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IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley


Progress towards controlling soft rot of treated hardwood poles in Australia
1977 - IRG/WP 289
H Greaves


Field trials of groundline remedial treatments on soft rot attacked CCA treated Eucalyptus poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3222
A total of 17 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles, which were found to contain 2-5 mm of soft rot in October, 1980, were reinspected in October, 1982. In 1980, 11 of the poles were given a supplemental groundline bandage treatment of either Osmoplastic or Patox, while 6 of the poles were designated as untreated controls. Two years after remedial treatment, samples were removed from the poles for microscopic observations and for chemical retention analysis. It was found that the remedial bandage treatments were effective in preventing any further advance of soft rot. Based on the positive results of this study, a treatment efficacy of five years or longer is predicted.
W S McNamara, R J Ziobro, J F Triana


An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative.
C R Coggins


The effect of treatment method on CCA efficacy in Corsican pine
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3723
As part of a study into the influence of application method on preservative efficacy Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) samples (50 x 50 x 400 mm³) were treated with a CCA formulation using Bethel, Steam/Bethel or Lowry processes. Full penetration of the preservative at a gross level was confirmed using a copper disclosing reagent. The preservative was allowed to fix and then samples were converted into mini-blocks (30 x 10 x 5 mm³) to produce decay test samples from various locations within the larger samples. After leaching, sets of replicate mini-blocks were exposed to the decay fungi Coniophora puteana FPRL 11E, Coriolus versicolor FPRL 28A, and Chaetomium globosum FPRL S70K. Equivalent sets of leached blocks, were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine preservative concentration and balance. The results of this study have been used to assess the effect of preservative application method on CCA efficacy. They also indicate how treatment method affects the distribution of the active elements of the preservative throughout the treated wood.
P R Newman, R J Murphy


Long-term performance of a "wax" type additive for use with water-borne pressure preservative treatments
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40159
Field performance results are updated for matched CCA treated decking boards with and without an emulsion water repellent additive incorporated with the initial pressure treatment. Decks have been exposured for over 9 years in Harrisburg, NC. Boards were evaluated for in-service and laboratory performance for water repellent efficacy, as well as additive loadings in the boards after this exposure. All results support that these additives can provide long-term protection against many of the physical defects that develop in pressure treated wood during exposure.
A R Zahora


A laboratory soil-block decay evaluation of plywoods edge-treated with preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 2174
Preservative-treated plywood used under conditions or severe decay hazard frequently has its original, or cut edges, protected by the application of a field-cut preservative. This study uses a laboratory test method to compare the efficacy of four commercial preservative treatments against two commonly occurring brown-rot fungi. The results are not meant to indicate the service life of such treated plywood.
R S Smith, A Byrne


Preservatives treatment and field test monitoring of spruce pole stock: CCA and fumigant treatments
1990 - IRG/WP 3619
The fumigants trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin) and sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate (SNMDC) were used to treat red spruce pole stock, either CCA treated or untreated, through holes bored through the pole's center. The poles were analyzed for the presence of microorganisms immediately before ground installation and again after installation at a pole test site. Monitoring of fumigant movement in the poles was also performed after one year. Results indicate that both fumigants moved throughout the ground line regions of the poles, although less toxicity to the bioassay fungus was observed in the SNMDC treated poles. Reduced fumigant levels, and more sporadic diffusion was noted in the above ground portions of both chloropicrin and SNMDC treated poles although again chloropicrin exhibited greater toxicity to the bioassay fungus. Despite the variability of fumigant diffusion as determined by bioassay, no decay fungi could be isolated from the treated poles after one year. This was in contrast to high frequency isolation of decay from control poles.
A J Pendlebury, B Goodell


Potential toxicants for controlling soft rot in preservative treated hardwoods. Part 4: Evaluation of combined diffusion and toxicity
1979 - IRG/WP 2129
A large number of inorganic and organic preservatives were evaluated as potential soft rot control chemicals, by their degree of inhibition of fungal growth after allowing them to diffuse through a 6 mm thick wood slab. The tests were inoculated with wood powder from soft-rotted CCA treated poles. Pentachlorophenol was unable to diffuse quickly through the wood slab, although formulations with hexylene glycol showed some promise. Hydroxyisoxazole gave good results as did a number of other organic materials including "Busan 30", "Busan 52", "Permapruf T", sodium oxinate, sodium trichlorophenate, "Gloquat C", „Hyamine 1622", butyl icinol, and the commercial bandage materials "Osmoplast" and "Wolman pole bandage". Of the inorganic materials tested, good results were obtained with "Basilit BFB", with other Cu-F-B formulations including "Blue 7", and with fluoroborate and fluorosilicate preparations in general. Arsenates also showed some promise.
E W B Da Costa, O Collett


