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Report on the burning of wood treated with wood preservatives containing copper, chromium and arsenic
1976 - IRG/WP 379
Mixtures of copper, chromium and arsenic salts are used extensively in the UK to preserve timber. This report is concerned with the fate of these metals when timber treated with these salts is burned. A large percentage of the arsenic present in the timber is shown to be volatilised during combustion and the potential environmental implications of this are assessed by comparison with the release of arsenic during coal burning. From this assessment it is concluded that burning of treated wood is unlikely to add significantly to the quantity of arsenic present in the atmosphere, although the concentration of arsenic in the discharged flue gases could give rise to local problems. Much of the arsenic and the chromium that remains in the ash is in the water soluble form and the possible implications of this are discussed. Recommendations based on findings reported here have been made to the Directorate General Water Engineering for consideration by the Arsenic Wastes Working Party which will be producing guidelines for the disposal of treated wood under the Control of Pollution Act 1974.
A J Dobbs, C Grant


Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity is examined. These wastes can be classified according to their danger characteristics, taking into account the type of additives, their concentration, their availability for the environment, the physical state of the waste. Different disposal pathways are then considered. Combustion, with the possibility of energetic valorization seems the best answer for a major part of these wastes. But this is only possible if good combustion conditions are defined, so that no harmful products are emitted. Moreover, these conditions must be affordable on the technical and economical point of view. Then, some wastes cannot be burned in such a simple way, and need a larger approach, which is presented in this document.
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix


The restricted distribution of Serpula lacrymans in Australian buildings
1989 - IRG/WP 1382
Temperature data has been gathered over a number of years, not only for flooring regions of various buildings in Melbourne, but also within roof spaces and external to the buildings. Findings are discussed in relation to the distribution of Serpula lacrymans within Australia, its restriction to certain types of building construction and its restriction to flooring regions. The subfloor spaces of badly-ventilated, masonry buildings are highlighted as being better suited than are the subfloor spaces of, for example, Japanese buildings for the activity of this fungus. Hence Serpula lacrymans is very restricted in its distribution in Australia, yet where it is active it does grow rapidly and causes rapid flooring failures.
J D Thornton


Possible regulatory status of treated wood waste and implications
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-07
In relation to the European Community or the French regulations, treated wood waste can get two different regulatory status: <<recycled product or fuel>> or <<waste>>. Then, into the waste status, two categories are possible for these residues: <<domestic waste and assimilated>> or <<hazardous waste>>. These different status and categories are important for the environmental issue of treated wood waste management. But they also can have strong economical implications, linked to the waste management cost on one hand and on the materials image on the other hand. On the basis of the EC regulations, up to now, no treated wood waste is namely quoted as <<hazardous waste>>. However, through the classification criteria defined by different EC directives, creosote or heavy metals treated wood waste could be to considered that way. The technical arguments for such a classification and the practical implications are discussed.
G Deroubaix


Fire resistance of Alder wood treated with some chemicals. Part II. Effect of Other Chemicals on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40235
Samples from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey) Yalt.) were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 with boron compounds (boric acid, borax, sodium perborate), vinyl monomers (styrene, methyl methacrylate), Tanalith-CBC, Phosphoric acid, Vacsol, Immersol, Polyethylene glycole (PEG-400) and their mixed solutions of chemicals in order to determine their combustion properties. The results indicated that inorganic boron compounds with aqueous solutions were very effective as fire retardant and reduced burning of some vinyl monomers at some extent such as styrene and methylmetacrylate when used as a secondary treatment chemical polimerized later on wood structure and phosphoric acid was also showed fire-reterdancy. Further studies are suggested on boron-vinyl monomers, and boric acid+borax with different concentrations by physical and chemical interactions in terms of fire reterdancy.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz


Recycling of impregnated timber: Part 2: Combustion trial
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50132
Totally 270 m3 (61,3 t) of CCA impregnated wood was chipped and incinerated at the combustion plant of Jalasjärvi. After the normal gas cleaning venture scrubbers were tested. After the trial a metal balance was calculated. Ash was treated at the copper smelter of Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy. Condensate waters were transfered to the Outokumpu&apos;s CCA production plant and utilized by the manufacturing process. As a conclusion this trial gives very useful data for future tests.
L Lindroos


