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Blue-stain fungi (Ceratocystis spp.) found in Spain on pine woods
1989 - IRG/WP 1410
So far, there is only a very limited reported description of the different Ceratocystis spp. present on fresh wood in Spain. So, the main goal of this work has been the identification of species of this genus causing blue-stain on Pinus pinaster A. Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. woods. We have also investigated the relationship between the species found and their propagation vectors (insects and win...
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete


Characterisation of growth and stain of different groups of sapstain fungi on lodgepole pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10326
Canada is the world's largest exporter of softwood lumber. These softwood shipments are susceptible to a variety of wood-inhabiting fungi that can lead to sapstain discolouration, which in turn decrease the product value. Furthermore, the presence of these microorganisms may be unacceptable to the importing countries. The objective of this work is to assess the sapstaining capability and ...
C Fleet, C Breuil, A Uzunovic, A Byrne


Detection of semi-quantitative and qualitative enzymatic activities of blue-stain fungi
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10347
Blue-stain, produced in forests, continues to be a problem in countries of moderate climate. In forestry, in certain geographical areas of Spain, it has been observed that anti-sapstain products have not always been efficient, as their fungicidal effectiveness varies on occasion, depending on the species of wood and microbiota that exist in the region. It is not always easy to identify the species...
M T De Troya, F Llinares, D Muñoz-Mingarro, M J Pozuelo, N Acero, C Rodríguez-Borrajo, A M Navarrete


Laboratory fumigations to determine the minimum temperature for methyl bromide eradication of the oak wilt fungus in red oak
1983 - IRG/WP 3243
Laboratory chamber fumigations of naturally-infected ret oak log sections exterminatet the oak wilt fungus in sapwood at temperatures down to 0°C. Only low, sporadic fungus survival was observed when log sections were gassed with methyl bromide at -5°C and aired for 4 da. at 0°C. Lower temperature treatments were not effective even if gas levels or exposure times were increased by 50%....
E L Schmidt


The use of chlorothalonil for protection against mold and sapstain fungi. Part 1: Laboratory evaluation
1989 - IRG/WP 3515
Laboratory screening of chlorothalonil alone and in combination with other fungicides was conducted against six mold and sapstain fungi. The most promising treatments appear to be chlorothalonil supplemented with CCA or copper-8-quinolinolate. Field tests have been implemented....
J A Micales, T L Highley, A L Richter


Methyl bromide eradication of the oak wilt fungus in logs. Laboratory and field fumigation
1981 - IRG/WP 3168
Concern over accidental introduction of the oak wilt fungus (Ceratocystis fagacearum) into oak-importing nations has prompted a study supported by the U.S. National Lumber Exporter's Assn. to assess the efficacy of methyl bromide fumigation to eradicate the fungus from logs and lumber. Laboratory and field fumigation trials to develop a reliable and realistic treatment were performed on r...
E L Schmidt, M M Ruetze, D W French


Biological control of sapstain fungi in wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10158
Sapstain fungi can cause serious damage to wood and wood products, resulting in a significant economic loss for the wood products industry. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether the sapstain in wood caused by sapstain fungi could be biologically controlled. Biological control of sapstain fungi in wood was demonstrated in field trials with nonpigmented isolates of Cerato...
S C Croan


Laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil formulation for stain and mold control on rubberwood and maple
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30175
We evaluated the efficacy of several chlorothalonil and carbendazim fungicides (F1 and F2), etc. in the control of mold and stain fungi on rubberwood and maple. The results showed that these formulations effectively inhibited the selected fungal species such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp. (P71H), Aureobasidium pullulans, Ceratocystis minor (C-188), Ceratocystis pilifera (RW...
Mingliang Jiang, T L Highley, L Ferge, T L Woods


Controlling the sapstain fungus Ceratocystis coerulescens by metabolites obtained from Bjerkandera adusta and Talaromyces flavus
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10024
Sapstain causes severe damage to wood and wood products, posing a major economic problem for the wood industry. The purpose of this study was to determine if metabolites from Bjerkandera adusta and Talaromyces flavus would (1) decolorize stain in wood caused by Ceratocystis coerulescens and (2) prevent sapstain by Ceratocystis coerulescens. We studied the interaction of the sapstain fungus Ceratoc...
S C Croan, T L Highley


Laboratory screening to determine the preventive effectiveness against blue stain fungi and moulds
1991 - IRG/WP 3677
This paper reports results of preservative treatment and leaching experiments, using borax, polybor and boracol 20, on small wood blocks of English oak and American pitch pine heartwood. Earlier experiments on the performance of various biocides as possible additives to bilgewater to prevent fungal decay of shipping timbers had suggested that some formulations of boron might be associated with phy...
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete


Destaining wood sapstains caused by Ceratocystis coerulescens
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10159
Fungal sapstain does not reduce the strength of wood, but it does discolor the wood, detracting from its appearance and decreasing the value of wood and wood products. The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether wood sapstain caused by Ceratocystis coerulescens could be destained and existing growth eradicated. The hydroxyl radicals generation under optimized conditions destained the s...
S C Croan


Application of a novel strength evaluation technique during screening of wood preservatives
1986 - IRG/WP 2262
The effectiveness of CCA and ACA in treated aspen mini stakes tested using a novel bag procedure, with unsterile soil fortified with Chaetomium globosum and Ceratocystis albida, is reported. Good agreement between toxic limits determined using the standard weight loss procedure, and those determined by the strength technique were found, with some indication that the strength loss method is more se...
J N R Ruddick


