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Hole delimination inside round timber via ultrasonic techniques
1990 - IRG/WP 2358
A fast and economic circular scanning method to localize and evaluate holes inside round timber is presented. This method consists in measuring transit times of the ultrasonic wave by fixing the transmitter probe in the perimeter of the sample, then moving the receiver probe every ten degrees until completion of the circle. The scanning is done with a cheap and light instrument. Tests are made wit...
G Prieto, A Fernández Cancio


Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh


Circular letter to all members of WG IV Marine Wood Preservation
1985 - IRG/WP 4122
IRG Secretariat


SEM of wood dust particles
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50084
Dust particles from beech and oak trees have been classified in Germany as being "working materials which are definitely carcinogenic to humans". All other wood dusts, including those from softwoods, are classified as being materials "with reasonable suspicion of carcinogenic potential". The carcinogenic principle of action continues to remain unclear. The mechanical irritation is one of a number ...
U Schmitt, R-D Peek, A O Rapp


The use of immunofluorescence labelling for detecting Ophiostoma piceae in radiata pine
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10268
The primary objective of the current investigation is to understand fungal interactions of dominant sapstaining fungi in radiata pine using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In the current paper, an immunofluorescence labelling technique was developed for detection of Ophiostoma piceae using a monoclonal antibody. The primary antibody was labelled with Oregon green 514 Goat anti-mouse Ig...
Ying Xiao, B Kreber, C Breuil


Termite and fungal resistance of in situ polymerized tributyltin acrylate and acetylated Indonesian and USA wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30219
Wood [Indonesian pine (IP), Indonesian Jabon (IJ) and USA southern yellow pine (USP)] was either in situ polymerized with tributyltin acrylate (TBTA) or acetylated and then exposed to termite and fungal degradation both in laboratory tests and field exposure. The TBTA woods had an average weight percent gain (WPG) of 11% for IP, 12% for IJ, and 10% for USP. The acetylated woods had a WPG of 15-27%...
R E Ibach, Y S Hadi, D Nandika, S Yusuf, Y Indrayani


Studies of the ray parenchyma cell ends on the radial flow of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40164
It is widely accepted that either ray tracheids or ray parenchyma cells offer the major flow pathways radially for the impregnation of softwood with preservative chemicals. It is now generally recognised that, if radial flow does occur through ray parenchyma cells, the cross-field pits play a dominating role for the liquid movement in the radial direction. In this case, the radial flow of fluid is...
I Usta


Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) of decayed wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10273
Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is currently being used to examine biodegraded wood and is proving to be a useful new technique in this area of work. Non-invasive optical sectioning within a thick specimen (20 - 50 µm), coupled with post image processing techniques allows manipulation of images and 3-D reconstruction from serial sections. Glutaraldehyde can cause cell autofluorescence,...
Ying Xiao, R N Wakeling, A P Singh


Visualising Bacteria in Wood Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM)
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10272
A fluorescent phospholipid probe was used in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), to visualise bacteria which inhabit in radiata pine wood and degrade pit membranes. CLSM has the ability to collect fluorescent images through different emission filters at the same time, so it is possible to distinguish gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in infected wood by counterstaini...
Ying Xiao, A P Singh, R N Wakeling


Investigation of extracellular mucilaginous material in some wood decay fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10188
The external morphology of the extracellular mucilagenous material (ECM) produced by Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana during colonization of Scots pine and beech was studies using SEM. Specimens were examined in the frozen hydrated, freeze-dried and critical point dried state. All technics produced artefacts but the ECM was best preserved when examined the frozen hydated state. Critical ...
A R Abu, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Immuno-scanning electron microscopic localization of extracellular polysaccharidases within the fibrillar sheath of the brown rot fungus Postia placenta
1991 - IRG/WP 1497
Extracellular polysaccharidases of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta were localized using colloidal gold labeled monoclonal antibodies to the B-1,4-xylanase (32-36kDa) fraction of Postia placenta. Postia placenta was grown from agar onto glass coverslips, immunolabeled with or without prior fixation, and examined by SEM. Enzymes were localized on the hyphal surface and on the clumped fibrillar ...
F Green III, C A Clausen, M J Larsen, T L Highley


Preliminary Studies on ZiBOC- A Potential Eco-friendly Wood Preservative
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30372
Over the past decade, the wood processing industry has been increasingly involved in strategies to minimize the environmental impacts of treated wood. One sign of this is the dramatic increase in the use of preservatives based on inorganic metal oxides, which fix in wood. Among such preservatives the most common is chromated-copper-arsenate. In Ascu chromium and arsenic both are carcinogenic thus...
S Tripathi, J K Bagga, V K Jain


Micro-Distribution of Metals in Wood Treated with a Nano-Copper Wood Preservative
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40360
The microdistribution of copper in southern pine treated with a newly-developed nano-copper wood preservative was examined to determine if it differed from that reported for wood treated with conventional copper-based wood preservatives. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) in combination with x-ray microanalysis (EDX) revealed the presence of nano-sized copper and iron particles i...
H Matsunaga, M Kiguchi, P Evans


