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Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones that may promote its re-use. Inside this approach, the electrodialytic process (ED) seems a promising technique for removal of preservative chemicals from treated wood waste. The method uses a direct electric current and its effects in the matrix as the “cleaning agent”, combining the electrokinetic movement (mainly due to electromigration, but also electro-osmosis and electrophoresis), with the principle of electrodialysis. This work reports results from the application of the electrodialytic process to an out-of-service Portuguese creosote and CCA-treated Pinus pinaster Ait. railway sleeper and pole. The behaviour of the process is described and the main results discussed. The average removal rate, estimated in accordance with prEN 12490, for creosote from treated timber waste was around 40 %.. For CCA treated timber waste, experimental conditions that could optimise the process efficiency (e.g. current density, time) were studied. The highest removal rates obtained until now, in our studies, were 93 % of Cu, 95 % of Cr and 99 % of As for sawdust using 2.5 % oxalic acid (w/w) as the assisting agent. For CCA treated wood waste in the form of chips, the best removal rates obtained until now were 84 % of Cu, 91 % of Cr and 97 % of As.
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen

Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6.4 kg/m3 (0.4 pcf), coupled with complete termite mortality, demonstrates that the mode of action of CCA treatments relies upon toxicity rather than having any repellent effects against termites.
J K Grace

Application of radio frequency heating to accelerate fixation of CCA in treated round-wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40133
The potential of radio frequency heating to accelerate the fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in treated round-wood was assessed. Pre-dried Douglas-fir and western red cedar round-wood sections were pressure treated with CCA in a pilot plant retort, after which they were placed individually in a pilot radio frequency (RF) chamber. Based upon the color reaction of chromotropic acid with hexavalent chromium and the quantitative assessment using diphenyl carbazide, fixation was achieved in less than 6 hours. During heating, the temperature at various locations inside the pole sections was monitored by fiber-optic thermocouples. The moisture profiles before, and after fixation, were also recorded. Further studies will examine other benefit of RF heating, including a) sterilization, and b) rapid drying of round-wood with minimum check formation.
Fang Fang, J N R Ruddick

Effect of water repellents on leaching from CCA treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50044
CCA treated fence boards brushed with a water repellent finish had consistently lower leaching losses of all CCA components compared to the rate for matched samples without the water repellent. These results are after 12 cycles of simulated rainfall in the laboratory (1800 mm rainfall total) and four months of natural rain exposure in Toronto.
P A Cooper, R MacVicar

Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is due to differences in methodology employed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the seawater used (e.g. temperature, salinity, pH and oxygen content) affect emission rate. So too do the specifics of the treatment process especially the preservative formulation used, and pre- and post-treatment handling of the wood. The nature of the treated wood samples is also important, with misleadingly high estimates being obtained from samples with unrepresentatively high proportions of cross-cut surfaces. A suggested strategy for developing an informative and standardised methodology is discussed. To form useful models of impacts of leaching, emission rates need to be considered in conjunction with site-specific information regarding a) water exchange rates between the area where leaching occurs and the sea, and b) the extent of partitioning of leachate between the water column, biota and sediment. The risk of environmental impact may be reduced by modification to treatment procedures and by careful planning of installation.
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton

Preservative-treated wood as a component in the recovered wood stream in Europe – A quantitative and qualitative review
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50218
Wood preservatives have been used for the protection of timber products in the European market in appreciable quantities for about 100 years. Between the 1960s up to the present day this usage has been particularly noticeable. The aim of this paper is to present quantitative and qualitative data on the volumes of preservative treated wood placed on the market in the UK and Sweden and to evaluate the expected quantities of preservative treated wood coming out of service and into the ‘recovered’ wood stream in the future. Data are presented from a case-study in the UK on CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) treated timber and projections on likely amounts of this entering the recovery stream up to 2061. It is estimated that in the UK in 2001 approximately 62,000m3 of CCA-treated wood required disposal and that this could rise to about 870,000m3 by 2061. The proportion of CCA-treated timber in all post consumer waste wood in the UK is predicted to rise from about 0.9% in 2001, to about 12.3% in 2061 representing a substantial component of the post-consumer wood stream. In Sweden statistics have been compiled for production of preservative treated wood for many years. The preservatives used for waterborne treatments have also changed significantly over the last 10 years from a dominant role for CCA to alternative, As-free systems. It is estimated that preservative treated wood will represent on average about 5% of the recovered wood flow in Sweden over the next 25-30 years and that this will represent an appearance of about 8000 tonnes of As, 7000 tonnes of Cu and 6500 tonnes of Cr. These data and the possible disposal options for CCA and similar treated wood are considered in a life-cycle thinking context.
R J Murphy, P Mc Quillan, J Jermer, R-D Peek

