitative spraying methods are widely used for the detection of bifluorides and boron in wood. The main aim of this research was to detect whether the concentration of the active ingredient in the coloured area is equal or greater than the toxic value against basidiomycetes. Both colouring methods, Z-A reagent for fluorides and curcuma reagent for boric acid, are a reliab...
R Grell, M G Sanders, W J Homan, H Militz


Leaching results of shower test on L-joints with boric acid, bifluoride and TBTO rods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50051
As part of the EC-project "Improvement of a local preservation process for wood products with reduced environmental impact", TNO has performed a leaching test on L-joints treated with pills with boric acid (Defence corner), bifluorides (Woodpil 55) and TBTO (Woodcap). The L-joints were exposed in an adapted shower test during 10 days, using 70 liters of water per day. The experiment is designed to...
P Esser, M J Boonstra, W L D Suitela, A J Pendlebury


Bioefficacy of boric acid grafted onto wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30202
The use of borate treated wood in outdoor is limited because of the migration of borate. The objective of this study is to investigate the fixation of boric acid in wood using polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) to form polyester borate and isocyanato group as coupling agent. FT-IR was used to monitor the reaction between boric acid and PEG. Elemental analysis was conducted to evaluate the C, H, and N v...
Weining Cui, D P Kamdem


Treatment of wood-based panel products with volatile borate
1990 - IRG/WP 3616
The paper presents recent developments in the use of volatile borate esters for the preservative treatment of wood based board materials. Several advances on previous reports are discussed. In laboratory studies, treatment times of approximately ten minutes at 20°C on boards at equilibrium moisture content provided full penetration and retentions of 1% wt/wt boric acid. Biological tests have been...
P Turner, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson


The efficacy of remedial treatments for controlling fungal decay in window millwork used in the United States
1987 - IRG/WP 3432
Conventional window millwork was subjected to basidiomycete decay by inoculation and sampled for active growth of the decay fungus before and eight months after remedial preservative treatment with fused disodium octaborate rods (IMPEL) at boric acid levels of 1.5 and 4.0 kg/m³ or liquid bifluoride injections (IMPROSOL) at 1 kg/m³. The elimination of decay fungus after remedial treatment was nea...
M G Dietz, E L Schmidt


Laboratory evaluation of borate formulations as wood preservatves to control the subterranean termite coptotermes acinaciformis (isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Australia
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30266
The termiticidal efficacy of Borocol (sodium octaborate tetrahydrate), boric acid, bore-ester-7 and tri- methyl borate was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Seasoned sapwood blocks of Pinus radiata D. Don, and Eucalyptus regnans (F. Muell) were impregnated with the various borate compounds. There were marked differences in mass loss and mortality rate ...
B M Ahmed, J R J French, P Vinden


A chemical and mycological evaluation of fused borate rods and a borate/glycol solution for remedial treatment of window joinery
1983 - IRG/WP 3225
The possibility of using fused borate rods (Impel Borpatron) and a borate/glycol solution (Boracol-40) for depot impregnation of window joinery has been examined in a co-operative project between The Swedish Forest Products Research Laboratory, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Prolignum AB. The fused Impel rod is a glassy rod composed of disodium octaborate which readily dissolv...
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, A Käärik, P-E Dickèr


Leaching characteristics, decay and termite resistance of treated wood with boron compounds, N'-N-(1,8-Naphthalyl) hydroxylamine (NHA-Na), and hydroxynaphthalimide (NHA-H)
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30307
Despite many advantages of boron wood preservatives, boron itself does not adequately protect wood in ground contact and exterior applications because its natural diffusibility and susceptibility to leaching. As a result of previous studies to limit or decrease boron leaching, several fixation systems have been developed. In this study, we evaluated the effects of N'-N-(1, 8-Naphthalyl) h...
S N Kartal, Y Imamura


Remedial treatments of glulam = diffusion of active ingredients through glue lines from solid wood diffusable preservatives
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30117
Diffusable preservatives are very suitable for use in remedial treatments of laminated beams in which too high moisture content involves the development of wood destroying fungi. The diffusion of active ingredients (boric acid, disodium octoborate, bifluoride) is well observed in solid wood but in a composite wood, the glue lines may appear not only as a barrier for the diffusion but also, may be ...
D Dirol, S Mouras


The probable mechanism of action of boric acid and borates as wood preservatives
1990 - IRG/WP 1450
The tetrahydroxyborate ion [B(OH)4-] acts by complexation with poly-ols and probably attacks decay fungi through extracellular substrate sequestration; intracellular substrate sequestration; enzyme inhibition; and change in membrane function. Work was carried out to investigate this further and to try to explain certain phenomena observed in the area of boron preservation. The effect of Na borate ...
J D Lloyd, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


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