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Improvement of liquid penetration of wood by precompression under appropriate conditions and recovery process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40014
A new system for enhancing the penetration of liquid into wood using a precompression treatment was designed, and the effects of compressive deformation and recovery on liquid uptake were evaluated. Precompression of up to 60% under appropriate moisture and heat conditions effectively increased the penetration of liquid into refractory wood samples of practical sizes without producing any strength...
I Iida, Y Imamura

Determination of the amine to copper ratio remaining in wood after leaching
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30285
The effectiveness of the protection and the environmental impact of the treated wood are two of the most important aspects that need to be understood for all preservatives. Both are particularly influenced by the loss of biocidal components from treated wood. For amine copper preservatives, copper fixation determines the leaching resistance of the copper and amine compounds formed in wood. Previou...
N Lucas, J N R Ruddick

Comments on soft rot attack in timbers treated with CCA preservatives: A document for discussion
1982 - IRG/WP 1167
This paper is not based on any particular results but rather on several observations of soft-rot during many years of studies, and on a review of the existing literature. The short time available has unfortunately not permitted a detailed review of the literature. Data and knowledge of important facts are lacking for several aspects of soft-rot attack and for reactions occurring in the wood as a r...
T Nilsson

Interaction of copper-amine complexes with wood: Influence of copper source, amine ligands and amine to copper molar ratio on copper retention and leaching
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30203
The absorption and leachability of copper in copper amine (Cu-EA) treated wood are influenced by the formulation and the composition of copper amine treating solutions. The sources of copper used, Cu(OH)2, CuCO3, CuSO4 and Cu(NO3)2, in the copper amine complex formulation affect the leachability of copper. Data show that copper amine from CuSO4 and Cu(NO3)2 treated wood has less copper loss during...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem

Variations of Furfuryl alcohol and Wolmanit CX-8 treatability of pine sapwood within and between trees
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40421
The variations on the ratio of filling (RoF) were investigated on Norwegian grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). The samples were taken from 10 different stands in south-east Norway, and treated with furfuryl alcohol and a copper-containing wood preservative. Both within tree variations, between tree variations and variations between stands were investigated for significant differences. Factors li...
E Larnøy, S Lande, G I Vestøl

Copper to quat ratio in alkaline copper quat (ACQ) wood preservative - Effects on fixation and leaching of preservative components in red pine
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30496
This study investigates the effect of the relative proportion of copper oxide (CuO) to didecy dimethyl ammonium carbonate (DDACb) in an alkaline copper quat (ACQ) formulation on the rate of copper fixation or stabilization and the resistance of treated wood to leaching of copper and quat (DDACb). Red pine samples were treated with ACQ, having CuO to DDACb ratios of 2:1 (the normal ratio for ACQ-D...
S Pankras, P A Cooper, T Ung, L Awoyemi

Wood properties influencing the penetration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood with the wood modification agent furfuryl alcohol
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40470
The European standard EN 350-2 classifies Scots pine sapwood as class 1 (easy to treat). However large variations in sapwood penetration exist which affect a homogenous distribution of preservatives. Hence individual penetration schemes have to be developed and adjusted to the material most difficult to treat in order to provide adequate sapwood penetration. To ensure better economic process con...
K Zimmer, E Larnøy, G Koch

Sample Origin Influencing the Leachability of Wood Preservatives
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20474
The aim of this study is to see if the raw material influences fixation and leachability of wood preservatives. Moving towards more eco-friendly and –concious society, the wood industries must adjust itself to new rules and regulations. Greener solutions in wood protection are being tested and introduced, older systems are being improved, but questions still arise concerning some elements curren...
K Kängsepp. E Larnøy, P Meier

Wood protection by nano silver against white rot
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30554
This research was done with the aim of investigation on the natural durability of poplar (populous deltoides) in natural situation and treated with nano silver against the white rot. Testing samples was treated with the method of modified soaking and nano silver in 3 treating level of 0,200 and 400ppm. In this study effect of coriolus versicolor fungus (identificated as white rot) on populous del...
V Tazakor Rezai, A Usefi, M Soltani

Effect of P/F ratio, PF concentration and treating method on boron leaching from wood treated with PF modified boron compounds
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30559
In order to immobilize boron in wood, three kinds of resol-type phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin with different P/F ratios were synthesized in laboratory and incorporated with three types of boron compounds to treat wood. The used boron compounds included boric acid (BA), borax (BX) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT). The leaching test of boron from wood blocks was performed according to the...
Liping Yu, Jinzhen Cao