Performance results of wood treated with CCA-PEG
1986 - IRG/WP 3363
The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the CCA system has been shown to reduce the surface hardness of poles and ease spur penetration during climbing. This paper addresses the results of tests dealing with preservative retention and penetration, permanence of CCA and PEG, strength, drying rate, and checking characteristics.
W P Trumble, E E Messina

The Phase Out of CCA in the United States
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50194
In mid-February, 2002 the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Christine Todd Whitman, announced that the US treated wood industry will have until the end of December 2003 to end residential uses for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA). Industrial uses of CCA will still be allowed after the December 2003 date. This paper explores the events that led up to the announcement by the US EPA Administrator.
J D Schert

An introduction to environmental aspects of groundwater arsenic and CCA treated wood poles in Bangladesh
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50081
The environment comprises biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Therefore, environmental science is a multi-disciplinary study, includes life sciences, physical sciences, chemical sciences, geology, geography, meteorology, forestry, agriculture, soil science, hydrology, ecology, public health, engineering etc. Tremendous industrial and mining activities, deforestation and population explosion are threatening the very existence of life on earth.Groundwater is used for irrigation, drinking and other domestic purposes where other sources of water are not plenty. Groundwater contain different metals resulting from soluble minerals, deposited in ground during its origin. Thus concentration of metals in surface soils and water are increased day by day by lifting of groundwater. Surface soils and water also receive metals from industries and mines and as a result of multipurpose use of products from those. Deforestation is controlled by plantation and preservation of forest products by different wood preservatives. Recently groundwater in some underground rocks of Tertiary and Quarternary age in Bangladesh is very often known to contain arsenic (As) above permissible limits . On the other hand chromated copper arsenate (CCA) impregnated wooden poles has been used for rural electrification in Bangladesh since 1979. It is an attempt to find out through research and review of literatures that whether the groundwater As is contaminatable from As used in wood poles and whether the components of CCA cause environmental problems. Possible way of purification of arsenic containing groundwater for drinking have been suggested.
A K Lahiry

Inorganic wood preservative levels in soil near a noise barrier treated with different preservatives after 8 years in service
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50234
In March 1996 nine test sections of a noise barrier were installed near Stockholm Sweden. The test sections include untreated Scots pine, spruce and larch and Scots pine, treated with different wood preservatives. After 8 years in service, the untreated spruce, pine and larch boards in contact with the soil were significantly decayed, with an estimated service life of about 5-10 years, while the untreated wood above ground is stained but not visibly decayed. Some degradation was detected in wood in soil contact for some of the preserved pine sections treated to AB levels (i.e. use class 3, above ground). Soil samples were collected at three horizontal distances from the barriers (0, 7 and 14 cm) with the 7 cm sample representing the drip line under a protective wedge designed to keep water out of the joints. Samples were collected at two depths representing groundline and the depth of the barrier in the soil (7.5 – 13 cm) and directly under the barrier. Soil samples collected after 8 years showed highest contaminant levels close to the barrier and under the wedge dripline. Arsenic levels in some locations close to CCA treated panels exceeded Swedish and Canadian soil guidelines for agricultural use and copper levels were above residential/park guidelines for some locations near ACQ and Tanalith MCB treated panels.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, M-L Edlund, J Jermer, O Söderström