Comparison between two laboratory test methods for determining the effectiveness on wood preservatives against blue stain in fresh wood
1987 - IRG/WP 2289
Most of the work done on determination of the effectiveness of new formulae for treating fresh wood against blue stain have been focussed on their use in the manufacture of saw timber. This work explains two laboratory methods, one which simulates the working and climatological conditions of factories making packages for fruit and vegetables in the Spanish Levante, showing that contamination of wo...
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya


Development of a disinfection treatment for oak logs to be imported from the USA
1984 - IRG/WP 3283
The European veneer industry depends greatly on oak supplies from the USA. To prevent the accidental introduction of the American Oak Wilt Disease (Ceratocystis fagacearum) into the member states of the EC, a disinfection treatment was developed for oak logs under consideration of the technical requirements of veneer production. Laboratory experiments and field trials in Germany and in the USA sho...
W Liese, M M Ruetze


Effect of thickened boron in preventing conidial germination of sapwood-inhabiting fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30059
We evaluated the efficacy of thickened boron preservative "Diffusolä" in preventing conidia germination of sapwood-inhabiting fungi using plate bioassay, Southern Yellow Pine and sweetgum block tests, and green pine log sections. The test fungi were sapstain fungi Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, and Aureobasidum pullulans and mold fungi, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, and Tric...
S C Croan


Characteristics of the pigments produced by sap-staining fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10223
The present study was conducted to characterize the pigments produced by sap-staining fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud and Ceratocystis piceae (Münch) H. and P. Sydow. The pigments isolated from tested fungi were identified as melanins by spectroscopic methods (UV and infrared spectra). The UV and the infrared spectra of the fungal pigments were similar to those of the synthetic me...
M Mori, M Takahashi


The relationship between blue-stain and bark beetles
1971 - IRG/WP 19
The attack of bark beetles on standing or in newly-felled stems provides special growth conditions to wood-inhabiting fungi. In the wood attacked by bark beetles, a specific and rich fungus flora is found, and from these fungi the economically important group of blueing fungi has been more thoroughly investigated. These fungi live on nutritive substances present in the cells, especially in the med...
A Käärik


The influence of causing primary blue-stain fungus Ceratocystis imperfecta on selected properties of Scots pine wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10425
The effects of development in wood the fungi causing blue-stain on the wood properties are not univocal. There were been undertaken investigation to clear the influence of such fungi on selected physical and mechanical properties of Scots pine wood. Wet sap wood samples of fresh cut Scots pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) were infested with pure culture of Ceratocystis imperfecta Mill. et Grenz and...
A Fojutowski


Database of sapstain fungi affecting lumber, logs and trees
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10534
Sapstain fungi discolour lumber, logs and tree sapwood and are often mistaken for moulds, which cause a superficial discoloration. Stained wood has a lower market value. Further, because stained wood products can potentially carry pathogenic fungi, such products may be refused by importing countries. Addressing these issues involves developing ways for accurately identifying staining fungi, docume...
S Lee, F de Giuli Vallverdu, S Alamouti, Jae-Jin Kim, A Uzunovic, C Breuil


Enzymatic study of Ceratocystis sp., blue-stain fungi on Pinus nigra
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10315
One of the main problems that the forest exploitation industry has with Pinus nigra wood is the blue-stain fungi, whose causing agent is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to study, through enzymatic tests of the isolated cultures, if these fungi infect Pinus nigra in any specific way. After the incubations, isolates of Ceratocystis were obtained. These were cultured in a sali...
M T De Troya, F Rubio, D Muñoz-Mingarro, F Llinares, C Rodríguez-Borrajo, M Yuste, M J Pozuelo, J I Fernández-Golfín


Growth inhibitory effects on blue-stain fungi of applied electricity fields
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10167
Exploratory laboratory experiments on the effects of electricity on two blue stain fungi Aureobasidium pullulans and Ceratocystis piceae on wood revealed that a potential gradient of 1 V/cm corresponding to a current of 15 mA (DC), applied without interruption during a 2 week experimental period, leads to an inhibition of the growth of these fungi. Germination is somewhat more sensitive than mycel...
J Bjurman


Development of bluestain in commercially harvested logs in Britain
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10150
In Britain, mechanised harvesting of conifer forestry crops is now the preferred method of felling where terrain and access allows. However, use of mechanised harvesters can lead to excessive debarking, loosening of the bark and wood splintering with, on average, about a third of the bark removed from the more severely damaged logs. More bark has also been observed to be lost from logs harvested e...
A Uzunovic, J F Webber, D J Dickinson


Biological control of sapwood-inhabiting fungi by living bacterial cells of Streptomyces rimosus as a bioprotectant
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1564
The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of antifungal activity of living bacterial cells for the protection of wood against sapwood-inhabiting fungi. The following sapwood-inhabiting fungi were selected: sapstain --Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, Ceratocystis pilifera, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi --Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, and Trichoderma spp. L...
S C Croan, T L Highley


The study of blue stain found in coniferous timber in SR Slovenia (Yugoslavia)
1983 - IRG/WP 1177
The report concerns the problems connected with blue stain in coniferous timbers stored in warehouses at wood-processing plants in SR Slovenia (Yugoslavia). The amounts of spruce-wood (Picea abies Karst.) found to have been infected with blue stain have been measured and some of the fungi causing the stain have been identified and their biology studied. It was found that the percentage of spruce-w...
R Benko


Analysis of the degradation of carbohydrates by blue-stain fungi
1990 - IRG/WP 1457
The topic of the degradative ability of blue-stain fungi literature is not clear. Many authors support the idea that those fungi don't have enzymatic capability to decay the wall of the ligneous cells. However, others have found some decay activity. In this study, we have attempted to analyze which wall cells soluble carbohydrates are metabolized by some blue-stain fungi, found in Spain. ...
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete, E Relano


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