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Use of Transverse Compression Properties as a Measurement of Wood Biodeterioration, Part 1 of 2 - Effect of White-Rot on Yellow-Poplar
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40239
The soil block and agar block test methods are used extensively as a screening process for potential and modified wood preservatives. The extent of decay in standard screening tests, indicative of preservative efficacy, is currently based on mass loss. Mass loss techniques, due to their limit of sensitivity in detecting significant mass loss vis-à-vis decay, require an extended fungus exposure ...
S Janzen, D D Nicholas


Accelerated laboratory soil contact decay test using soil amended with composted wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20284
The effect of amending soil with wood compost on the decay rate of wood wafers in contact with the unsterile soil, as measured by radial compression strength loss, was explored. It was found that the addition of composted wood to the soil significantly increased the wood decay rate. The reason for this acceleration in wood decay is not entirely clear, but appears to be at least partially associate...
D D Nicholas, H Borazjani, T Schultz


Strength properties of preservative treated pine and spruce wood after super-heated steaming
1984 - IRG/WP 3313
Possible changes of strength properties of CCF pressure impregnated pine and spruce with subsequent steaming at 110°C respective 120°C for 30 min were examined. For spruce analysis of variance indicated that none of the processes had a significant effect on bending strength, compression strength and the corresponding modulus of elasticity as well as on impact bending strength and shear strength ...
R-D Peek


Degradation features of waterlogged archaeological compression wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10258
The degradation characteristics of waterlogged archaeological compression wood excavated in South Korea were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Degradation of Pinus compression wood occurred mainly in the inner part of S2 layer. In contrast, the outer part of S2 layer remained relatively intact. CLSM and TEM showed the erosion type of ...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh


Bacterial degradation of Pinus radiata compression wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10153
An inspection of twelve year old, CCA-treated Pinus radiata wood from an industrial cooling tower showed extensive surface decay of wood. Electron microscopic examination of decaying compression wood indicated that compression wood cells were attacked exclusively by bacteria, which were of erosion and tunnelling types. As compared to the normal wood, compression wood appeared to be more resistance...
A P Singh, R N Wakeling


Methods for improving preservative penetration into wood: a review
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40227
Pressure treatment technologies have been available since the mid-1830's, but the processes used for wood treatment are still largely unable to overcome the fundamental limitations of flow through semi-permeable pit membranes. Instead, methods have arisen that attempt to improve treatability of the wood including incising, compression rolling, through boring, or radial drilling. Other a...
J J Morrell, P I Morris


Effect of compression wood on leaching of chromium, copper, and arsenic from CCA-C treated red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30232
In this study, the effect of compression wood formation on the release rate of chromium, copper, and arsenic elements from red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait) was investigated. Wood blocks from red pine containing compression and normal wood portions were treated with a 1.0% CCA-C solution and were then allowed to fix at 23 ± ??2°C (74 ± 4°F) for 0, 6, 24, 48, 96, 192, and 336 hours. After each fixa...
S N Kartal, S T Lebow


Determination of toxicity data for preservatives against Basidiomycetes by measuring the reduction in compression strength of wood
1988 - IRG/WP 2297
Blocks of Pinus radiata D. Don were treated to 12 retention levels with CCA and NaPCP. These were exposed for 12 weeks in agar jars to the dry rot (brown rot) Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray. After mass loss determination, the same blocks were tested for reduction in compression strength parallel to the grain. Using both these parameters, together with interpolated 6 week strength loss...
J Wazny, J D Thornton


Effects of sodium hypochlorite on compression strength and copper retention of spruce wood treated with copper azole and alkaline copper quat
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40362
This work investigates the effects of sodium hypochlorite on compression strength values and copper retention ratios of refractory spruce wood (Picea oriental L.) treated with the waterborne preservative Copper Azole, (CBA-A, Tanalith-E 3492) and alkaline copper quat (ACQ-2200). Before the copper azole and alkaline copper quat treatment, the samples were immersed in 500 ml of sodium hypochlorite s...
S Yildiz, E Dizman, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz


Primary Study on Compressed Preservative-treated Wood (CPW) for Outdoor Applications
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40412
In this study, the compressed wood samples pre-treated with hot water bath or water spraying were immersed in the ammoniacal copper quat –type D (ACQ-D) preservative solution to get compressed preservative-treated wood (CPW). The liquid absorption and the recovery rate of compression deformation of the compressed wood was determined, as well as the surface hardness, the distribution of density a...
Jinzhen Cao, Jia Mao


