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Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius resistance to chemical preservatives in piles of pine and birch wood chips
1981 - IRG/WP 1146
Investigation has been carried out on the communities of fungi developing in birch and Scots Pine chip piles in the Ostroleka Pulp and Paper Mill in the North-East of Poland The species composition or fungal communities and their development in a dozen of chip piles during storage was investigated. Untreated and chemically treated birch and pine wood chips were investigated. In all samples the great amount of Aspergillus fumigatus infested chips were found. This fungus displayed resistance to chemicals used as chips preservatives and occurred often more frequently in the wood of chemically treated than untreated chips. The course of investigations and quantitative occurrence of Aspergillus fumigatus in relation to other important fungi species are presented in this paper.
M H Zielinski


JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated.
K Tsunoda


In search of alternative antisapstain chemicals for use in Papua New Guinea
1988 - IRG/WP 3472
The paper presents results of antisapstain field trials from three locations in Papua New Guinea as part of the Research Centre's programme to find suitable antisapstains to replace the hazardous sodium pentachlorophenate. Effectiveness of seven tested chemicals varied between indigenous pines (Araucaria cunninghamii, Araucaria husteinii) and white coloured hardwoods (Alstonia scholaris, Pterocymbium beccarii) but not between sites. The indigenous pines required lower chemical concentration for same level and period of protection than white coloured hardwoods like amberoi and white cheesewood. Period of protection ranged from four weeks to a maximum of 16 weeks depending on chemical concentration and species of timber. Potential chemicals recommended for use as antisapstain include Celbrite T, Busan 1009, Penacide and Woodguard E.S. and Woodguard E.C.
A Oteng-Amoako


Selective adsorption of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and movement of actives into wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30103
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, NeXgenâ and Busanâ Sap Stain Preventative (Busan 1009), at three product concentration levels. Concentrations of active ingredients (NeXgen: CTL (chloro-thalonil) and MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate); Busan 1009: TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole) and MTC) were monitored with respect to the amount of material dipped. Selective adsorption (removal of actives from the suspension at greater than simple volumetric transfer rates) varied with formulation and active ingredient, and increased with decreasing product concentration. Movement of active ingredients into dipped boards was monitored for 30 days after dipping. Mobility order was MTC >> TCMTB > CTL. Surface depletion characteristics were obtained for each active ingredient.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods


Commercially available anti-sapstain chemicals in New Zealand - An update
1987 - IRG/WP 3416
Six anti-sapstain chemicals or mixtures (NaPCP plus borax, Haipen 5F, Mitrol PQ375, Busan 1009, Protek S, Pinefol 50W) are available as commercial treatments in New Zealand. A further two (Hylite 20F and Isothon-35) have shown potential in field and mill trials and will be available for use. A number of other formulations are under evaluation.
J A Drysdale


Ecotoxicological risks of anti-sapstain preservatives washed off from treated timber
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50144
A field method for ecotoxicity assessment of rain water wash-off from anti-sapstain treated timber was developed. In the course of this study freshly sawn timber treated with 1.5% Busan 30 L (reference preservative) and a control stack with untreated pine were exposed to weathering. The run-off water was ecotoxicologically tested with organisms from three trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Kirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna). Results show, that the highest ecotoxicity can be detected immediately after treatment and within the first 4 weeks of storage - depending on the precipitation: high rainfall during the first month of exposure significantly increases ecotoxicity. Covering the treated stack provides sufficient protection of timber against leaching of chemicals and further on significantly minimises the environmental risk. Results suggest either storage of anti-sapstain treated timber in saw mills underneath a roof or, when stored outside, protection of treated stacks by coverage.
G Aschacher, R Gründlinger


Evaluation of the effectiveness of three microbiocides in the control of sapstains
1982 - IRG/WP 3212
Results of field test on the effectiveness of BUSAN 30, CAPTAN, FOLPET against mould and sapstain in Pinus elliottii are presented. The viability of use of FOLPET in Brazil as an alternative to sodium pentachlorophenate is also discussed.
S Milano, J A A Vianna Neto


A critical review of the AWPA standard method (M12-72) for laboratory evaluation to determine resistance to subterranean termites
1986 - IRG/WP 1298
The American Wood Preservers' Association standard (M12-72) for evaluation of candidate wood preservatives against subterranean termites is reviewed and suggestions for revision are made. The most serious flaws in the current test procedure involve a failure to recognize inter- and intraspecific variation and a lack of quantification of test results.
J P La Fage, M Jones