The use of zirconium as an inert fixative for borates in preservation
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30256
Stand-alone borates have been used in internal protected situations as wood preservatives for about 60 years. They have not been deemed acceptable for external situations because of their leaching characteristics. Work carried out to reduce the leachability of borates has been reviewed briefly here, and a specific fixation agent based on zirconium has been tested in standard leaching and decay tests. It was found that the performance of zirconium could be optimized for fixation at specific drying temperatures and at higher formulation pH. Using sufficient quantities of ammoniacal zirconium carbonate and potassium zirconium carbonate such formulations are then able to pass both Standard European and American Wood-Preservers&apos; Association methods designed for testing exterior wood preservatives. Formulations based on borate with a zirconium additive are probably suitable for use in exterior above ground and possibly ground contact situations. As only initial indicative tests have been carried out so far, further testing with a range of wood destroying organisms and field tests should be carried out to evaluate this system further.
J D Lloyd, J L Fogel, A Vizel


Disposal of CCA treated waste wood by combustion - An industrial scale trial
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50068
Totally 272 m³ (62.7 t) of CCA treated utility poles were chipped and incinerated at Jalasjärvi Gasification Plant. In average the whole batch of chips contained 57 kg of elementary copper, 95 kg chromium and 76 kg arsenic. During the 56 h combustion trial the measured arsenic emission to the air was 76 g in total. Copper and chromium emission was less than 1 g. The condensing water from the cooling unit and the ash from the gasifier were collected and transported to Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy and finally circulated through a copper refinery line.
A J Nurmi


Health hazards and environmental aspects when using Cu-HDO-containing wood preservatives in vacuum pressure plants
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-11
Apart from the biological efficacy of wood preservatives, the health and environmental aspects concerning the utilisation of wood preservatives, the use of treated timber and the disposal of impregnated wood are of high significance today. Therefore, information on a possible aerial concentration of wood preservatives, on the mobility of active substances in soil leached from treated timber in service and on the composition and toxicity of thermal decomposition gases releasing on combustion of impregnated wood, are of absolutely fundamental interest. Measuring procedures relevant for the practical application will be presented, and the results concerning the utilisation of Cu-HDO-containing wood preservatives will be described. With the proper use of Cu-HDO-containing wood preservatives, the aerial concentration at workplace falls distinctly below the maximum permissible limit. If vacuum pressure treated timber is used properly, no active substances will seep into the ground water as a result of the leaching process of impregnated wood in service. The composition measured and the acute toxicity of the thermal decomposition gases released on combustion of impregnated wood may axtually be compared to those of untreated timber.
W Hettler, S Breyne, M Maier


Use of freeze disinfection for the control of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1528
The common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum is an extremely widespread pest of wooden objects in Danish museums. In order to develop non-chemical methods of controlling the pests, experiments were conducted to elucidate the lower lethal temperature of Anobium punctatum. The egg stage was used for the experiments as it is considered the most temperature resistant stage. Groups of Anobium punctatum eggs were exposed to temperatures of -14, -18, -22, -26 and -30°C. Freezing durations were 8 hrs, 24 hrs and 48 hrs, respectively. Preliminary results of the experiments are presented.
L Stengård Hansen


Traitement des matériaux lignocellulosiques en présence des composés halogénés (Risques toxiques des produits de combustion)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-17
From the point of view of the combustion products toxicity, the highest environmental hazard comes from the combustion of materials creating toxic products such as dioxins and dilbenzofurans. 95% of these are formed during incineration of different materials. The aromatics result essentially from the products of paper industry and from wood treatment. Formation of halogenated products during the combustion of materials on the wood basis (papers, cartons, packing materials, wood treated, et c.) in the presence of halogenated compounds (PVC, PVDC, halogenated salts) is very complex. From the point of view of the toxic products formation, there is necessary to examine not only the influence of the polymer structure and the structure of halogenated compounds, but also oxygen concentration, temperature, ions, radicals and another components present in the flame. For the formation of chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans is essential that the polymer is able to generate the compounds with benzoic character as the intermediates. The examples of such precursors can be phenol formaldehyde polycondensates, various types of wood products, some polyesters and epoxy resins, but also polyvinyl chloride and polyvinliden chloride, combustion products of whose are aromatic structures.
I Surina, M Slimak, S Vodny, A Périchaud, K Balog


