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Bioresistance of Poplar Wood Compressed by Combined-Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Wood Modification (CHTM) Process
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40532
Bioresistance of treated Poplar wood by CHTM process (Combined-Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Wood Modification) was studied in the current research work. Resistance against brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum as well as the soft rot decay was the main concern of this work. Poplar wood blocks were hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 120,150 and 180°C for holding time of 0, 30 and 90 min. afterwa...
L Khademi-Bami, B Mohebby

COST Action FP0904 – Increasing the Understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Wood Behaviour and Processing
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40646
The polymeric components of wood and its porous structure allow its properties to be modified under the combined effects of temperature, moisture and mechanical action – so-called Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) treatments. Various types of processing techniques, including high temperature steam with or without an applied mechanical force, can be utilised to enhance wood properties, to produce eco...
D Jones, P Navi

Chemical, physical-mechanical characterization and durability of thermally modified beech and ash wood by thermo-vacuum process (Termovuoto)
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40758
The paper illustrates part of the results from the CIP Eco-innovation project “Thermo-vacuum: new process for new generation of thermally modified wood”. The project is part of the 7th Framework Programme for European Research and Technological Development, and thermo-vacuum modified wood is already on the European market. The project was selected by the European Commission, EASME Agency, as "...
M Jebrane, I Cuccui, O Allegretti, N Terziev

Effect of densification of Eucalyptus nitens and E. obliqua on moisture uptake, swelling, decay resistance, and fire performance
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40946
Some Australian Eucalyptus species that are abundantly available have low natural durability and poor resistance to fire. These same species are also extremely difficult to treat with preservatives or fire retardants using conventional pressure treatment methods due to a large proportion of refractory heartwood. The aim of this research was to understand whether thermo-mechanical densification had...
B Hassan, J J Morrell, F Wiesner, W Wu, B Belleville, K C Wood

Effects of a formaldehyde and sulphur dioxide treatment on decay and mechanical properties of aspen waferboard
1983 - IRG/WP 3242
Aspen wafers were sequentially treated under vacuum with formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide gas and pressed into waferboard bonded with powdered phenol formaldehyde resin. Decay resistance and strength properties were determined before and after simulated weathering. The water resistance of the phenol bonding system was lost in board made from the gas-treated wafers. This white rot fungus Coriolus ve...
E L Schmidt

Influences of the hydro-thermal treatment on physical properties of beech wood (Fagus orientalis)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40303
Influences of the hydro-thermal treatment on physical properties of beech wood were studied. Wood specimens (2×2×2cm) were treated in two steps. At first step, samples were treated at 160,180 & 200ºC for 4, 5 & 6 hours. At second step, treated samples were cured based on their first step treatment temperatures (160,180 & 200ºC) for 16 hours. The treated samples were soaked in water...
B Mohebby, I Sanaei

Characteristics of thermally modified wood in vacuum
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40287
In commercial thermal wood modification processes nitrogen, steam or oil has been used for the reduction of oxygen content in the reactor atmosphere. In present study no special heating medium, but an initial vacuuming step has been used for this purpose. Mass loss, resistance to fungal decay, dimensional stability, bending strength and modulus of elasticity of heat treated wood were evaluated and...
G Rep, F Pohleven, B Bucar

High-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test – Part 2: A mechanical test for the detection of fungal decay
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20339
The suitability of the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test for detection of early fungal decay was examined. The HEMI – test characterizes the treatment quality of thermally modified wood by stressing the treated material by thousands of impacts of pounding steel balls. This method differentiates between heat treatment intensities, which are expressed by structural changes of the wood. Simil...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, A O Rapp

Effects of heat treatments on decay resistance and material properties of ponderosa pine and yellow poplar
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40374
The potential for using heat treatment to improve the properties of North American fenestration species was evaluated on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L) treated using the ThermoWood process at various treatment temperatures and times. Soil block tests using Gloeophyllum trabeum, Postia placenta, or Trametes versicolor showed that durability was enh...
C Vidrine, C Freitag, J Nicholson, J J Morrell

