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Field Test Results after Nine Years for CCA and ACQ Preservative-treated Wood Fixed in Different Climates
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30303
During assessment of the ground contact stakes in the Norwegian test field, we have frequently found that the first visual rot attack is in the zone of the stakes, where the stakes have been in contact with each other during the fixation. These parts are usually light green, caused by the lack of light during fixation, compared to the rest of the stake surface, which has a darker colour. To inves...
F G Evans


Fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative in Australian hardwoods: A comparison of three Eucalyptus species
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30107
New environmental guidelines for the management of CCA treatment plants were released in Australia in 1995. This has stimulated interest in techniques for controlling or accelerating the fixation of CCA in freshly treated timber products. The ability to understand, then effectively control and/or accelerate fixation of CCA in treated timber products can be an economic, technical and environmental ...
J Holmes


Kinetics and mechanism of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives. Part 5: Effect of wood species and preservative composition on the leaching during storage
1975 - IRG/WP 354
Conversion reactions during storage of CCA treated wood take place even at and below the fiber saturation point as long as ion transport is possible. Increase in drying temperature increases the final pH of the treated wood and the leachability of Cu and decreases slightly the leachability of Cr, while the leachability of As is not affected. This temperature effect is considered to be of no techni...
S-E Dahlgren


Waterborne preservative treatability of tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K.Koch)
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40112
Eastern larch or tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K.Koch) lumber from New Brunswick, Canada was evaluated for preservative treatability with chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C) and ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA). The fixation and leaching characteristics of CCA-C treated tamarack sapwood and heartwood were also evaluated. CCA-C penetration into both sapwood and heartwood was poor. ACA fully penet...
A Taylor, Y T Ung, P A Cooper


Studies of the mechanism of chromated-copper preservative. Fixation using electron spin resonance
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3701
Two softwoods and one hardwood species were treated with chromium trioxide, copper sulphate, chromated-copper wood preservative (CCA). The treated wood samples were analyzed during fixation by electron spin resonance (ESR). ESR spectra indicated that more than one Cr(V) species was generated from Cr(VI) soon after CCA treatment. The Cr(V) signal became strong within increased several hours followe...
K Yamamoto, J N R Ruddick


The multi-phase pressure (MPP) process. One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process - The process as a new concept in preservative treatment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40078
The background to current commercial CCA treatment schedules used in New Zealand and fixation processing is reviewed. The limitations of these conventional practices with respect to treated product quality and CCA solution handling issues are defined. A novel, patented treatment schedule has been developed using a combination of hydraulic and pneumatic pressure phases and hot (~ 75°C) CCA solutio...
K Nasheri, A J Pendlebury, J A Drysdale, H Pearson, M E Hedley


Examination of preservative-treated Pinus sylvestris using electron paramagnetic resonance
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3710
EPR is currently being used to help elucidate the nature and extent of the chemical reactions occurring between wood and copper based timber preservatives. In the work reported here treated Scots pine samples were examined at room temperature and in the frozen state. Plots of the electronic parameters A|| vs. g|| were found to be a useful index of the electronic properties of the various formulati...
A S Hughes, R J Murphy, J F Gibson, A J Cornfield


Preservative leaching from copper-chrome-arsenic treated timber: Towards an international standard for environmental monitoring
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50076
A review of standards and legislative requirements around the world relating to environmental contamination from copper-chrome-arsenic wood preservative indicates a plethora of methodologies for expressing and determining contamination levels. The imposition of arbitrary quarantine periods for treated timber, or special fixation processes, appear to be applied without a rational analysis of what l...
S Walley, P R S Cobham, P Vinden


Experimental variations in the distribution of CCA preservative in lignin and holocellulose as a function of treating conditions (temperature, concentration, pH, species, and time)
1984 - IRG/WP 3277
The exact distributions between lignin and holocellulose and retentions on wood of copper, chromium and arsenic as a function of various sets of conditions in a 3x3x4x2 factorial experiment in which combinations of three temperatures of treatment, three CCA solution concentrations, four pH's of the initial CCA solution and two timber species, namely Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus grandis, a...
A Pizzi, E Orovan, M Singmin, A Jansen, M C Vogel


