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The distribution of introduced acetyl groups and a linseed oil model substance in wood examined by microautoradiography and ESEM
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40169
Microautoradiography, a photographic method that shows the localization of substances labelled with radioactive isotope, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) were combined to enhance sensitivity, resolution and reliability for examination of the distribution of introduced substances in wood. The preparation of microautoradiographs is less complicated when investigated with ESEM an...
M Rosenqvist


Changes in mechanical and chemical properties of wood exposed outdoors
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20550
The aim of this study was to investigate differences in certain mechanical and chemical properties of three different wood species (common beach (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and copper-ethanolamine (CuE) impregnated Norway spruce (Picea abies)) that were exposed in use class 3 (CEN, 2006) for periods between 4 and 30 months. The results show, that changes in the investigated me...
N Thaler, C Brischke, D Žlindra, V Vek, M Humar


Full-scale impregnation of wood with siloxane using supercritical carbon dioxide
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40659
Full-scale impregnation of wood with siloxane was carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent. A batch of 3530 kg of Scots pine sapwood was impregnated to a retention of approximately 1.3% siloxane. The treatment also consisted of a simultaneous impregnation with organic biocides. The performance of the wood was evaluated in terms of capillary water uptake according to a modified EN ...
A Kjellow, F Imsgard, J Fernandes, R Wagner, J Delis


Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi


Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher


Respiration methods used to follow the decay of wood and the toximetric evaluation of wood preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 249
When wood is attacked and decayed by fungi, wood substance and oxygen (02) are consumed, while carbon dioxide (CO2), water and heat are liberated. Early in the 1960's workers from England, Canada and Sweden began studying CO2 evolution, with respect to decay and its control using chemical preservatives, while in Germany and the USA O2 utilization was being similarly examined. Oxygen consu...
R S Smith


Effect of fatty acid removal on treatability of Douglas-fir
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40008
Treatment of Douglas-fir with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a major challenge. Several hypotheses based on the anatomical aspects as well as chemical reactivity of the preservative formulations with cell wall constituents and deposits have been proposed. Techniques to prevent pit aspiration or slow fixation reactions have, however, not significantly improved treatment. The presence of high...
S Kumar, J J Morrell


Extracellular layers of wood decay fungi and copper tolerance
1983 - IRG/WP 1180
Extracellular layers around the hyphae of brown, white and soft rot fungi have been examined using electron microscopy. These layers were isolated for identification. Particular interest was directed towards the extracellular layers of copper-tolerant soft rot fungi....
D M Francis, L E Leightley


Wood in concrete. Summary of discussion at IRG 14, Surfers Paradise, Australia
1984 - IRG/WP 3264
The performance of untreated and preservative treated wood when placed in direct contact with concrete was considered in a discussion session at IRG 14. While published reports in this area are scarce, research is in progress internationally and a variety of practices are currently available to minimize any additional hazard posed by contact with concrete. This report summarizes the points raised ...
R J Murphy


The use of C CP/MAS NMR in the chemical identification of decayed and undecayed, tropical timber species
1984 - IRG/WP 1224
13C CP/MAS NMR was found to be an extremely powerful tool for elucidating the chemical composition of Eucalyptus maculata, Pinus elliottii and Alstonia scholaris. The differences in lignin composition were different for each timber and discussed in relation to decay caused by soft-rot and white rot fungi. In particular the presence of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin types are discussed.
L E Leightley


Timber Preservation and Sustainable Construction in Australia
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-14
Sustainable development has been described as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meeting their own needs. (Bruntland 1987) To achieve the sustainable development goal therefore, the maximum performance has to be obtained from existing resources (timber) so that the remaining resource is protected from over-exploitation. Clearly, wood preserva...
J Norton


An insight into brown rot decay of timber as revealed by 13C CP/MAS NMR
1985 - IRG/WP 1259
L E Leightley


IRG 14 invitation
1983 -
IRG Secretariat


The effect of selective additives and conditions on the decomposition of Basamid in Douglas fir heartwood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3698
Basamid is a solid, powdered chemical used as an agricultural soil fumigant. Decomposition of Basamid isothiocyanate, hydrogen sulfide, methyl amine, and formaldehyde. Basamid has some potential as a wood fumigant, but it decomposes too slowly to be effective. Various additives and conditions were tested for their ability to enhance Basamid decomposition in Douglas-fir heartwood. Higher MC&apo...
P G Forsyth, J J Morrell


APPLICATION PACKAGE – IRGWP Travel Award
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60374
IRG Secretariat


Reporting minutes of the Plenary Meeting 2014
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60372
IRG Secretariat


Budget for 2014 (forecast May 2014)
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60362
IRG Secretariat


Budget for 2015
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60363
IRG Secretariat


Creosote – Preservative of Choice by American Railroads
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30658
The combination of wood treated with creosote has for well over 100 years been the very foundation on which the American railroads have been established. This paper will describe the use of a renewable resource – wood – and its treatment with creosote, the undeniable performance of the product’s service life, including weather-ability of creosote treated wood railroad crossties....
D A Webb


Agenda 2014 Plenary meeting
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60359
IRG Secretariat


Distribution of cellulases in the body of Coptotermes formosanus and the probability that the termite uses glucose as an energy and carbon sources
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10202
We assayed extracts of the digestive system and of the whole body of Coptotermes formosanus to determine where the various cellulases, glucose, and related substances were concentrated and to detect pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in the hindgut-removed body in order to verify its full cellulolytic system. About 20%, 18% and 36% of the total exo-1,4-ß-glucanase activity of C. formosanus were dete...
S Itakura, H Tanaka, A Enoki


The chemical analysis and biological evaluation of wood extractives as potential timber preservatives
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30090
Work involved the biological performance of water and organic solvent soluble extractives of four naturally durable wood species, namely; Matumi, Tamboti, Sneezewood and the Turpentine tree. These timber species are known to be naturally durable against termites and fungi (±25 to 35 years). The extractives were evaluated against termites and fungi using impregnated pine pencil stakes in field tes...
P Turner, D Conradie


Bending properties of TCMTB-treated Southern pine sapwood using supercritical carbon dioxide impregnation process
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40080
The effects of elevated pressure and treatment with thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB) on the bending properties of Southern pine sapwood were evaluated at pressures ranging from 1,800 to 3,600 psi. All bending properties were affected to some extent by supercritical fluid treatment. Modulus of elasticity and work to maximum load were not significantly affected by pressure levels. Modulus of...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, S Kumar, E S Demessie, K L Levien, J J Morrell


Wood extractives as carbon sources for staining fungi in the sapwood of lodgepole pine and trembling aspen
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10098
Wood discoloration by sapstaining fungi reduces lumber value. In Canada, the most commonly recorded sapstaining fungi belong to the genera Ophiostoma. This work evaluated the effect that Ophiostoma piceae, Ophiostoma ainoae, and Ophiostoma piliferum used the lipids present in the sapwood of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Wood lipids, common...
Yong Gao, C Breuil


Annual Report 2013
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60357
IRG Secretariat


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