An evaluation of anti-apstain chemicals in Queensland, Australia
1986 - IRG/WP 3374
Five formulations were evaluated for potential use as antisapstain chemicals. Tolcide FSM (0.01, 0.02, 0.04%), Koppers N.P.-1 (0.70, 0.35, 0.25%), Kathon WT (0.10, 0.25, 0.40%) and Sinesto B (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5%) offer potential as antisapstain treatments. An incorrect stock of Busan 1009 was used resulting in unacceptable results.
L E Leightley


A comparative field test of the effectiveness of anti-sapstain treatments on radiata pine roundwood
1986 - IRG/WP 3376
Peeled radiata pine posts were sprayed with one of six antisapstain formulations, with and without a wax water-repellent additive, to evaluate the protection given by each treatment. After 3 months' outside storage the best treatments tested were 4% product Busan 30, 2% product Busan 1009, and 2% active sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) with 1.5% borax. After 6 months' storage posts sprayed with Busan 30 were of sounder appearance than those sprayed with Busan 1009 or NaPCP plus borax. The effect of a water repellent on the moisture content of posts and on the severity of the fungal degrade was variable between treatments and requires further research.
J A Drysdale, R M Keirle


The preliminary evaluation of selected sulfonium salts for use in wood preservation
1984 - IRG/WP 3278
Five sulfonium compounds, including two sulfonium methosulfates, one sulfonium bromide and two amphoteric sulfonium propanesulfonates, were prepared in crude form and subjected to various biocidal screening tests. A rapid screening test in which treated Pinus radiata pulp pellets were exposed to one of three wood-decaying fungi growing on malt agar revealed that dodecyl dimethyl sulfonium methosulfate had an inhibiting effect comparable to that of lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (benzalkonium chloride). The remaining sulfonium salts gave no fungal inhibition in this test. Both dodecyl- and decyl dimethyl sulfonium methosulfate gave a positive response in a screening test for insecticidal activity. However, rapid insect recovery indicated detoxification or excretion of the test chemicals. Dodecyl dimethyl sulfonium methosulfate was also screened as an anti-sapstain treatment with encouraging results. Further work is now in progress to explore the potential wood preservative capability of certain sulfonium and sulfoxonium salts.
D V Plackett


Potential toxicants for controlling soft rot in preservative treated hardwoods. Part 4: Evaluation of combined diffusion and toxicity
1979 - IRG/WP 2129
A large number of inorganic and organic preservatives were evaluated as potential soft rot control chemicals, by their degree of inhibition of fungal growth after allowing them to diffuse through a 6 mm thick wood slab. The tests were inoculated with wood powder from soft-rotted CCA treated poles. Pentachlorophenol was unable to diffuse quickly through the wood slab, although formulations with hexylene glycol showed some promise. Hydroxyisoxazole gave good results as did a number of other organic materials including "Busan 30", "Busan 52", "Permapruf T", sodium oxinate, sodium trichlorophenate, "Gloquat C", „Hyamine 1622", butyl icinol, and the commercial bandage materials "Osmoplast" and "Wolman pole bandage". Of the inorganic materials tested, good results were obtained with "Basilit BFB", with other Cu-F-B formulations including "Blue 7", and with fluoroborate and fluorosilicate preparations in general. Arsenates also showed some promise.
E W B Da Costa, O Collett


The use of TCMTB in applications other than sapstain prevention: A review
1990 - IRG/WP 3606
The efficacy of TCMTB against staining fungi and surface moulds has been thoroughly investigated during the last decade. As a result, the chemical is used as an alternative to the chlorinated phenols in various parts of the world for the preservation of freshly sawn timber. Less known are the data obtained against brown rot, white rot and soft rot fungi. The termite repellent and bactericidal properties of the chemical widen the scope of application possibilities. The objective of this article is to report on the data actually available.
R Van der Eynde


Effectiveness of Busan 30 treated birch blocks in a soil medium
1987 - IRG/WP 3409
TCMTB based formulation has been anticipated for use in dip-diffusion treatment in Papua New Guinea to replace BFCA Wood preservative. One such formulation is the Penacide (TCMTB + MBT Boron) which is currently being tested against fungi and insects. Accelerated laboratory test in soil exposure was employed to test a related formulation (Busan 30) to determine its effectiveness against soil inhabiting organisms. In general the formulation was effective at a toxic threshold limit of 3.8 kg/m³.
H C Konabe