Equilibrium distribution of toxic elements in the burning of impregnated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50172
The current work focuses on predicting the behavior of arsenic, chromium, and copper in the burning of impregnated wood. A theoretical method is used to study the chemistry of the system, with special interest directed towards the vaporization tendency of the potentially toxic elements. The core of the study is the global equilibrium analysis that simultaneously takes into consideration all chemical reactions. The results of the present study indicate that chromium and copper are unlikely to volatilize at combustion temperatures. Arsenic appears to be more volatile. Nevertheless, the prediction showed that it may be captured by calcium of the wood ash, and small amounts are likely to dissolve in the slag-phase of the ash. It may also form non-volatile compounds with magnesium, copper, and chromium and other elements of the impregnated wood, which efficiently hinders its emissions as gaseous species.
K Sandelin, R Backman


Risk assessment of energetic valorization of treated wood - wooden recycling
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50072
The most useful method for the valorization of wood wastes and wooden wastes is energetic valorization. In France the percentage of wood treated by antisaptain products is around 30%. Currently with the growing regulation, there is a need for cleaner methods and technology to allow sustainable valorization. The preservatives concerned are common organochlorine compounds (NaPCP) less used nowadays in France and another product used at large scale now composed of quaternary ammonium and boron compounds. Results concerning air emissions during the combustion process, chemical analysis of process residues, toxicological evaluation of combustion exhaust gas in rats and ecotoxicological evaluation of residues is presented to assess the risk of recycling processes.
G Deroubaix, P Marchal, G Labat


Combustion properties of Alder wood treated with some new environment friendly natural extractives. Part 1. Effect of Natural Tannins on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40234
Powders of the brutia pine bark, sumach leaves, acorn, gall-nut and boric acid and borax which are known as potential environment friendly wood preservatives were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 in order to determine their combustion properties. A commercial treatment compound, Tanalith-CBC, was also used for comparison. The results indicated that the natural extractives did not have any effect on combustion properties of alder wood and showed the same fire properties with control sample. However, when wood samples were treated with first natural extractives then boron compounds solution sequentially, the combustion properties were reduced.
Ü C Yildiz, A Temiz, E D Gezer, S Yildiz


Emissions from the combusting of boron and fluoride containing wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-18
The combustion properties of waste wood and wood residues containing wood preservatives were investigated in several test series after having been blended with untreated wood at a ratio of 1:4. The results for CFB, SF and boric salt show that, provided an optimized combustion, the concentrations of the stack pollutants correspond approximately with those found for untreated wood. Only during the combustion of chipboard bonded with aminoplast and the preservative KHF, higher emissions in nitrogen oxide were observed which, however, were due to the nitrogen-containing binder. The results of tests made with other preservative components described in a recent work are confirmed.
T Salthammer, H Klipp, R-D Peek


Scandinavian experience – 25 years’ experience in transforming used creosoted wood into bio-fuel
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-18
Swedish experiences show that the best and most efficient way to handle the creosoted wood waste is through combustion. The preparation of creosoted waste wood to fuel chips at IQR AB’s plant in Trollhättan is done by splinting the wood according to a special method. Mainly railroad sleepers, but also other wooden commodities, from all over Europe are delivered to the plant. The wood material is crushed in a number of steps to achieve the appropriate size of the chips. The wooden chips are then delivered to combustion facilities in Sweden. The PAH emissions can be kept at a low level due to good mixing, high temperature and a high retention time in the furnace.
T Karlström


Emissions from the combustion of wood treated with organic and inorganic preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50019
Wood waste and industrial wood residues often contain various preservatives. The waste management for these residuals can be recycling, deposition or combustion. Among the three possibilities, combustion seems to be the most efficient way of usage. To obtain more information about the emission properties of treated wood, different materials were incinerated in different furnaces after mixing with non-treated wood in a ratio of 1:4. For sake of comparison, combustion was also performed using non-impregnated wood only. The combustion process of residues containing organic or inorganic preservatives is influenced by the elementary composition of the preservative and the thermal and oxidative reaction paths in the flame. Organic preservatives mostly can be thermally destructed by usual combustion conditions. Elevated conditions are necessary for preservatives based on creosotes (tar oil). Among inorganic preservatives, volatile ingredients like fluorine have a considerable environmental impact. Other elements like copper, chromium and boron remain in ashes and cinders reducing the emission problem towards an effective dust removal. It was also found that the concentrations of the gaseous emission components CO, NOx and CmHn are not increased in comparison to the values being found for non-treated wood. However, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans in the exhaust gas could only be kept low under optimized combustion conditions.
T Salthammer, H Klipp, R-D Peek, R Marutzky


Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) during the combustion of impregnated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-19
Wood waste and industrial wood residues often contain various preservatives. The waste management for these residuals can be recycling, deposition or combustion. Among the three possibilities, combustion seems to be the most efficient way of disposal. To obtain detailed information about emissions of organic compounds with environmental impact, especially polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF), different impregnated wood materials were incinerated in two furnaces after mixing with non-treated wood in a ratio of 1:4. The combustion process of residues containing organic or inorganic preservatives is influenced by the elementary composition of the preservative and the thermal and oxidative reaction paths in the flame. It was found that the concentrations of PCDD and PCDF in the exhaust gas can be kept low under good combustion conditions. However, a non-regular incineration process strongly supports increased emissions of PCDD and PCDF.
T Salthammer, H Klipp, R-D Peek


Fire retardant treated wood and plywood: A comparative study Part III. Combustion properties of treated wood and plywood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40236
The fire retardant treated and untreated plywood and alder wood samples were prepared with the aim to investigate the effects of the way of treatment on the combustion properties. Alder wood was used for the preparation of plywood. Boric acid and borax were used as fire retardant. The plywood samples were impregnated by using three different methods; first group samples were impregnated by soaking of individual veneer before manufacturing plywood. The second group samples were impregnated by adding boron compounds into the glue mixture and third plywood group samples were vacuum impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88. In addition, the solid alder wood samples were impregnated with same fire retardant solutions for control purpose according to ASTM D 1413-88. The results showed that the most effective way of the treatment was the impregnation of plywood panels treated with boric acid and significantly reduced burning of plywood and solid wood samples.
S Çolak, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Çolakoglu


Eradication of wood decay fungi by means of radio frequency
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10292
High frequency electromagnetic fields i.e. radio frequency (RF) are used in wood industry for heating, gluing and bending of wood and are also appropriate for eradicating of wood decay fungi and insects. We investigated the effects of RF exposure on wood samples which were in vitro infected by Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Lentinus lepideus. For each fungus, the lethal temperature and time of exposure were determined. The efficacy of RF treatment was visually evaluated from regeneration of mycelia by subsequent exposure of treated wood samples on growth media. The eradication was dependent on the fungus species, temperature and duration of exposure to RF of 4.75 MHz. The most sensitive was Coniophora puteana (destroyed in 4 minutes at 75°C), less sensitive Lentinus lepideus (in 10 minutes at 90°C) and the least, Gloeophyllum trabeum (in 12 minutes at 90°C). At low temperatures, the time of exposure had to be adequately longer.
F Pohleven, J Resnik, A Kobe


Silicic acid-Boric acid complexes as wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30273
A silicic acid monomer aqueous solution (SAMS) or colloidal silicic acid solution (CSAS) was combined with various metal compounds or boric acid. Agents where SAMS or CSAS was combined with boric acid gave good protection against decay caused by the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris, the treated wood (Cryptomera japonica D. Don) specimens after the leaching test maintained a high resistance to decay. The leaching and decay tests revealed high quantities of chemicals leaching from wood treated with SAMS-metal agents. However, when wood was treated with SAMS-boric acid, there was little leaching of agent in either test. The mechanism of resistance of wood, which was treated with boric acid mixed with CSAS or SAMS, to the brown-rot fungus F. palustris were investigated. When the concentration of boric acid was high, mycelial growth was inhibited completely and no protein production was detected. When the amount of boric acid was low, the xylanase, mannase and cellulase activities were lower than with control wood powder. When wood was treated with silicic acid only, its resistance to termites increased, but not to the marked extent observed after treatment with a mixture of silicic and boric acids. Also, increasing the quantity of boric acid increased the mortality rate of termites, and shortened the time to death. From field tests on stakes over three years, it was shown that even if stakes were placed near the termite exit, those treated with silicic acid and high levels of boric acid maintained their original form. Combustion tests showed that with high levels of boric acid, flaming and glowing combustion times were shortened. When boric acid-methanol solution was added at of rate of not less than 25 ml for 100 ml of CSAS, flaming and glowing combustion were not observed. Though the charring length of the wood- specimen, which was treated with silicic acid¡boric acid agent, decreased to 1/3 of that of control wood, the charring lengths were not influenced by the level of boric acid. However, the volume of smoke decreased relative to the amount of boric acid that had been added. When powdery boric acid was combined with CSAS, it was considered that the treated woods have higher anti-weather properties than when boric acid-methanol solution was mixed with CSAS. The agent- preparation method adopted should be considered carefully after taking the treatment process and the intended use of the preservative-treated wood into account.
H Yamaguchi