Sap displacement treatment of utility poles in Papua New Guinea
1977 - IRG/WP 3102
Rapid growth of rural electrification in P.N.G. has created a considerable demand for treated poles. In the past power lines have been run on steel poles but the Government of P.N.G. is now seeking to make maximum use of the country's own resources rather than continue to rely upon imported materials such as steel poles. To some extent, this demand is being met by expansion of existing vacuum pressure treatment plants and there are plans to install plants in new locations. However, current demands cannot be met by facilities planned for the future and use had to be made of alternative systems of treatment available for immediate application. The most pressing requirement was for some three hundred transmission poles to run (some 35 kilometres) between Keravat and Rabaul in the East New Britain Province. Poles, harvested from a plantation of Eucalyptus deglupta about 20 years old were to be of the following demensions: Length: 16 to 23 m; Girth at Ground Line: 1360 to 1650 mm;Girth at Top: 900 to 1120 mm; Butt to Ground Line: 2300 to 3200 mm.
C R Levy


Effect of treatment process on performance of copper-chrome-arsenate. Part 2: Field stake tests
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40046
Pinus radiata sapwood stakes 20 x 20 x 400 mm³ were treated with CCA Type C using a range of concentrations and three treatment processes; Bethell, Lowry and Rueping. Preservative retention was determined by chemical analysis of treated material. Following fixation stakes were installed in a randomised plot in the Whaka graveyard located on the FRI campus. Stakes were inspected at yearly intervals using AWPA M-10 standard procedure. After 5 years' exposure performance was strongly correlated with preservative retention expressed either as copper retention or total element (Cu+Cr+As) retention. Treatment process had very little effect on performance and confirmed results obtained from similar material exposed in fungus cellar tests. Implications of these results for commercial treatment operations are discussed.
M E Hedley, J Anderson, J B Foster, B E Patterson


The multi-phase pressure (MPP) process. One stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process - Concepts proved by repetitive pilot plant treatments
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40079
Twenty-four charges of radiate pine roundwood or sawn timber were treated using the MPP Process and hot CCA solution. Treated timber met the CCA retention and penetration requirements of the NZ Timber Preservation Council for Hazard Classes H3 to H5. The objectives of the trials were: (1) To "stress" CCA solution by repetitive heating, treating and cooling to determine its stability in the process; (2) to determine any effects of pre-drying regimes on the standard of treatment; (3) to determine the extent of fixation influenced by various treatment variables. At the finish of the trials, the working solution was clear with no propensity to sludging. Preservative element ratios remained constant throughout the trials. Wood moisture content at the time of treatment had, not unexpectedly, most effect on degree of fixation achieved. Kickback liquid contamination with residual CCA and organic carbon was greater when wood moisture contents were high.
A J Pendlebury, J A Drysdale, K Nasheri, H Pearson, M E Hedley


A study on the pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence posts with CCA preservatives. Part 1
1988 - IRG/WP 3470
This paper describes the impregnation with CCA preservatives by full-cell process of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts. Several treatments were made for different times of initial vacuum and treating pressure, with fence-posts from two coppice plantations (1st and 2nd rotations), assembled into three diameter classes: small, medium, large. The results concerning the absorption and lateral penetration of the product reveal that impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus though difficult is often possible. The highest average values were recorded in the small diameters, yet the standard deviation in all three classes is quite remarkable. Moreover fence-posts from the 1st rotation stand show a better behaviour with the treatment. There seems to be no significant correlation between absorption and initial vacuum or treating pressure times.
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, L Nunes


Effects of surfactants and ultrasonic energy on the treatment of wood with chromated copper arsenate
1977 - IRG/WP 3108
Sugar pine stakes 1'' x 1" x 16" were treated by a hot-water bath followed by soaking in cold CCA solution for 10 to 30 minutes. A similar number of stakes were treated by a cold-cold bath. Half of the stakes were subjected to ultrasonic energy during the CCA bath. The mean absorption for stakes given the hot-cold bath was 18.52 pcf (297 kg/m³) and 4.64 pcf (74 kg/m³) for those given the cold-cold bath. The rates of absorption were o.323 pcf (5 kg/m³) per minute and 0.053 pcf (0.85 kg/m³) per minute, respectively. The relationship between absorption in pounds per cubic foot (Y) and soaking time in minutes (X); Y = 12.27+0.323 X, was linear and significant. The linear relationship for the cold-cold treatment was poor (r = 0.305). Neither ultrasonic energy, nor its interaction with soaking time, had a significant effect on solution absorption for either the hot-cold or cold-cold treatments. In a second series, the stakes were treated in the CCA solution with a 3-minute dip, a 48-hour cold soak, and Lowry pressure. Half of the stakes were treated in the solution to which a surfactant had been added. The interacting effect of surfactant and method of treatment was significant. The highest absorption was obtained when the specimens were treated with the solution containing the surfactant by the Lowry method, 35.13 pcf (563 kg/m³). In comparison, the absorption was 22.55 pcf (361 kg/m³), 36 percent lower, when surfactant was not used. The surfactant had a beneficial effect on the results of the 3-minute dip, but not the 48-hour soak.
C S Walters