The leachability, biological resistance, and mechanical properties of wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) treated with CCA and CCB preservatives
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30207
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens treated with CCA and CCB preservative solutions (1.0%) were subjected to several fixation processes and leached elements from the specimens were determined. In addition, the specimens exposed to different fixation temperatures were subjected to soil-block test using two brown-rot fungi and one white-rot fungus in order to investigate the effects of fixation temperature on the biological performance of treated wood. The effects of preservative treatment and subsequent redrying at temperatures of 20°C and 70°C on the bending strength, MOE (modulus of elasticity), and impact bending strength of small, clear specimens treated with CCA. At 20°C and high moisture contents and also with steaming, leaching rate of the components decreased. In addition, the specimens treated with CCB and conditioned at 20°C/32-100% RH (relative humidity) conditions, the percent elements leached were less than those in the specimens treated with CCA and also the rate of fixation increased significantly in the CCB-treated specimens. In the CCA treatments, the weight losses by Gloeophyllum trabeum and Postia placenta fungi were more than 5% with the fixation methods such as ovendrying at 120°C, and steaming at 80°C for 60 and 90 minutes while with the other fixation methods, the weight losses obtained were less than 5%. At redrying temperatures of 20 and 70°C, CCA had no significant negative effect on the bending strength, MOE, and impact bending strength properties of the specimens.
S N Kartal

Elimination of alternative explanations for the effect of iron on treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30006
Amounts of iron which had previously been found in stakes removed from ground contact reduced decay of untreated wood by four brown-rot fungi. This suggested that the effect of iron may be on the preservative. Analysis of the leachates from CCA- and ACA-treated wood blocks first exposed to rusting iron, then to a brown-rot fungus, showed that the increased decay found in the laboratory for wood exposed to iron was not due to enhanced leaching of the preservative.
P I Morris, J K Ingram, D L Gent

Report on marine borer attack on some timbers treated with CCA wood preservative and exposed for three months in sea-water
1985 - IRG/WP 4112
Destruction of timbers by marine borers has long been a problem for the coastal population of Thailand. The use of heavy durable timbers with frequent maintenance, or total replacement, is the only solution for fishermen with their fishing craft or marine installations, meanwhile wharves or other large scale constructions are usually made by using concrete pilings or concrete casings. In recognition of the economic importance of the problem, the Faculty of Forestry with co-operation of the Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, has set up a preliminary investigation on the marine borer hazards to some timber species, treated and untreated, in order to gather basic information on the performance of test samples and also on the types of attacking organism involved.
A Rananand, W Yoosukh, U Sittiphuprasert

X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe.
H Greaves

Copper based water-borne preservatives: The biological performance of wood treated with various formulations
1987 - IRG/WP 3451
Wood samples treated with the various components of CCA preservative singly and in combination were tested against a soft rot organism, a copper tolerant brown rot organism and in soil burial both unleached and after leaching. The results suggest that, of the elements tested, fixed copper is essential for preventing soft rot attack and fixed arsenic is essential for preventing attack by a copper tolerant brown rot organism in leaching environments.
S M Gray, D J Dickinson

The variation in electrical resistance in the CCA-treated wood during the fixation
1989 - IRG/WP 3554
The curve commonly used in Scandinavia for describing the fixation period at different temperatures for CCA-impregnated wood is based on investigation by Dahlgren on the pH-variations in a mixture of sawdust and preservative solution. As far as we know there is no such investigation on solid wood. We have therefore measured the electrical resistance in CCA-treated solid wood to see if this will differ according to the different ion consentrations that are in the wood during the fixation process. Our investigation shows that the electrical resistance in the CCA-treated wood varies. At first the resistance will increase, then it will decrease and at last stabilize at a higher ohm-value than in the start. This variation may describe the fixation in the wood and perhaps be used to measure the fixation time at different temperatures for solid, impregnated wood.
F G Evans, B Nossen

