IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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Finishes for outdoor timbers
1975 - IRG/WP 378

Exterior wood stains
1980 - IRG/WP 3135
Experience has shown that conventional paints cannot now be relied upon to provide a complete seal against water entry, that in practice water can often circumvent the film and that the paint, far from serving to keep water out will seal it in. Moreover present-day paints are often subject to localised and premature failure out of doors and consequently entail high maintenance costs. Problems of w...
E R Miller

Novel wood modification processes for window and cladding products
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40285
Because of the low natural durability and low dimensional stability of European wood species, the usage of wood for window frames has decreased dramatically during the last decade. In a joint project of several German research institutes and the window industry, following wood modification systems were compared. heat treatment (3 different materials from 2 companies) acetylation (pine sapwood an...
A Krause, C Hof, H Militz

Surface coatings for impregnated wood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3684
The use of proper surface coatings enhances the aesthetic and protective properties of impregnated wood. Good results with especially water-borne coatings have been obtained for class-A impregnated L-joints and claddings in field tests started in 1982....
L Kotama

Durable fibre for durable MDF – testing Tricoya®
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40704
The chemical modification of wood has been a commercial reality for a decade on release of technologies for the modification of solid wood including Accoya®. A challenge and an opportunity for the modification technologies which typically impart dimensional stability, water stability and enhanced biological durability was the adaptation of the technology to wood based panels. This paper presents ...
E Suttie, J Alexander, M Maes

A real scale evaluation method and results on termite resistance of housing wall systems and floor framings
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10314
For evaluating the termite resistance of real scale houses especially housing wall systems and floor framings, a experimental building was prepared. After initial feeding of termite, this house was constructed. In this experimental building, several parts which were built by different wall systems and floor framing. The room temperature of these parts were controlled. Water can be provided in the ...
K Suzuki, K Okada, K Hagio, Y Tanaka

Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content: Status after 5 years of Outdoor Exposure
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20401
The Danish Technological Institute is in co-operation with industry partners running a project aiming at predicting the service life of different wood protecting systems. The project focuses on examining the moisture reducing effect of different protecting systems for timber claddings and the ability of these to maintain the appearance of the surfaces, when the wood is used in service class 3 (EN ...
E Tang Engelund, B Lindegaard, N Morsing

A fast and economic method to produce grey wooden surfaces for decking and cladding: preliminary results
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40474
Uncoated wood is commonly used in France for cladding and decking to minimise maintenance. However wood surfaces progressively turn grey due to exposure to sunlight and water. This grey colour develops after several months depending on the wood species and the exposure: in the northern hemisphere surfaces facing south and west are most exposed and turn grey more rapidly than those facing north and...
L Podgorski, V Georges, I Garmendia, B Sánchez Sarachu

Service life prediction of wooden components – Part 2: Impact of material, exposure and design details
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20440
Dose-response functions permit to estimate the moisture and temperature induced decay potential for any wooden building component and exposure, and thus the service life to be expected. In part 1 of this series dose-response functions were established as a result of double layer field trials carried out at 24 European test sites over up to eight years. Using them makes it no longer necessary to co...
C Brischke, B Lauenstein, M Bilstein, T Bornemann, A O Rapp

Service life prediction for exterior timber cladding
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20460
This discussion paper considers service life prediction for timber and the work within the pan-European WoodExter project. The project aims to develop a model for service life prediction of exterior timber cladding, to enable better end use selection of material suitable for delivering the required service life of cladding and to provide information for professionals wanting to understand and use ...
E Suttie, F Englund

Aesthetic service life of coated and uncoated wooden cladding - influencing factors and modelling
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20470
Mould growth on exterior coated cladding façades is an undesirable element and will often shorten the aesthetical service life. Mould growth on painted surfaces is influenced by type and concentration of film fungicides, the paint formulation and the wood substrate itself, and wooden cladding may experience exponential fungal deterioration caused by variation in the climatic factors, often within...
L Ross Gobakken, O A Høibø

Moisture protection and performance during 5 years exposure of 19 wood coating systems on a cladding in Vienna
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40561
A cladding with vertical boards of Norway spruce (Picea abies) comprising different coating systems had been exposed to natural weathering oriented south west in Vienna for 5 years. Weathering behaviour of the boards was assessed in intervals and wood moisture content was measured over the first 22 months of exposure. The moisture protective properties of the coating systems were assessed using la...
G Grüll, I Spitaler, M Truskaller

Effects of microclimate, wood temperature and surface colour on fungal disfigurement on wooden claddings
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20490
Wooden claddings are common in façades in Norway, and Norway spruce (Picea abies) is the most frequently used species. The cladding is a major part of the facade, and it has visual requirements that may define the aesthetic service life. The visual changes that occur during weathering can be colour changes, abrasion or wear, blistering, flaking, and even cracks in the wood or coating, but more of...
L Ross Gobakken, G I Vestøl

Field-testing of Norway Spruce Claddings with Monitoring of Moisture Content, Material Temperature and Microclimate
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20502
The physical function of a cladding is to protect the interior construction. Under normal circumstances the performance requirements can be met for a very long time, meaning that the technical service life of a wooden cladding can be very long. Since the cladding is a major part of the facade, it also has visual requirements that may define the aesthetic service life, and often it is much shorter ...
G I Vestøl, L Ross Gobakken