The resistance of thermo-oil modified wood against decay and mould fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40448
Thermally modified wood in comparison to natural wood demonstrates some advantageous functional properties like decreased hygroscopicity, higher dimensional stability. It also has increased durability and improved resistance to fungal decay. However thermal modification of wood may lead to reduced strength properties what may limit the use of wood in mechanically beared constructions. The changes ...
A Fojutowski, A Kropacz, A Noskowiak

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hydrothermally Modified Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40481
This research was carried out to investigate influences of hydrothermal modification on physical and mechanical properties of mulberry wood that is used for musical instruments in Iran. Samples of mulberry wood were cut into size of 20x20x360 mm and placed in a water filled stainless steel cylinder and treated at temperatures of 100, 120 and 140ºC for 1 and 5 hours. Treated samples were subjected...
A Talaei, K Yaghoobi

The resistance of thermo and thermo-oil modified black poplar wood (Populus nigra L.) to Basidiomycetes fungi
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40585
The share of area taken by poplar tree species in Poland account for 2.0% of the area of state forests, 4.8% of national parks and for 2.3% in the privately-owned forests. It is shown and expected an increase in the share of poplar stands connected with plantation of fast growing trees. The poplar wood is not resistant to Basidiomycetes fungi, easy attacked by insects and in consequence is regarde...
A Fojutowski, A Kropacz, A Noskowiak

Improvement of the biological performance and dimensional stability of two tropical woods by thermal modification
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40605
Pink cedar wood and rubberwood were thermally modified at 230°C in air for 4 h or for 8 h, and then subjected to bending, compression and hardness tests to evaluate the effect of the treatment on these mechanical properties. The biological performance of the modified wood was also determined, according to EN113, and the dimensional stability measured by means of the anti-swelling efficiency. The ...
M M González-Peña

Combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D impregnation on properties of southern yellow pine wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40637
In this study, samples of southern yellow pine sapwood were first thermally modified and then treated by the alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) wood preservative. Two heating temperature (180℃ and 220℃) and two concentrations of ACQ-D solution (0.9% and 1.35%) were used in the experiments. The combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D on leaching performance, mechanical prope...
Wang Wang, Yuan Zhu, Jinzhen Cao

Development of new wood treatments combining boron impregnation and thermo modification - Effect on decay and termites durability
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40666
Environmental pressures appeared in most European countries during the last decade has lead to the development of more environmentally acceptable preservation methods. In this context, wood heat treatment has been one of the most investigated alternative methods during the last years. Treated at temperatures ranging between 180 and 220°C, wood components undergo more or less important chemical mo...
S Salman, A Pétrissans, M-F Thévenon, S Dumarçay, B Pollier, P Gérardin

Modifying wood with paraffin wax emulsion impregnation and thermal modification: hydrophobization effect and mechanism of the combined treatment
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40726
The aim of this study was to enhance the water repellency of wood by a combined treatment of paraffin wax emulsion (PWE) impregnation and thermal modification. Two different treating procedures were used to modify the southern pine (pinus spp.). One is first PWE impregnation and then thermal modification, another is first thermal modification and then PWE impregnation. The treated samples were imm...
Wang Wang, Jinzhen Cao, Cong Chen

Formation of hydrophobic wood surface by means of thermal treatment and surface modification with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD)
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40738
One of the major shortcomings of wood-based materials compared to technical materials is attributed to their poor dimensional stability in changing climates and in contact with liquid water. Heat treatment induces chemical change with a consequent decreasing of reactivity of the material showing unwanted surface inactivation. Alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) is a widely used sizing agent in papermaking, w...
T Lovaglio, T Meints, L Todaro, W Gindl-Altmutter