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 1: Treatment of reference samples
1977 - IRG/WP 426
It was agreed in Wildhaus on 15 May 1976 that preparations for the test detailed in Document No: IRG/WP/414 should commence immediately, but that initially only two water-borne preservatives should be used - a copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) and a copper/chrome/boron (CCB) formulation respectively. PRL, England (R Cockcroft) would be responsible for supplying samples of the reference timbers treated with CCA and Dr Wolman GmbH, Federal Republic of Germany (W O Schulz) for supplying samples of the reference timbers treated with CCB. Untreated samples of the reference timbers would be supplied at the same time. Samples of the two wood preservatives have been kindly supplied for the test by Hickson's Timber Products Ltd, UK and Dr Wolman GmbH.
R Cockcroft, T B Dearling, W O Schulz, H V Borck


Treatment details for the field experiment to determine the performance of preservative treated hardwoods with particlar reference to soft rot
1977 - IRG/WP 384
These notes are compiled to complement and supplement Document No: IRG/WP/367 which described the plan for the treatment of the stakes, using a CCA preservative, for the field experiment. This document gives extra details of the treatment characteristics of the different timber species and as such may give IRG members useful information on the sapwood permeability of a range of hardwoods. The report may also be useful when planning further trials in this investigation when the performance of stakes treated with other preservatives is examined.
F W Brooks, M R Gayles


An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper/chrome/arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3180
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. The growth characteristics of spruces (Picea spp) make them attractive candidates for forestry schemes. In 1975 the UK Forestry Commission had about 400 000 hectares, about 20% of total UK forest area, planted with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). As an example of the situation in Scandinavia, the growing stock in Sweden consists of about 45% Norway spruce (Picea abies), 38% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and the remainder hardwoods. The importance of spruce as a source of sawn timber in Europe is clear and we are investigating methods of improving the treatment of this timber. As part of the investigation we have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative.
C R Coggins


Durability of Bamboos in India against termites and fungi and chemical treatments for its enhancement
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10553
Bamboo is a very important forest resource that benefits the life of people in a myriad ways including meeting the need for structural uses like posts, pole fencing, scaffoldings, house building, etc. Although it is one of the strongest structural material available, often succumbs to fungal decay and biodeterioration by insects (termites and powder post beetles) during storage and usage. Studies were undertaken on the natural durability of some selected bamboo species against termites in the field condition and against decay under accelerated laboratory conditions. Also the efficacy of CCA treatment by two methods of applications and two organosphosphorous, three synthetic pyrethroid insecticides and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) were evaluated for enhancing the durability of bamboo against subterranean termites. The studies indicated that the durability of different species varied greatly and flowered bamboos more durable than nonflowered bamboos against termites and fungi. Boucherie process of treatment with CCA was found more effective than sap displacement method. Among the insecticides evaluated Chlorpyriphos was found most effective in enhancing the durability. The findings were discussed in the present communication.
O K Remadevi, R Muthukrishnan, H C Nagaveni, R Sundararaj, G Vijayalakshmi


Potential toxicants for controlling soft rot in preservative treated hardwoods. Part 1: Laboratory screening tests using a filter paper technique
1977 - IRG/WP 290
Thirty-one miscellaneous formulations have been screened using a filter paper assay technique, for their efficacy in controlling the growth of Chaetomium globosum, Cephalosporium acremonium, and a mixed inoculum of finely ground soft-rotted wood obtained from preservative treated transmission poles. The formulations consisted of various organic compounds and inorganic preparations made from different salts of the active elements copper, fluorine, boron and arsenic. The most effective toxicants were P. C. M. C., Busan 52, Busan 30, Difolatan, Spergon, and a Cu-F-B formulation. The toxicants with most potential for controlling soft rot in the standing pole, i. e., those which have known diffusing ability when applied as remedial in situ treatments, include Cu-F-B formulation no. 19, cupric proprionate, Cu-F-B formulation no. 15, ammonium bifluoride + arsenic pentoxide (no. 4) and a third Cu-F-B formulation (no. 18). Discussion of synergistic effects of admixtures of active ingredients is presented.
H Greaves