Study on the Effect of Combined Nanosilver-Hygrothermal Treatment on Wood Properties
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40581
In this study, the impregnation process with nanosilver solution, before hygrothermal treatment was carried out to investigate its effect on some physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Russian imported spruce (Picea abies). Wood specimens were impregnated with nanosilver solution (400ppm) in an impregnation tank under pressure of 0.25 Mpa, for 20 minutes....
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, A Karimi, B Jamnani, M Ebrahimi

Study on the Effect of Combined Nanosilver-Hygrothermal Treatment on Wood Properties
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40581
In this study, the impregnation process with nanosilver solution, before hygrothermal treatment was carried out to investigate its effect on some physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and imported Russian spruce (Picea abies). Wood specimens were impregnated with nanosilver solution (400ppm) in an impregnation tank under pressure of 0.25 Mpa, for 20 minutes....
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, A Karimi, B Jamnani, M Ebrahimi

Investigation of Nanocopper-Hygrothermally Treated Wood Properties
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40644
Nanometals with high thermal conductivity can be considered as modifiers, especially in thermal modification of wood. This study was aimed to investigate some physical and mechanical properties of nanocopper impregnated Iranian beach (Fagus orientalis Lipsky), which was hygrothermally treated. For this purpose, nanocopper solution (400 ppm) was used for impregnation process. Hygrothermal treatment...
G Rassam, B Jamnani, A Faraji Heris

Changes in mechanical and chemical properties of wood exposed outdoors
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20550
The aim of this study was to investigate differences in certain mechanical and chemical properties of three different wood species (common beach (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and copper-ethanolamine (CuE) impregnated Norway spruce (Picea abies)) that were exposed in use class 3 (CEN, 2006) for periods between 4 and 30 months. The results show, that changes in the investigated me...
N Thaler, C Brischke, D Žlindra, V Vek, M Humar

What makes cellulose auxetic?
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40767
The 1D bundles of cellulose microfibrils (lignified flax fibre) and 2D networks of cellulose mi-crofibrils form tunicate, bacterial and microfibrillated celluloses were strained in tension, and their molecular deformation followed by Raman spectroscopy in order to fully understand the origins and magnitudes of in-plane auxetics for the information of innovation. Cellulose is found to exhibit three...
A Asamoah, S Eichhorn, K Evans

Impact of heat treatment on physico-mechanical properties of torrefied Antholceistha djalonensis wood
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40811
Thermal modification at relatively high temperatures is an effective method to improve the dimensional stability and mechanical properties of wood. This study was carried out to investigate the impact of heat treatment on the physic-mechanical properties of torrefied Anthocleistha djalonensis wood. Thirty nine defect-free specimens of dimensions 20 mm × 20 mm × 60 were prepared for the determina...
E A Iyiola, B Olufemi, J A Fuwape, J M Owoyemi

Experimental study on compressive strength performance of cross laminated timber with biodeterioration damage
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40883
The mass timber construction has attracted attention around the world. The reasons are due to the environmental impacts and the potential of the strength performance and quantity of the wood. Nowadays, CLT is one of the most important materials for the timber constructions. If we use CLT as a building material, we should consider the biodegradation risk for long time use. From an estimation of fut...
T Mori, Y Otsubo, R Inoue, M Ikeda, K Kambara, W Ohmura

Estimation of residual compressive strength on cross laminated timber with biodeterioration damage
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40918
CLT is susceptible to biodeterioration such as fungal decay and termite attack during long-term use for buildings. It is necessary to know the residual strength performance of biodegraded CLT for estimating future performance and aging of CLT. In this study, compression tests of CLT damaged by brown rot fungi and termites were conducted to clarify the relationship between residual strength and mas...
R Inoue, T Mori, K Kambara, W Ohmura

A simple method for assessing the effects of lyctid beetle attack on longitudinal compressive strength of spotted gum sapwood
2023 - IRG/WP 23-20700
Lyctid beetle attack is commonplace in a significant proportion of spotted gum utility poles that are air seasoned prior to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment. While this damage is allowed, there are no reports quantifying the effects of the beetle galleries on pole properties. Full scale testing would require substantial quantities of poles in order to obtain a range of degrees of damage....
M Powell, J J Morrell

Optimization of furfurylic alcohol/tannin ratio to improve the performance of biosourced thermoset resins for wood protection
2023 - IRG/WP 23-40994
This study concerns the chemical modification of wood with different ratios of tannin and furfuryl alcohol (FA) in the presence of maleic acid as catalyst. Tannins were used not only as cross-linking agents, but also as co-monomers to improve wood durability, while reducing the amount of FA used. Different aqueous formulations were prepared containing decreasing amount of FA (from 45.45% to 0%) an...
E Azadeh, A Pizzi, P Gérardin, C Gérardin-Charbonnier