Some data on the activity of alternative fungicides for wood preservation
1985 - IRG/WP 3333
Data from laboratory tests against basidiomycete fungi are presented for 9 alternative fungicides in organic solvent formulations and also in water for one product. Results are compared with data for reference preservatives, tributyltin oxide, copper and zinc naphthenates and pentachlorophenol. Of special interest is the apparently better than additive effect of mixing tributyltin naphthenate and Xyligen B, and the promising performance of Armoblen 480, a novel organic solvent formulation of n-alkyl coco-derived quaternary ammonium compounds.
A F Bravery, J K Carey


An evaluation of chemical treatments for the protection of radiata pine logs from fungal degrade
1986 - IRG/WP 3377
Busan 30, Busan 1009, Mitrol PQ375. and sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) plus have been evaluated as antisapstain treatments for the long-term protection of debarked radiata pine logs. After 3 months' winter-spring storage, treated debarked logs had less surface and internal sapstain than 'control' logs. After 6 months' storage all logs had internal sapstain and decay. Busan 30 was the most effective treatment in preventing internal degrade although 1.5% a.i. NaPCP plus 1.5% borax was more effective in preventing decay.
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley, J A Butcher


Distribution of copper/chrome/boron preservative in light red meranti (Shorea leprosula) before and after exposure test for 72 months
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20073
Copper/chrome/boron (CCB) preservative at 6% w/w was impregnated into light red meranti (Shorea leprosula) by full cell process. The quantitative analysis for copper, chrome and boron contents in treated wood samples was carried out by Inductive Couple Plasma (ICP). Electron Probe Microanalyser (EPMA) was used to monitor the distribution of copper, chrome and boron in the various treated wood tissues before and after exposure for 72 months.
S Salamah, S Ani


Laboratory evaluation of potential antisapstain treatments for Pinus radiata
1983 - IRG/WP 3237
Twelve formulations were tested in the laboratory using a 'mini' board test for effectiveness on Pinus radiata (D. Don) against sapstain, mould and decay fungi. Three formulations, sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) plus borax, Haipen 50 WP, and Mitrol 375, are used commercially in New Zealand. Busan 1009 (0.5% product), IWD Product A (0.2% ai), IWD Product B (0.3% ai), Fennotox S2 (0.4% product) and Woodguard E.C. (0.5% product) have potential as antisapstain treatments. Kilstain, XP-3359, Celbrite-M81 and Acticide THP were ineffective at the concentrations tested. Formulations containing methylene bisthiocyanate were susceptible to the mould Trichoderma viride.
J A Drysdale


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 18. Report of seventh inspection (72 months) in Australia
1984 - IRG/WP 4108
This report includes the results for the 72 month inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test installed in Sydney Harbour. Although, overall, attack by teredinid and limnorid borers have been most commonly encountered in test specimens at this site, slight attack, mainly by sphaeromatids, has recently been initiated on some hitherto unattacked treated Alstonia scholaris and Pinus sylvestris specimens. There is still little difference between the performances of CCA or CCB treated specimens for each timber species after 6 years immersion.
L J Cookson, J E Barnacle


A field trial of water repellents as anti-sapstain treatment additives
1987 - IRG/WP 3417
The assessment of water repellents as anti-sapstain treatment additives has been included in a recent FRI research programme investigating improved surface protection of New Zealand Pinus radiata. Laboratory work has shown variation in water repellent effectiveness with chemical type and subsequently a field trial was established to examine the performance of selected water repellent/anti-sapstain treatments. Three water repellents were tested in combination with either sodium pentachlorophenoxide plus borax, Busan 1009 (methylene bisthiocyanate plus 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole), or Mitrol PQ375 (copper-8-quinolinolate). Although inspection of treated wood packages after 3 months' outside storage showed little variation in performance, inspections after 6 months showed that wood treated with formulations incorporating a paraffin wax emulsion was drier and usually showed less fungal degradation than wood treated with unamended anti-sapstain solutions.
J A Drysdale, D V Plackett