CCA component distribution in the heartwood of treated lodgepole pine and white spruce
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30173
As part of a comprehensive study on the influence of drying on heartwood permeability, the distribution of copper, chromium and arsenic (CCA) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss.) heartwood was examined with light microscopy. Stained microtomed sections were examined to determine the penetration pathway for the CCA. The microscopic observations revealed clear differences in the distribution of the various components in the various cells in the CCA treated wood, particularly those associated with ray cells and resin canals. At the limit of CCA penetration, it was clear from the intensities of the staining in the section, that the ray cells and resin canals were primary avenues solution penetration to the tracheids. Higher levels of components of CCA were observed associated with the resin canals and ray cells than with the tracheids.
Y An, J N R Ruddick, P I Morris

Field Test Results after Nine Years for CCA and ACQ Preservative-treated Wood Fixed in Different Climates
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30303
During assessment of the ground contact stakes in the Norwegian test field, we have frequently found that the first visual rot attack is in the zone of the stakes, where the stakes have been in contact with each other during the fixation. These parts are usually light green, caused by the lack of light during fixation, compared to the rest of the stake surface, which has a darker colour. To investigate if light on the stakes during fixation can affect the durability of the treated wood, we started a test in 1993. CCA and ACQ treated stakes were tested according to EN 252. The stakes were treated with two retentions of each salt. One according to the Nordic Class A (for ground contact i.e. hazard class 4) and one lower retention (25 % of the class A retention. This is even lower than the Nordic class AB (HC 3) retention). Before exposure they were fixed in 7 different climates: 1) Normal fixation = 60 % RH and 25 °C, light days, dark nights for 7 days, 2) Dark fixation = normal fixation without light for 7 days, 3) UV-light fixation = normal fixation with UV-light 24 hours for 7 days, 4) Hot fixation = 95 % RH and 90 °C for 2 hours, 5) Cold fixation = 50 % RH and 10 °C for 30 days, 6) Dry fixation = 10 % RH and 50 °C, for 24 hours, 7) Wrapped fixation = each stake packed in black plastic foil, 50 °C and without light for 24 hours. The colour of the ACQ stakes varied from light green to black, depending on the fixation climates. These different colours and the durability results after 5 years were reported at the 30th IRG meeting in 1999. The different fixation procedures give only small differences in durability/rot index after 9 years in field test. Hot, dry and wrapped fixations give ACQ a better durability than CCA in the Nordic class A retention. None of the ACQ stakes were rejected in the first 9 years, while the CCA stakes had a few rejected stakes after 8 and 9 years caused by sot-rot. For the low retention, ACQ gives a better durability than CCA for all fixation procedure, but both preservatives had several rejected stakes.
F G Evans

Fungal degradation of wood treated with metal-based preservatives. Part 2: Redox states of chromium
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10164
Concerns have arisen about the leaching of heavy metals from wood treated with metal-based preservatives, such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Of particular concern is the toxic redox state of chromium and arsenic in aging and decayed CCA-treated wood. Generally, hexavalent chromium is more toxic than trivalent chromium and trivalent arsenic is more toxic than pentavalent arsenic. The desired outcome from treating wood with CCA is total change of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and As(III) to As(V). As part of an on-going study to determine the fate of copper, chromium and arsenic during aging and decay of CCA-treated wood, we detected Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in situ in CCA-treated southern yellow pine lumber. The redox states of Cr were determined using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF). An SXRF microprobe was used to to detect Cr redox states by measuring X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The ratio of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) was determined (1) on the surface and interior of lumber two years after CCA treatment and (2) in lumber during decay by a CCA-tolerant fungus, Meruliporia incrassata TFFH-294. The XANES spectrum for Cr(VI) has a strong pre-edge feature that is not present in the spectrum for Cr(III). Only the Cr(III) XANES spectrum was detected on the surface and in the interior of the wood, indicating total reduction of Cr(VI). The XANES spectrum for Cr(III) was detected in wood after 12 week decay by Meruliporia incrassata TFFH-294, indicating that the fungus does not oxidize Cr(III) to Cr(VI) during the decay process. We are currently using XANES spectroscopy to detect and map in situ redox states of As in CCA-treated wood.
B Illman, S Bajt, T L Highley