Exterior birch plywood: potentiality of the thermo-hydro treatment
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40743
It has been found in the present study that, in laboratory fungi tests after leaching with water (EN 84), exterior birch (Betula spp.) plywood, as birch solid wood, is subjected to degradation by rot fungi. This limits the use of such plywood outdoors or in building structures in high humidity conditions. The possibility to improve the birch plywood fungal resistance was investigated in two ways: ...
B Andersons, I Andersone, A Meija-Feldmane, I Irbe, A Janberga, J Grinins

Effect of insitu polymerization on practical properties of heat treated wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40763
This research was conducted to investigate the effect of combined modification; heat treatment and impregnation with styrene monomer on physical and mechanical properties of poplar wood (Populus deltoides). Test samples were grouped in six levels of control, wood polymer made from styrene, heat treatment at 170 ºC and 200ºC and combined modification; first hat treated at 170 ºC and 200ºC and t...
M Ghorbani, M Mohseni Shaktaei

Impact of heat treatment on physico-mechanical properties of torrefied Antholceistha djalonensis wood
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40811
Thermal modification at relatively high temperatures is an effective method to improve the dimensional stability and mechanical properties of wood. This study was carried out to investigate the impact of heat treatment on the physic-mechanical properties of torrefied Anthocleistha djalonensis wood. Thirty nine defect-free specimens of dimensions 20 mm × 20 mm × 60 were prepared for the determina...
E A Iyiola, B Olufemi, J A Fuwape, J M Owoyemi

Markers of quality in self-bonded beech boards
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40820
A self-bonding phenomenon takes place when five layers of beech (Fagus Sylvatica L.) veneers are pressed at temperatures higher than 200ºC. If the pressing temperature between veneer surfaces reaches at least 225ºC during pressing and if the pressure applied is optimal, water-resistant bonds are formed between veneers. This study investigates the relation of thickness reduction (marker of compre...
C Cristescu, D Sandberg, O Karlsson

Understanding of the effect of ancestral and natural saltwater treatment on durability, fibers densification and chemical modification of palm wood
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10921
The palm-tree sector plays a very important role on both the socioeconomic and ecological levels, in Tunisia. There are three million trees in Tunisian palm plantations, ensuring a potential significant wood production, mainly in the craft and furniture industries. In the past, Date Palm wood (Phoenix dactylifera L.,) was also used as structural material. Its low natural durability and its low m...
M T Elaieb, A Namsi, M Tella, M-F Thévenon, K Chandelier

FTIR-ATR monitoring of chemical changes of thermo-chemically modified beech wood degraded by brown-rot fungus
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40823
Wood chemical modification with lactic acid oligomers (OLA) has been reported to confer promising properties for wood outdoors applications. To better understand the lactic acid interaction with wood, chemical changes following biological degradation have been characterized with a battery of tests. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been proved to be a valuable tool for studying fu...
C Grosse, M Noël, M-F Thevenon, P Gérardin

Multiscale modification on water resistance and dimensional stability of Populus cathayana by alkali lignin combined with heat treatment
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40826
The aim of this study was to enhance the water resistance and dimensional stability of fast growing wood by alkali lignin combined with heat treatment. Poplar (Populus cathayana) samples were first impregnated with alkali lignin solution and then subjected to heat treatment at 140, 160, and 180°C respectively for 2h. Properties of leachability, moisture adsorption and water absorption, contact an...
H Zhou, J Li, E Ma

The use of bicine and tricine as possible Maillard reagents in a combined thermal/chemical modification of beech
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40852
The effects of thermal modification have been well established, particularly in terms of reductions in mechanical performance. In recent years, there has been an increase in studies related to the Maillard reaction. More commonly associated with food chemistry, it involves the reaction of amines and reducing sugars during cooking procedures. This paper has attempted to combine the use of amines an...
D Jones, C-M Popescu, D Krzisnik, M Hocevar, M Humar, M-C Popescu

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