Efficacy of fumigants in the eradication of decay fungi implanted in southern pine timbers
1986 - IRG/WP 3365
Southern pine timbers (15.2 cm x 15.2 cm x 4.26 m) were fumigated at midlength to evaluate the effectiveness of the fumigants chloropicrin, Vapam, Diazomet, Busan 40, Vanicide 51, Vanicide TH, sodium bisulfite, and ethanolamine in eradication of decay fungi. The fumigants were introduced into 2.54 cm holes which were closed immediately with rubber stoppers. Movement and persistence of lethal concentrations of the vapors were monitored using eight important wood-decay fungi as the vapor-sensing agents. Residual fumigant in the timbers was determined by a bioassay with Gloeophyllum trabeum. Chloropicrin was the most effective of the eight fumigants. Diazomet was the second most effective followed closely by Vapam. The remaining fumigants were ineffective in eradication of the fungal cultures. Fumigant toxicity was generally greatest during the first 4 months following treatment. None of the fumigants were particularly effective at 0.61 m and 1.22 m from the base of fumigation. Bioassay of wood removed from the timbers 1 year after treatment showed no residual toxicity to Gloeophyllum trabeum. Fumigant efficacy varied between timbers. Movement and longevity of the fumigants in the southern pine timbers was not as great as that observed previously in Douglas fir timbers.
T L Highley, W E Eslyn


The potential application of rapid gas-chromatographic assay of microbial respiration to the monitoring of wood decay in field trial situations
1983 - IRG/WP 2196
Gas chromatographic detection of microbial activity (C02 production) within stakes in a field trial situation would appear to provide a sensitive, non-destructive and relatively rapid method for the quantitative assessment of preservative treatments. Most consistent results were obtained when stakes were removed from the soil, washed, saturated with water and incubated in sealed PVC tubes at 25°C for 24 h prior to assay of gas samples from the tubes. Each assay took 1.6 min to perform and stakes were returned to the field within 48 h. Microbial activity was readily detected in untreated Eucalyptus regnans stakes after 18 days field exposure. Stakes pressure impregnated with CCA, busan-30 or creosote displayed consistently low levels of activity to the present time (3 months after insertion).
M A Line


An appraisal of anti-sapstain chemicals in Queensland, Australia
1985 - IRG/WP 3331
Eleven formulations were tested in the field for effectiveness against sapstain, mould and fungi on Pinus elliottii in Queensland. The commercially used sodium pentachlorophenoxide (0.5% a.i.) and Captafol (0.2% a.i.) performed well. Busan 1009 (0.3% a.i.), Protek T (5.0% a.i.), Woodgard E.S. and E.C. (0.8% a.i.), together with sodium tetrachlorophenoxide (0.5% a.i.) offer potential as anti-sapstain treatments. Protek S (up to 0.6% a.i.), Azaconazole (up to 0.2% a.i.) and copper-8-quinolinolate (up to 0.06% a.i.) were ineffective in protecting against mould and sapstain fungi.
L E Leightley


Japanese standardized method for evaluating effectiveness of anti-sapstain and anti-mould chemicals
1988 - IRG/WP 2299
Japan Wood Preserving Association established a method for testing effectiveness of chemicals against sapstain and mold fungi on wood in 1979. The method is concerned with a laboratory technique using small timber specimens (20 x 50 x 3 mm³), petri dish and 5 test fungi. Effectiveness of each candidate chemical is evaluated on the basis of the relative resistance to sapstain and mold fungi which derives from visual rating of the fungal growth on the treated and untreated wood after 4-week incubation at 26±2°C and 70-80% R.H. Results of commercial trichlorophenol-base product indicated that relatively higher concentrations were required to protect timber satisfactorily from fungal attack in the test, as compared with practical treating concentrations at the sawmills.
K Tsunoda, K Nishimoto


Field evaluation of alternative antisapstain chemicals
1982 - IRG/WP 3198
Seven alternative antisapstain formulations containing four different active ingredients were field tested during the summer and fall of 1981. The test was designed to evaluate the potential long term effectiveness of PQ-8 (Chapman Chemical Co.) containing copper-8-quinolinolate, Busan 30 (Buckman Laboratories) containing 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole, BL2398 (Buckman Laboratories) containing a mixture of 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole and methylene bis-thiocyanate, Xyligen K30F (BASF) containing the potassium salt of N-nitroso-N-cyclohexyl hydroxylamine and three formulations, Polyphase (Troy Chemical Corp.), Woodbrite NTX (Van Waters & Rogers) and Argosy (Aero-Pak Ltd.) containing 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate as active ingredient. The tests were evaluated after three months and again after five months. Protection of hemfir lumber comparable to a 0.65% w/w chlorophenoxide treatment was achieved with 0.8% active PQ-8, 2.0% active Busan 30, 0.8% active BL2398, 1.0% active Polyphase, 1.0% active Woodbrite NTX and 1.0% active Argosy treatments. Xyligen K30F treatment at the 1.0% active level was ineffective.
D V Plackett


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