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. Results of chemical and microbiological analyses 6 months after treatment
1986 - IRG/WP 3388
CCA-treated poles in service with incipient internal soft rot were remedially treated by inserting borate rods, brushing with a boron/glycol solution and injecting boric acid paste, copper/creosote paste or a commercial product (DFCK paste). The spread of active chemicals in the treated zone as well as the change in microflora have been studied with time. After six months chemicals had spread to most parts of the pole in the ground-line zone and the microflora had been changed - in some cases drastically. The test is still in progress. Chemical and microbiological analyses after 12, 28 and 60 months will be published at a later date.
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


Preservative treatment and field test monitoring of spruce pole stock: Pressure and diffusible chemical treatments
1990 - IRG/WP 3605
One hundred and forty four spruce (test species) and southern yellow pine (reference species) poles were variously treated by center boring, incising, or kerfing, followed by pressure treatment with CCA and/or diffusible preservatives. The diffusible preservatives included NaF/creosote, borax and ammonium bifluoride. The poles were set at a test site and evaluated for preservative distribution and fungal invasion after one year of exposure. A narrow incising pattern was needed to obtain adequate CCA penetration even when a 'pulsation' pressure treatment schedule was used. Of the internally applied diffusible preservatives, both borax and ammonium bifluoride were found to diffuse successfully throughout the groundline region of the spruce pole stock. This treatment prevented invasion of decay fungi into the poles. A low incidence of fungal attack was observed in the CCA treated spruce that had been kerfed but not additionally treated with diffusible preservatives. Although additional years data are needed to make definitive recommendations, protection of spruce poles appears to be achievable through the use of either kerfing, or diffusible chemical treatment, in incised/CCA pressure treated stock.
B Goodell, A J Pendlebury


Termites in Uruguay; control, prevention and environment
1991 - IRG/WP 1474
When Prof. La Fage's questionaire on termites was received by 1987, few were aware of termite damage in Uruguay and infestations were not much reported. Further contacts between scientists, operators and homeowners, are now shaping the real threat of termite attack. Before letting the problem faIl in the hands of the layman, with all ist environmental risks, it seemed reasonable to: 1) review termite research carried out by Dr. Ana Aber and 2) comment by Ing. Agr. Gustavo Baillod on methods of wood protection from termites, from a practical environmental standpoint.
A Aber, G Baillod


Performance of different treatments and finishes on wood out of ground contact. Preliminary results
1984 - IRG/WP 2221
Pinus and Eucalyptus L-joints treated with CCA, a water dispersable PCP and untreated ones were painted according to seven different finish's schedules and exposed at two sites in State of Sao Paulo. After ten months of exposure, it was possible to verify that preservative treatment improve the performance of both wood and finish. It was also possible to observe that wood substrate, preservative treatment, kind of finish and site of exposure had a great influence on finishes' surface colonization by both algae and mould fungi.
S Milano


The treatment of Douglas fir fence posts: specification and compliance using new European standards
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20178
New European standards for the preservative pre-treatment of timber require the results of the treatment process to be specified and subsequently verified by examination of the treated timber for penetration and retention of the preservative. For penetration, the standards are restrictive in that there are only a limited number of options available to the specifier. Thus for ground contact service, the appropriate option is full sapwood penetration. This paper describes a study in which the ability to meet a results specification for full sapwood penetration of Douglas fir fence posts with CCA was examined by treating 500 fence posts using a vacuum/high pressure process. When all treated fence posts were examined it was demonstrated that full sapwood penetration was not always possible. However, by applying different sampling systems linked to "acceptable quality levels" it was possible to develop an inspection scheme that ensured that batches of fence posts treated to the best achievable level were accepted under a full sapwood penetration specification. However, it was demonstrated that such a system would also allow some sub-standard batches to be accepted.
R J Orsler, H Derbyshire


Disproportionate absorption of different constituents of CCA salts
1988 - IRG/WP 3484
Results of preliminary experiments carried out to study selective absorption of different constituents of CCA salts and sludge formation in commercial treatment, using Terminalia myriocarpa and Pinus kesia timbers, are reported in this paper. The objective of these experiments is to evolve simple and practical methods to prevent/minimise sludge formation and differential absorption of the constituents of the preservative in commercial treatments, without affecting the efficacy of the treatment. The results so far obtained indicate that there is disproportionate depletion of the constituents of CCA with successive charges. Further detailed investigations are in progress to study these aspects to evolve guidelines to ensure better quality control in commercial treatments. As per current practices the different ingredients of the preservative have to be replenished as and when necessary.
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee


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