IRG Documents Database and Compendium


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Your search resulted in 148 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Preservation of two Indonesian timber species for marine environment purposes
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10079
This paper deal with the experiment of CCA full cell processed two non-durable Indonesian species for placed in the marine environment. 80 samples of 5 x 5 x 60 cm³ dried durian (Durio zibethinus) and mahogany (Swietenia mahagony) timber were CCA-full cell processed using 4 combination treatment of: without steaming; one hour steaming; 3% and 5% CCA solution concentration. 40 samples of them were...
P Permadi, I M Padlinurjaji, F Rasmita


Wood protection processes in the Asean countries
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40034
This paper presents the wood processing practices in the Asean countries composing Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand except Brunei. The development of wood preservation industry in these countries started as early as 1922 to 1960. As in other industrial countries, treatment pressure with creosote of utility poles, railway sleepers, and marine pilings are the prime commoditi...
F R Siriban


UV-microspectrophotometry of lignin and accessory compounds in wood cell walls of conifers
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20171
The distribution of lignin in the cell wall of conifer tracheids was determined by UV-VIS microspectro-photometer. Wood sections of one micron thickness were measured between the wavelength 240 and 700 nm. Spectral analyses revealed that the conifer lignin associated with the tracheid secondary wall and middle lamella is composed of guiacylpropane units which exhibit a characteristic UV absorption...
G Kleist, G Koch, J Bauch


Bioassays of extracts from scaly ash (Ganophyllum falcatum B1) against the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt)
1983 - IRG/WP 1206
Scaly ash, Ganophyllum falcatum B1. wood shavings were extracted by methanol, and fractionated with ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and water, and the anti-termitic properties of these materials bioassayed against the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Laboratory techniques were developed to overcome the problem of limited extractive materials. The results of the various bioas...
J R J French, J P Robinson, J W Creffield


Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 2: Laboratory fungal bioassays
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20204
Extracts from sawmill residues of the naturally durable white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla were tested for fungicidal activity in a series of laboratory bioassays. The effects of different extraction solvents, techniques and sources of material on the biocidal efficacy of the resultant extracts were evaluated. Soil jar decay tests were used initially however, contractual time constraints necess...
M A Powell, L M Stephens, L Francis, M J Kennedy


Evidence for wood cell wall degradation by the blue stain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10077
Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., a world wide ubiquitous polyfagus sapstain fungus, was found able to destroy the cell walls of birch fibres (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) but not Caribbean (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Barr. and Golf.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tracheids. The fungus caused characteristic erosion of fibre cell walls similar to soft rot type 2; destruction of the S1 - S2 int...
O Encinas, G F Daniel


Étude in vitro de la colonisation et de la dégradation structurale du bois d'aubier de Pin sylvestre par la Mérule: Serpula lacrymans Schum. ex Fr. S. F. Gray
1979 - IRG/WP 198
The degradation of Scots pine sapwood cell walls by Serpula lacrymans, a brown rot fungus, is observed after various periods of exposure from two weeks to twelve weeks. The observation by microscopy shows that the hyphae of Serpula rapidly invade the wood tissues as cell wall degradation starts. That deterioration is not gradual, it is observed to be very irregular as well within the whole of the ...
D Dirol


Formation of soft rot cavities in relation to concentric layers in wood fibre walls
1983 - IRG/WP 1185
A large number of timber species attacked by soft rot have been examined using light microscopy. The S2 layers in a large number of the timbers exhibited special structural features in the form of thin concentric layers. Several observations indicate that these layers may be characterised as "weak" zones by being more easily degradable than the surrounding wall layers. The chemical structure of th...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


The multi-phase pressure (MPP) process. One stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process - Concepts proved by repetitive pilot plant treatments
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40079
Twenty-four charges of radiate pine roundwood or sawn timber were treated using the MPP Process and hot CCA solution. Treated timber met the CCA retention and penetration requirements of the NZ Timber Preservation Council for Hazard Classes H3 to H5. The objectives of the trials were: (1) To "stress" CCA solution by repetitive heating, treating and cooling to determine its stability in the process...
A J Pendlebury, J A Drysdale, K Nasheri, H Pearson, M E Hedley


A study on the pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence posts with CCA preservatives. Part 1
1988 - IRG/WP 3470
This paper describes the impregnation with CCA preservatives by full-cell process of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts. Several treatments were made for different times of initial vacuum and treating pressure, with fence-posts from two coppice plantations (1st and 2nd rotations), assembled into three diameter classes: small, medium, large. The results concerning the absorption and lateral penetratio...
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, L Nunes


Changes in pore structure and cell wall volume in wood decayed by brown- and white-rot fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1501
Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) wood blocks were decayed by Postia (=Poria) placenta or Phanerochaete chrysosporium in soil-block cultures. Decay was terminated at various weight losses, and the pore volumes available to probes of various molecular weight and diameter were determined by the solute exclusion technique (Stone, J.E. and A.M. Scallan. 1968. Cellulose Chem. Technol. 2, 343-358.)....
D S Flournoy


Investigation of temperature effect on fixation of Celcure preservative (ACC) in beech (Fagus orientalis)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40200
In this research, the fixation speed of Celcure 2% (ACC) preservative salt, under temperature of 17°C, 27°C and 50°C, on intact and stained wood specimens of beech was investigated. For this purpose, blocks of wood with 5x5x7 cm dimensions were prepared and saturated with 2% ACC concentration by full-cell process. The specimens were put in three incubators at the above-mentioned temperatures. F...
A Karimi, M Ghorbani