The loss of insecticidal action from synthetic pyrethroid-treated wood samples: The effect of high temperatures and relative humidities
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1569
This paper describes the results from bioassays using Hylotrupes bajulus, and chemical analyses, of pyrethroid-treated wood samples following storage for up to 3 years. A range of four storage environments was used consisting of combinations of two temperatures (20°C and 40°C) and two relative humidities (60% and 90%). It is concluded from the chemical analyses that, although losses at room temperature were small, at the higher temperature used in this study loss of insecticide was accelerated. Exposure of treated wood to high relative humidity did not appear to result in increased loss of insecticide. The bioassay results confirmed these conclusions. The significance of the bioassay results in relation to the long term efficay in service of preventive treatments is discussed and a logic proposed for deriving a service life on the basis of which an estimate of up to 58 years protection from current commercial formulations is derived.
R W Berry, S J Read


Recycling of impregnated timber: Part 1: Crushing, combustion plants, amount, costs and logistics
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50131
The object of the recycling research was to determine the technical and economical requirements of recycling of CCA-impregnated wood. The safest and most effective way is to crush impregnated timber in a stationary crushing plant where the reclaiming of dust is managed. The combustion techniques designed to burn solid Finnish combustible matter are applicable to burn crushed impregnated timber. Because of the arsenic scrubbing the gases is of special importance. By integrating different kinds of cleaning techniques the best collection efficiency is achieved for different kinds of impurities. The regulations for its combustion can be found in the air protection act and no limits exist for heavy metal emissions. Today, we do have to comply with the EU directives, however. In the near future a new directive for the fuel gases of a combustion plant will come into effect. lt is estimated that in the year 2000 there will be about 70,000 m3 of impregnated waste timber for recycling and the amount will grow to about 130,000 m3 before 2015. The size of the combustion plant to burn this amount of impregnated timber would be about 20 MW. Calculations made showed that the recycling of impregnated timber could be economically reasonable and the recycling payment would not be too high.
T Syrjänen


CCA-treated Wood Disposed in Landfills and Life-cycle Trade-Offs With Waste-to-Energy and MSW Landfill Disposal
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50231
CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world. Although some wood is combusted for the production of energy in the U.S., more often than not, CCA-treated wood is disposed in landfills. In other countries, wood, often including CCA-treated wood, is combusted for the production of energy. This paper is presented in two parts. Part I evaluates the impact of CCA-treated wood in three landfill settings: a wood monofill, a C&D debris landfill and a municipal sold waste (MSW) landfill. Part II utilizes the data found in the first part, along with data found in the literature to examine the trade-offs between landfilling and waste-to-energy (WTE) combustion of CCA-treated wood through a life-cycle assessment and decision support tool (MSW DST). The disposal of CCA-treated wood affected all three landfill disposal scenarios increasing concentrations of arsenic and chromium especially. Although the acid-forming phase of the MSW landfill aggressively leached metals, the methanogenic phase was not as aggressive and the impact to the leachate from the CCA-treated wood was less than for C&D debris landfills. Additionally, the decreased impact is a result of the CCA-treated wood comprising a smaller portion of the MSW waste stream by mass. For this reason, and because MSW landfills are lined, MSW landfills were concluded to represent a preferred disposal option over unlined C&D debris landfills. If leachate is collected, leachate treatment in both situations may become more difficult and expensive if concentrations exhibited in this research are observed. Between landfilling and WTE for the same mass of CCA-treated wood, WTE is more expensive (nearly twice the cost), but when operated in accordance with U.S. EPA regulations, it produces energy and does not emit fossil carbon emissions. If the wood is managed via WTE, less landfill area is required, which could be an influential trade-off in some countries. Although metals are concentrated in the ash, the MSW landfill scenario releases a greater amount of arsenic from leachate on an annual basis, but it is more dilute. The ash disposal scenario releases less arsenic from leachate on an annual basis, but concentrates it. The ash disposal releases more chromium on an annual basis. The WTE facility and subsequent ash disposal greatly concentrates the chromium, often oxidizing it to the more toxic and mobile Cr(VI) form. Elevated arsenic and chromium concentrations in the ash leachate may increase disposal costs.
J Jambeck, K Weitz, T G Townsend, H M Solo-Gabriele


Determination of thermal degradation of isothiazolone treated wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30154
Wood treated with 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one was the subject of thermal degradation study. The study included burning isothiazolone treated wood under various temperatures with and without oxygen. The result showed that no harmful combustion products, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans and polychlorinated biphenyls, were detected. These findings indicate that isothiazolone treated wood can be safely disposed by incineration.
Bing Yu


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