IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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Improved techniques designed for evaluation of fungicides in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans
1985 - IRG/WP 2238
Improved techniques provide a laboratory method for the evaluation of chemicals in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Results with their application to three chemicals were reported. These techniques are useful to eliminate chemicals lacking the necessary toxicity and weatherbility for dry rot control when the chemicals have been applied to the soil.
M Takahashi, K Nishimoto

Baiting techniques for subterranean termite control
1983 - IRG/WP 1205
The use of artificial baits, with and without toxins, have proved effective in attracting large numbers of non-mound and mound building subterranean termites in both urban and rural areas. An outline is presented of a termite baiting program which emphasises concurrent laboratory and field investigations on termite ecology, behaviour and physiology
J R J French, J P Robinson

Proposing innovative technologies in the control of dry-wood insects
1985 - IRG/WP 1262
This paper discusses the social-economic problems involved in the biological evaluation of dry-wood insects with particular reference to Nigeria. It also discusses prospects of applying non-conventional methods of control against such insects, integrating these with the conventional preservatives as a control strategy. This discussion follows attempts made to identify the major dry-wood insects in Nigeria as a base for raising cultures required in screening wood preservative materials. Hitherto, this allimportant aspect of wood science suffered underserved relegation in Nigeria. The commonest dry-wood insects identified so far include two species of dry-wood termites (Kalotermidae) Cryptotermes havilandi (Sjostedt) and Cryptotermes brevis (Walker); and beetles Lyctus africanus Lesne (Lyctidae), Minthea rugicollis (Walker), Bostrychoplies cornutus Olivier, Xyloperthella picea Olivier, Heterobostrychus brunneus Murray, Xyloperthodea nitidipennis Murray, and Apate spp. (Bostrychidae).
M O Akanbi

A comparison of analytical techniques
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20061
This paper compares carefully-controlled weight retentions and analysis by XRF, ICP, combustion methods and a new extraction procedure for the new preservative, Copper(II) Dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC). Various experimental parameters such as particle size and drying conditions were investigated. In general, the correlations between and among the procedures are very high. The extraction-colorimetric procedure developed for assay of CDDC was verified by comparison to AWPA Standard analytical techniques.
A C Gallacher, C R McIntyre, M H Freeman, D K Stokes, W B Smith

Estimating the age of subterranean termite attack and damage in buildings
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10727
This paper describes physical and experimental methods and a mathematical model (Rotramel 2003) to assist in estimating the age of subterranean termite attack and damage to building structures. Timber, building and termite management industries have to develop new strategies to assess and estimate termite attack and damage in the current climate of global warming. A case study will be used as an example of this approach, which is particularly fruitful in producing scientific data together with termite experts’ opinions over many years of termite experimentation in laboratory and field studies. We recommend developing such approach for termite inspections and treatments to be adopted by the architect, building, and termite management industries and their insurers, and be incorporated into Australian Standards and gazetted by the Building Council of Australia. Such an approach will be particularly fruitful to resolve disputes as to who is responsible for the costs of replacement and repair to subterranean termite attack and damage in Australia. Suggestions are offered to determine relative age and identification of individual termite species using other scientific techniques, particularly near-infrared spectroscopy, that would also present immense opportunities for various evolutionary studies on the dynamics of natural populations of termites and their microbial symbionts.
J R J French, B M Ahmed Shiday, J Thorpe

TMT–Interlab–Test to establish suitable quality control techniques - Structure and first results
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40503
As a result of growing quality demands from manufacturers and end-consumers of thermally modified timber (TMT) recent scientific research activities are increasingly focussed on modification mechanisms and by this on the development of suitable quality control methods. To deepen the knowledge in modification mechanisms and to obtain a larger variety of scientific data for TMT depending on the treatment intensity, a worldwide interlaboratory test series with TMT was started with nine research institutions involved, each contributing with their own most appropriate techniques and experiences. Therefore European beech and Norway spruce were thermally modified with different treatment intensities at Leibniz University Hannover and allocated to the involved partners. Basic treatment and material characteristics of the TMT used in the tests are presented in this paper and show that the decrease in mass by thermal modification (dm) is a suitable measure to describe the treatment intensity both for beech and spruce. Furthermore, color values and static mechanical strength properties proved to be highly correlated with dm. Consequently a strength prediction of TMT by color values appears applicable. Furthermore, correlations of dm with other target properties and further indicator measures are promising.
C R Welzbacher