Disposal of treated wood - Canada
1990 - IRG/WP 3563
It is estimated that treated wood removed from service each year in Canada contains about 16,000 tonnes of creosote, 1000 tonnes of pentachlorophenol and 245 tonnes of CCA or ACA. The amount of CCA treated wood for disposal is expected to increase more than ten-fold by the year 2020. At present, most treated wood is disposed of in landfills, burned (creosote only) or recycled as other products. Other approaches to reduction, reuse, recycling and disposal are discussed.
P A Cooper

Restriction for use and waste management for pressure treated wood - The current situation in Norway
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50175
The Norwegian Environmental Authorities have this winter sent out a draft on restrictions in production and use of heavy metals in preservative treated timber. If it is passed, it will lead to drastic changes in the use of preservatives in Norway from this autumn. The environmental authorities and the preservative industry are both at present discussing waste management for CCA and creosote treated wood.
F G Evans

Leaching of chromium and other cca components from wood-cement composites made with spent CCA treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50153
Wood cement composites are an attractive option for recycling spent treated wood, since the CCA treatment enhances the physical, mechanical and biological resistance properties of the composite. However, we have noted a higher than normal leaching of chromium from these products and this appears to result from conversion of some of the trivalent chromium to the more leachable and toxic hexavalent chromium from the trivalent chromium in the wood. The effects of hexavalent chromium reducer --FeSO4, the pH value of mixing water and different kinds of accelerators on the leaching properties of this composite were tested. Arsenic and copper components of CCA in treated wood were well fixed after mixed with cement. Although total chromium leaching amount was reduced greatly in the CCA treated wood-cement composite compared to CCA treated wood, more hexavalent chromium was detected from the leachate of the composite. Cr+6 leaching accounted for about 80% of the total chromium leaching. FeSO4 had a positive effect on decreasing chromium leaching amounts, especially when used in the board having more potentially leachable chromium. Reducing the pH value of mixing water decreased the total chromium leaching amount, but its effect on Cr+6 leaching was not significant. The leaching of Cr+6 and total chromium also depended on the accelerators used; boards with added CaCl2 showed less Cr+6 and total chromium leaching amounts, while Na2CO3 increased chromium leaching.
D Qi, P A Cooper

Experience with an industrial scale-up for the biological purification of CCA-treated wood waste
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50095
The biological purification of CCA-treated wood waste was tested in co-operation of the BFH and the Italian impregnation plant SoFoMe. Chipped poles were infested with the chromium and arsenic tolerant brown-rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii which can transform in the laboratory ca. 90% of the chromium and arsenic into watersoluble salts. These can be leached to 100-200 ppm residual metal content. The fermentation techniques tested will be described and the fermentation success as well as the possible use of the purified material will be discussed.
H Leithoff, R-D Peek

Ground contact performance of wood treated by the MSU process
1990 - IRG/WP 3609
Environmental concerns have prompted a renewed interest in accelerated fixation schemes for CCA-treated wood. Results from stake tests of southern pine (Pinus sp.) treated using a conventional Bethell cycle are compared with matched stakes treated using the MSU Process. The effects of adding boric acid to the preservative formulation are also discussed. Differences among test plots are discussed.
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, R W Landers

Disposal of Pressure Treated Wood in Construction and Demolition Debris Landfill
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50235
Pressure treated wood is often disposed in landfills in the US, very frequently in construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills. C&D debris disposal facilities in many states are not equipped with liner systems to protect underlying groundwater. In this paper, issues associated with the disposal of metal-containing treated wood in C&D debris landfills are discussed. C&D debris landfills can be biological active systems, dominated by the activity of sulfate reducing bacteria. The leachate is characterized by relatively low biodegradable organic compound concentrations, high salt concentrations, a neutral pH, and a moderately to strongly reducing environment. Simulated landfills containing CCA-treated wood often show relatively high concentrations of As and Cr, but only minimal concentrations of Cu. Cu-based preservatives such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) also show minimal copper leaching, suggesting that disposal of Cu-based wood preservatives posees minimal impact to groundwater from Cu leaching.
T G Townsend, B Dubey, J Jambeck, H M Solo-Gabriele

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