Soft rot decay of Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10119
The heartwood of Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri), an East Malaysian timber species, is naturally durable due to its certain unique anatomical features and high content of extractives. The timber can tolerate years of exposure to hazardous conditions in ground contact and other situations without any significant loss in its strength. A few Belian transmission poles sampled from one locality in Saraw...
A H H Wong, A P Singh


Wood preservation using furanones derived from marine algae
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10506
Halogenated furanones that are analogues of natural compounds extracted from the red seaweed Delisea pulchra were examined in the laboratory for activity against termites and decay fungi. The furanones were found to have broad spectrum activity, some with solution strengths of 0.01% controlling Coptotermes acinaciformis in a filter paper trial, while 2% solutions impregnated into Pinus radiata blo...
L J Cookson, R de Nys, P Steinberg, N Chew


Microbial decay of an archaeological wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10053
A light and transmission electron microscopic investigation of an archaeological wood was undertaken to determine the cause of its deterioration. The wood came from a bulwark constructed in early 1100 in the lake Tingstäde Träsk on the island Gotland in Sweden. The samples of the wood, which was identified as Pinus sylvestris, were taken from a depth of 0.85 m below the bottom level. The wood wa...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Effect of treating process on efficacy of CCA in a laboratory decay test
1990 - IRG/WP 3628
Test samples of Pinus radiata sapwood measuring 40x40x500 mm³ were treated with a range of concentrations of the copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) formulation "Tanalith C" using Rueping (empty cell), Lowry (empty cell) and Bethell (full cell) treatment processes. Samples were then reduced to 40x40x7 mm³ test blocks and exposed to the decay fungus Coniophora puteana using an agar/block technique. Repl...
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, J G Van der Waals


Effect of microfibril orientation of bamboo cell wall on soft rot penetration hyphae
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10087
The effect of microfibrillar orientation of bamboo (Phyllostachys virideglaucescence) cell wall on the development of soft rot (Chaetomium globosum) penetration hyphae was investigated. It was found that the soft rot penetration hyphae normally followed the microfibril angle of the cell wall. Bamboo cell walls have alternating broad and narrow lamellae with different microfibrillar angles. The mic...
O Sulaiman, R J Murphy


Degradation features of waterlogged archaeological compression wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10258
The degradation characteristics of waterlogged archaeological compression wood excavated in South Korea were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Degradation of Pinus compression wood occurred mainly in the inner part of S2 layer. In contrast, the outer part of S2 layer remained relatively intact. CLSM and TEM showed the erosion type of ...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh


A study on the pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts with CCA preservatives. Part 2
1989 - IRG/WP 3514
This paper describes the second part of a study on pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts with CCA preservatives presented at the IRG 19th Meeting. Fence-posts of three diameter classes, were treated, considering only one treatment schedule. The results show possibility of vacuum-pressure impregnation of blue gum fence-posts, with diameter less than 9 cm, though mainly by longitu...
L Nunes, D De Sousa Castro Reimão


Soft rot
1978 - IRG/WP 179
Soft rot decay of treated wood is examined with special reference to hardwoods treated with CCA. Factors which adversely affect the chances of protection of hardwoods against soft rot are discussed. The ratio of the volume of the fibre cell wall to the volume of the fibre lumen is presented as a major factor influencing final preservative concentration in the fibre cell wall, the major strength co...
C R Levy


Examination of algal and wood extracts for the control of marine borers
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10306
Extracts obtained from a marine alga and white cypress pine (Callitris glaucophylla J. Thompson & L.J. Johnson) were examined for their ability to control marine borers. In a two week laboratory bioassay, filter papers were soaked in 0-8% extract concentrations, dried, and placed with Limnoria quadripunctata Holthuis in Petri dishes containing seawater. The 8% algal extract virtually prevented...
D Scown, L J Cookson, R De Nys


Diffuse cavity formation in soft rot of pine
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1541
A new type of soft rot of southern pine longitudinal tracheids is described. In this type, soft rot cavities form by diffuse degradation of the S2 cell wall layer by hyphae growing within the cell wall. Erosion is diffuse and irregular as opposed to the restricted, periodic erosion typical of type 1 soft rot cavity formation. Proboscis hyphae remain small (diameter 0.6 to 0.8 µm) and rapidly auto...
S E Anagnost, J J Worrall, C J K Wang


A novel guide for the determination of the physical properties of wood including kiln drying and full-cell preservative treatment
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20298
An ideal flow chart for the sequential experimental determination of a range of physical properties relevant to wood drying and subsequent preservation was designed as a novel guide to assist wood scientists. In this manner, data assembly and experimental processing are shown. This was designed according to experience and published literature. Aspects emphasised in this review were the physical p...
I Usta, M D C Hale


Trial to determine a suitable schedule for radial and longitudinal treatment of plug samples by comparison of changes in the fluid retention and the treated area
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40211
A full-cell process was carried out using different treatment schedules for radial and longitudinal samples because of the anisotrophy of flow. When timbers are impregnated with preservatives much better penetrations are obtained via the end grain than laterally (across the grain). Therefore, suitable schedules for radial and longitudinal flow directions were determined in an trial experiment usin...
I Usta


Studies of the ray parenchyma cell ends on the radial flow of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40164
It is widely accepted that either ray tracheids or ray parenchyma cells offer the major flow pathways radially for the impregnation of softwood with preservative chemicals. It is now generally recognised that, if radial flow does occur through ray parenchyma cells, the cross-field pits play a dominating role for the liquid movement in the radial direction. In this case, the radial flow of fluid is...
I Usta


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