Mould growth on spruce claddings and the effect of selected influencing factors after 4 years of outdoor testing
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30671
Norway spruce (Picea abies) is the most frequently chosen wood species as claddings in façades in Norway, and is used both coated and uncoated. The visual changes that occur during weathering can be colour changes, abrasion or wear, blistering, flaking, and even cracks in the wood or coating, but more often growth of mould and blue stain fungi is the main challenge. A field test with synchronous monitoring of relative humidity, air temperature, material temperature and wood moisture content in Norway spruce claddings has been performed in southern Norway as part of the ClimateLife project. Visual evaluation of blue stain and mould growth according to EN 927-3 was performed, and evaluation data after 46 months exposure is presented. The objectives were to study the effect of 1) environment, 2) cardinal direction and 3) colour of the coated surface on growth of blue stain and mould fungi and to study the variation in relative humidity, air temperature, wood moisture content and material temperature. After 46 months exposure, the red coating system had generally the lowest mould ratings and the uncoated claddings had the highest. Of the white coloured claddings the ones facing south had lower mould ratings than those facing north, but the opposite were found for red coloured claddings. The relative humidity was higher in front of claddings exposed northwards and in a shaded environment compared to an open environment against south. In an open environment red coloured claddings had the lowest wood moisture content and highest material temperature, and red coloured claddings against south had the highest maximum material temperature.
L Ross Gobakken, G I Vestøl

Fire protection of wooden facades in Norway
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40710
Wood products are experiencing a renaissance as construction material in Europe due to their environmental benefits. In Norwegian building design however, timber has always played an important role but has had its limitations in urban architecture. One of the reasons is a high demand to fire safety in dense house building and multi-story buildings. Though novel construction methods and fire safety...
U Hundhausen, K-C Mahnert

Hygrothermal performance of ventilated wooden cladding
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40733
The risk for an attack of wooden claddings by decay and discolouring fungi strongly depends on the moisture and temperature conditions in the building envelope. The design of the cladding has a major influence on its hygrothermal performance. In the present study, different wooden ventilated cladding designs were investigated at a test house in Mid-Norway for four years. The objective was to incre...
K Nore, U Hundhausen

Fungal resistance and accelerated weathering of Wood-Plastic composites reinforced with Maritime pine wood flour
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40750
This study evaluates the durability of wood-polymer composites (WPCs) elaborated for use in cladding application from recycled polypropylene (rPP) and wood flour. Local Maritime pine wood flour derived from regional sawmills was used in the study to reduce the environmental impact associated with transport. Different wood-plastic ratios with and without UV stabilizers and biocide were tested. One ...
M Jebrane, T Fournier, N-E El Bounia, F Charrier-El Bouhtoury

Colour changes in unpainted wooden façades – Fifty Shades of Grey
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10903
In Norway the use of weathered unpainted, wooden façades has increased in popularity the last 20 years, both in single family houses as well as in multi-story and non-residential buildings. The benefit of using unpainted wood as façade material can be several: low maintenance costs, low environmental impact and low carbon footprint as well as contemporary and trendy aesthetic appearance. The va...
K Zimmer, L R Gobakken, O Flindall, M Nygaard

In-service performance of wood claddings and windows – a Norwegian survey
2018 - IRG/WP 18-20632
The overall aim of the study was to strengthen the empirical data on decay frequency and in-service performance of claddings and windows in Norway. Data from a survey of claddings and windows from 38 Norwegian houses is presented. The main findings for wooden claddings: 1) predominance of decay was detected in east facing claddings, while the largest decayed areas were located on south facing clad...
L Ross Gobakken, G Alfredsen

In-line quality control of the film thickness in industrial coating processes for exterior cladding
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40835
The production of industrially coated wood cladding has been strongly increasing in Scandinavia during the last years. In the beginning of this development, industrial coating processes included solely the application of pigmented primers; these however provide only a short protection of the wood surface and the application of a top coat is required during the first 6 to 12 months after mounting t...
U Hundhausen, M Slabohm

Enhancing service life performance of oak decking and cladding using organosilicon treatments
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40838
The Life+ project SILEX, in full “Improving sustainability of construction materials using innovative Silicon based treatment” started in April 2013 and was finalized mid 2017. The aim of this project was to demonstrate that a new class of compounds can be used for wood treatment for an extended service life combined with enhanced new testing methodology. Ultimately, it was the intention to de...
J Van Acker, J Van den Bulcke, J-P Lecomte

Evaluation of the physical properties of heat-treated native Peruvian woods for their application as coverings in buildings located in in arid, semi-warm and humid climates
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40943
Wood is a material that has properties suitable for its use in construction: as a structural component, cladding or decorative element, however, it is necessary to have knowledge of its physical, mechanical and thermal properties in order to have a logical criterion when applying it. It is known that wood has hygroscopic properties, so it tends to absorb the relative humidity of the natural enviro...
K Ayala Castro, A Loayza Argüelles, V J Pilco Mamani

Comparison of culturable fungi found on two types of modified wood cladding
2023 - IRG/WP 23-11025
Modified woods are rapidly gaining popularity in the United States and are appearing on more public buildings. Because these are biocide-free products, they can support the growth of non-wood degrading fungi on their surfaces, many of which produce dark pigments and deface the cladding. Even growth of dark pigmented fungi on modified woods yields an even grey-black color, giving the materials a we...
G Presley, J Cappellazzi, B Held, R Blanchette

How personality traits influence the perception of fungal decay in a wooden cladding – A survey in three Modelling wood moisture content in outdoor conditions from measured data
2024 - IRG/WP 24-41002
This study examined perceptions of fungal decay damage on wooden cladding across Norway, Sweden, and Germany. The majority of respondents across all countries did not find the fungal decay damage in question acceptable, with the least acceptance in Norway. This could be due to Norway having the highest frequency of wooden residential buildings and the most experience with maintaining wooden claddi...
G W Gustavsen, G Alfredsen, P B van Niekerk, J Niklewski, C Brischke

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