Chromated copper arsenate preservative treatment of hardwoods. Part 1: CCA fixation performance of seven North american hardwoods
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30131
There has been an increased interest in utilisation of hardwoods from eastern North America for exterior applications which require protection with preservatives such as CCA. We have examined CCA fixation at two selected temperatures of seven common North American species: red maple (Acer rubrum L.,), white birch (Betula papyrifera ), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), trembling aspen (Po...
T Stevanovic-Janezic, P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Comparative Laboratory Leaching Test Methods to Study Post-Treatment Storage Period Impacts on CCA Leachability and Fixation in Treated Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) Heartwood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20376
Three laboratory leaching test methods were compared to determine the effects of different post-treatment storage fixation periods on leachability/fixation of CCA components from treated kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) permeable heartwood. End-sealed test wood blocks of permeable were treated with CCA to target retention of 5.6 kg/m3, immediately stored to fix at ambient conditions for 0 and 48 ho...
A H H Wong, H C Lai


Manual of a mini treating plant for waterborne preservative treatment of timber and bamboo
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40130
This contributional article includes machinaries and equipments necessary for a small wood treating plant for the pressure treatment of tim bers with waterborne preservatives along with the cost and design. The preservative treatment limitations, treatment schedules and specifications for different products have been described. The cost of a mini treating plant will be 6,00,000 Tk. (13,000 US$), s...
A K Lahiry


Collaborative soft rot tests: PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1973 - IRG/WP 223
These tests were undertaken as a preliminary to the next series of collaborative soft rot tests. An interim report has already been presented at Berlin in 1972 as Document No: IRG/WP/211...
J K Carey, J G Savory


Fire resistance of preservative treated fence posts
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30033
Pine fence posts were pressure treated separately with CCA-C, CCA-wax, CCA-oil and creosote. Treated posts and untreated controls were planted in the ground in a randomised block design, weathered for six months and then subjected to a controlled burning test using two fuel loads. Creosote treatment increased the time that posts were alight whereas CCA treatment had no such effect. However, CCA tr...
P D Evans, P J Beutel, C F Donnelly, R B Cunningham


Application of radio frequency heating to accelerate fixation of CCA in treated round-wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40133
The potential of radio frequency heating to accelerate the fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in treated round-wood was assessed. Pre-dried Douglas-fir and western red cedar round-wood sections were pressure treated with CCA in a pilot plant retort, after which they were placed individually in a pilot radio frequency (RF) chamber. Based upon the color reaction of chromotropic acid with he...
Fang Fang, J N R Ruddick


Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50...
H Willeitner, K Brandt


Inspection results of preservative treated stakes, maximum 33 years in field
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3690
Since in 1958, we have undertaken field experiments in Japan. For these field experiments, we used sapwoods of Japanese cedar called Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) because of majority of plantation forest soft wood species in Japan. For some preservatives, we added sapwood of Japanese beech called Buna (Fagus crenata), a main Japanese hard wood species. Dimensions of these specimens were 30 x 30 x 60...
K Suzuki, K Yamamoto, M Inoue, S Matsuoka


An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative....
C R Coggins


Conforming to european standards for preservative-treated timber: Specifying with confidence
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20194
A four-year collaborative study between four industrial partners and BRE has assessed timber treated by current UK industrial practices in the light of current European Standards. Data were collected for CCA and creosote treated timber components, and compared with the requirements laid out in EN351-1 and -2. A number of difficulties were encountered that have been described in previous IRG papers...
E D Suttie, R J Orsler


Radical changes in the requirements for more safe pressure impregnation in the Nordic countries in 1988
1990 - IRG/WP 3581
After introduction of quality control schemes and standards in the Nordic countries during the seventies, the first radical change of the standards and practice of work took place after pressure from the labor unions and authorities in 1988 and 1989 in Denmark and in Sweden. A new class of preservation with less retention for out of ground contact use was introduced, fixation times were prolonged ...
B Moldrup


Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is d...
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton


Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slice...
A K Lahiry


IRG test of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report on condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1982 - IRG/WP 3207
J Beesley


A discussion of current theories concerning CCA fixation
1983 - IRG/WP 3238
The understanding of the fixation mechanism of CCA and related preservatives in wood has been greatly improved by a significant series of recent scientific papers. In view of recent concerns in New Zealand regarding the long-term efficacy of CCA in high decay-hazard situations, it was considered appropriate to review this recent work and to contrast it with theories presented by previous workers....
D V Plackett


Collaborative soft rot tests: Interim report on PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1972 - IRG/WP 211
Preservative: Tanalith CT.106 - Results obtained with beech are given in the table and indicate a toxic limit of 16.7-19.2 kg/m³ - The initial soil moisture content was adjusted to 27.8% (the water holding capacity). Noticeable drying out has occurred in some of the test bottles....
J G Savory


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