Preliminary investigation of biological resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed pine wood panels
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40396
Wood can be modified by compressive, thermal and chemical treatments. Compression of wood under thermal conditions is resulted in densification of wood. This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels at either 5 or 7 MPa and at either 120 or 150?C for one hour. The process caused increases in density and decreases in thickness of the panels; however, lab...
Ö Ünsal, S N Kartal, Z Candan, R Arango, C A Clausen, F Green III


Effects of Murgul Copper Process flue gases (SO2) on compression strength parallel to the grain of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40404
In this study was investigated the effect on the compression strength parallel to the grain as mechanical properties of Fagus orientalis Lipsky. wood exposed to SO2 gas and non-exposed. In the experiments the two of four (total) were obtained from Artvin-Ortaköy region and the other two from Artvin-Murgul region. The compression strength parallel to the grain was calculated at the compare of ...
N Ay, E Topaloglu, A Uncu


Measurement of wood decay by dynamic MOE in an accelerated soil contact test
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20390
Current laboratory and field testing of preservatives involves various techniques to determine the extent of fungal attack, including visual inspection, mass loss, and static bending and compression strength measurements. The objective of this study was to compare decay measurement by conventional compression strength versus dynamic MOE, employing small wood stakes in an accelerated laboratory so...
Gan Li, D D Nicholas, T P Schultz


Effect of Nano-silver Treatment on Densified Poplar Wood Properties. Part Two: Spring Back, Compression set, Impact Load Resistance and Hardness
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40568
This paper is the second part of the study of applying nano-silver treatment before densification of poplar wood (Popolus alba). The specimens were prepared in four groups of: 1) nano-silver impregnated 2) water impregnated 3) dried with no impregnation and 4) the control specimens. The impregnation process was done by empty cell process. Then, the groups of 1 to 3 were compressed in a hot press a...
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, B Jamnani, M Ali Khajeh


The assessment of biological and mechanical properties of wood treated with ionic liquids – N,N-dimethylamine and 1-decylimidazole derivatives
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40582
This paper presents the results of tests of the effectiveness of action of new imidazolium and bis-ammonium ionic liquids against Basidiomycotina and Ascomycotina wood-destroying fungi. All the investigated ionic liquids showed high fungicidal action against Coniophora puteana. In order to characterize the influence of ionic liquids on mechanical wood properties, the compression strength along the...
W Przybylska


Combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D impregnation on properties of southern yellow pine wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40637
In this study, samples of southern yellow pine sapwood were first thermally modified and then treated by the alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) wood preservative. Two heating temperature (180℃ and 220℃) and two concentrations of ACQ-D solution (0.9% and 1.35%) were used in the experiments. The combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D on leaching performance, mechanical prope...
Wang Wang, Yuan Zhu, Jinzhen Cao


Estimation of wood degradation determined by visual inspection, mechanical testing and DNA characterisation – report after 3 years of exposure
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30700
The influence of two separate treatments, thermal modification and alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ, Silvanolin©) treatment, on fungal decay, visual disfigurement, deterioration in mechanical properties and fungal community structure was assessed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and compared with the performance of two naturally more resistant tree species native to North America: Douglas fir (Pseud...
N Thaler, T Martinović, M Bajc, D Finžgar, H Kraigher, A Sinha, J J Morrell, M Humar


Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility ...
J Larsen


Data sheet on wood-boring insects. Apate monachus Fabricius. 2. Position systématique, nomenclature, identification et distribution - Espèces végétales attaquée
1981 - IRG/WP 1105
R L A Damoiseau


Microbiological degradation of wooden piles in building foundations
1988 - IRG/WP 1370
White rot, soft rot and bacterial attack have been detected in softwood piles under buildings. In some cases bacteria were found to be the main degradation organisms in the studied piles. The water content of degraded piles was very high. The compression strength was quite low also in the piles deteriorated by bacteria. The density of wood was very variable, and the degree of degradation could not...
L Paajanen, H Viitanen


Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh


Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi


The IRG..Chanelling information and ideas into the mainstream of wood preservation technology
1985 - IRG/WP 5241
IRG Secretariat


Wood preservation in Poland
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30362
Dynamic growth of market demand for wooden elements and articles, generated in Poland increase of interest in industrial preservation. Today, Poland is a substantial producer and exporter of wood made products. Majority of exported wood - approximately 70% - is scotch pine (Pinus silvestris L.), which, due to its natural durability, requires preservation....
A Kundzewicz


Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions....
M Fougerousse


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