Micro-Distribution of Micronized Copper in Southern Pine
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30479
For copper-based preservatives to be used in ground contact, penetration of copper into the cell wall is believed to be important to protect the wood from soft rot fungi. Preservatives containing soluble copper are known to do this. It is not known whether preservatives containing particulate copper will also migrate into the cell wall in sufficient quantities to control soft rot decay. An AWPA st...
R Stirling, J Drummond, Jun Zhang, R J Ziobro


Re-Distribution of Copper in the Cell Walls of Wood Treated with Micronized Copper Quat
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30506
Wood treated with copper-based preservatives to be used in ground contact may fail to inhibit soft rot fungi if penetration of copper into the cell wall is insufficient. Preservatives containing soluble copper are known to penetrate the cell wall; however, it is not known whether preservatives containing particulate copper will also migrate into the cell wall in sufficient quantities to control so...
R Stirling, J Drummond


The invasion channels of damage fungi in bamboo lumber
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10712
The micro-agents on bamboo lumber damage are mould, stain, and decay fungi. This research is about invasion channels of bamboo lumber damage fungi by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the conidia of mould were only accumulated on the surface of bamboo and no hyphae detected in bamboo vascular bundle, and hyphae of stain penetrated into bamboo and grew in metaxylem vessel...
Xingxia Ma, Mingliang Jiang, Daochun Qin


Analyzing hyphal growth of the bio incising fungus Physisporinus vitreus with light-, confocal laser scanning- and, Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20438
Norway spruce wood is an important building material for the forest and wood industry. To improve wood permeability and uptake of wood modification substances Physisporinus vitreus is employed as a bioincising agent. In this study wood specimens were incubated with P. vitreus to assess hyphal colonisation and structural alterations of Norway spruce wood. After different incubation periods, semi-th...
C Stührk, M Fuhr, M Schubert, F W M R Schwarze


Copper nanoparticles in southern pine wood treated with a micronised preservative: Can nanoparticles penetrate the cell walls of tracheids and ray parenchyma?
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30547
This study tests the hypothesis that copper nanoparticles can penetrate the cell walls of southern pine wood treated with a micronised preservative. We examined the nanodistribution of particles in tracheid and ray parenchyma cell walls using state-of-the-art HR (High Resolution)-TEM and HR-STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope)-EDX. These devices are capable of atomic-scale resolution. ...
H Matsunaga, Y Kataoka, M Kiguchi, P Evans


Study of Microscopy Properties of Modified Wood During Weathering Process
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40517
In this study spruce (Picea excelsa) and Beech (Fagus orientalis) wood acetylated and has been subjected of artificial weathering in difference times (0, 50,150&300 h), then wood surface analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The SEM results shown that the surface of wood exposed to weathering undergoes distinct physical changes and the surface degradation appears to be directly propor...
M Akhtari


Decay resistance of a commercial pistachio twig-plastic composite
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40553
In this research, the decay resistance of commercial extruded pistachio twig flour-plastic composite was investigated against the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana. The composite specimens containing 60% pistachio twig flour were exposed to a decay test according to modified ASTM standard for 3 months. The results showed that the composite could be d...
M R M Farahani, M Safarzadeh


Novel microscopic approaches to visualise chitosan within impregnated wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20485
Chitosan, a deacetylated product of an abundant naturally occurring biopolymer chitin, has been used in a range of applications, particularly in food and health areas, as an antimicrobial agent. In the work reported here Pinus radiata wood was impregnated with chitosan as an environmentally compatible organic biocide. It is important to understand micro-distribution of bioprotectants in impregnate...
A Singh, T Singh


Use of Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy for in situ Observation of Degradation of Wood Surfaces during Artificial Weathering
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20489
Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM) is capable of observing electrically non-conductive materials like wood without the need to render the surface conductive by applying a coating of gold, platinum or carbon. Hence, there is the possibility that VPSEM could be used to non-destructively follow the structural changes occurring at wood surfaces during weathering, because specimens ...
F Hatae, Y Kataoka, M Kiguchi, H Matsunaga, J Matsumura


Moisture distribution in glulam beams with natural cracks observed with CT Scanning before and after rain
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20534
The way cracks in outdoor wooden constructions affect durability is an interesting topic, since a certain amount of cracks can always be found naturally in wood and glued laminated wood. The question in this was, can cracks lead water into the wood and thereby increase the risk for decay and reduce strength and service life. Moisture balance, i.e., water absorption and water distribution were stud...
K Sandberg


CT scanning of decay in creosoted poles for overhead lines
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30634
Creosote-treated poles have been examined by means of CT scanning in order to investigate the nature of soft spots that have been found more frequently during the last five years in Sweden. CT scanning provides a very good picture of the interior of the poles and decay can easily be detected. It was concluded that the soft spots in most cases were caused by decay which in turn had to do with extre...
C-J Johansson, A Clang, I Johansson, G Berggren


Curing kinetics of nano cupric oxide (CuO) modified PF resin as wood adhesive: Effect of surfactant
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40620
The effect of nano cupric oxide (CuO) in combination with surfactants on the curing kinetics of phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin, as well as the bonding strength of plywood prepared using the modified resin were investigated in this study using dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The result showed that the incorporation of nano CuO along with alkane surfactant made in the...
Wei Gao, Guanben Du


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