Comparative response of Reticulitermes flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus to borate soil treatments
1991 - IRG/WP 1486
Eastern (Reticulitermes flavipes [Kollarl]) and Formosan (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) subterranean termite workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to borate-treated sand in an indirect exposure tunneling assay in the laboratory. In the ten day assay period, both termite species readily penetrated sand containing 5000, 10000, or 15000 ppm (wt. of compound / wt. of sand) disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Tim-BorÒ) or zinc borate (Firebrake ZB-FineÒ). With Reticulitermes flavipes, significant mortality (85-93%) resulted from workers tunneling through sand treated with 5000 ppm disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (higher concentrations were also effective), or 15000 ppm zinc borate. Responses of Coptotermes formosanus workers were lesser and more variable, with only concentrations of 10000 and 15000 ppm zinc borate resulting in mortality 70-89%) significantly different from that in the control groups. These results suggest that differences between these two species in tunneling behavior may reduce exposure of Coptotermes formosanus to the borate-treated sand.
J K Grace

Problems caused by termites in buildings in the State of Sao Paulo
1976 - IRG/WP 150
Termites are the main insects attacking buildings in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Their attack occurs in wood and wooden materials as well as paper, textile, leather and so on.
M S Cavalcante

The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Examples of attack and remedial treatment
1988 - IRG/WP 1347
The film deals with several aspects of dry rot attack and eradication in buildings. The detailed biology and morphological charasteristics of the fungus are portrayed. The various forms of mycelial growth, the role of the strands in the nourishment and spread of the fungus, as well as the many types of fruitbody formation are outlined. Environmental and nutritional requirements of the fungus as well as the potential infection danger posed by the basidiospores are discussed. The second part of the film, outlining the main reasons for dry-rot attack and spread in building together with the significant damage caused, shows the full extent of the problem to expert and lay-person alike. The necessity of correct survey and inspection of decayed areas to determine the full range of attack is stressed. Examples of various remedial treatments and the present technological state of eradication techniques, e.g. pressure injection, in Germany are discussed.
G Buchwald, B M Hegarty, W Metzner, R Pospischil, H Siegmund, P Grabow

Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no loss of activity was detected after 2 h in 9 M urea or 6 M guanidine-HCl. Boiling the enzyme for 5 min in 2.5% SDS + 0.5% b-mercaptoethanol reduced its activity by 65%, as measured by the production of reducing sugars. The activity of a-D-galactosidase, another enzyme detected in large quantities in the decayed wood, was reduced by 98% under these conditions. Optimum pH and temperature ranges were pH 2-6 and 50-60°C, respectively. The enzyme appears to be a glycoprotein containing 50-60% carbohydrate (w/w); the carbohydrate moiety may protect the enzyme from adverse environmental conditions. The control of brown rot by in situ inactivation of xylanase may not be feasible because of the enzyme's extreme stability.
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley

Current techniques for screening initial formulations against Basidiomycetes and soft rot
1978 - IRG/WP 2103
J D Thornton, H Greaves

Report and recommendations of the National Termite Workshop held in Melbourne on the 17 April 2002.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10478
There are two parts to this Report. Part One summaries the outcomes of an industry workshop organised to better scope the subterranean termite problem, identify knowledge gaps including R&D gaps and identifying strategies including cost-effective co-ordination mechanisms for addressing the issue. Part Two is a brief review of the current state of knowledge on subterranean termites of economic importance to the wood products industry in Australia.
B M Ahmed, J R J French

A case study on quality control on telephone poles as a cost saving tool in Tanzania
1987 - IRG/WP 3418
A sample of 28 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles from a lot of 2,000 poles awaiting delivery to the field, was studied to reveal the quality of treatment. Results showed a product of very poor quality. Average figures for penetration and retention were 8.4 mm and 2.2 kg/m³; these results are 66% and 91% below the required standards, respectively. Consequences of such results are estimated to amount to losses of billion of shillings.
K K Murira

Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French

Biological control with Trichoderma harzianum in relation to the formation for spores the production of soluble metabolites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10073
The amount of spores produced by three strains of Trichoderma harzianum on the aerial mycelium of agar cultures and in shake cultures, respectively, correlated with the inhibition zones exerted against Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an agar diffusion test. The amount of soluble antifungal metabolites as well as the protein content also correlated with the inhibition zones and the amount of spores produced. The antifungal metabolites were identified to be trichorzianines. They were the only compounds with antifungal activity. It is concluded that the trichorzianines are responsible for the biocontrol effect by soluble metabolites and that they are produced during conidiogenesis.
J Bürgel, E Horvath, J Haschka, K Messner

Termite standards questionnaire survey. Second Report
1989 - IRG/WP 1395
Information contained in replies received from IRG members responding to the survey continue to be summarised. Again, highlighted in this second report are the major termite species in the various zoogeographical regions, their damage ranking to timber-in-service, the chemicals used in control methods, and the status of the termite standards in the respondent countries.
J R J French, J P La Fage

Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro® bait
1982 - IRG/WP 1163
Amdro® - treated paper towels were introduced into two field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite in Hawaii. At the concentration of 180 ppm, the toxicant bait was ineffective one month after the introduction. At higher concentrations (> 6,400 ppm), the baits were eaten initially; however, one week after introduction, termites avoided or covered the baits. The 15,000 ppm baits supressed the activity of one colony but did not affect the other.
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III

Decay resistance of wood removed from poles treated with Trichoderma
1989 - IRG/WP 1386
Wood blocks removed from a distribution pole previously treated with a biological control product (Binab FYT pellets) were exposed in soil block tests to selected basidiomycetes. The blocks were removed from regions of poles where Trichoderma colonization had been confirmed by extensive sampling and computer mapping of microbial inhabitants. The results indicate that material from pole interiors colonized by Trichoderma is able to resist decay by Lentinus lepideus and Antrodia carbonica. Any decay prevention was lost however when the wood was steam sterilized prior to exposure to the basidiomycetes. The implications of the results for the use of biological control of internal decay in creosoted poles is briefly discussed.
A Bruce, B King, T L Highley

Biological control of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1971 - IRG/WP 100
M Tamashiro, J K Fujii, P Lai, T E Richardson

Nouvelles techniques de lutte anti-termites à faible impact environnemental
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-32
P Martinet

Supplement to Document No: IRG/WP/56. Health and safety aspects of the use of wood preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 356
H Willeitner

Evaluation of the effectiveness of three microbiocides in the control of sapstains
1982 - IRG/WP 3212
Results of field test on the effectiveness of BUSAN 30, CAPTAN, FOLPET against mould and sapstain in Pinus elliottii are presented. The viability of use of FOLPET in Brazil as an alternative to sodium pentachlorophenate is also discussed.
S Milano, J A A Vianna Neto

Antagonistic effects of a range of fungi to Serpula lacrymans
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10156
Certain fungi have been demonstrated to exhibit antagonism towards Serpula lacrymans in culture. Species from the genera Trichoderma, Gliocladium, Penicillium and Hypomyces were among those exhibiting the strongest antagonism. Certain species showed antagonism in a range of media of varying nutritional status. The possible role of antagonistic fungi as biocontrol agents for Serpula lacrymans is discussed.
P Rattray, G McGill, D D Clarke

Controlling Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestations in buildings with bait boxes
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10372
This paper describes the results of a commercial pest control operators use of the CSIRO bait box procedure in controlling infestations within buildings of subterranean termites ('termites') of the genus Coptotermes. Polystyrene bait boxes (480 x 330 x 210 mm3) were filled with alternate layers of corrugated cardboard and kiln-dried hardwood strips of Eucalyptus regnans F. Meull. (mountain ash). A viewing port at one end of each box allowed for the operator, or the clients, to check the presence of termites in the bait box. On discovering termite activity in the box, a dust toxicant (arsenic trioxide) was applied to the aggregated individuals, and the dusted termites returned to the box, thus spreading the toxin to other members of the nest colony, leading to it's collapse. On average, the time from installation to aggregating termites was about 4-6 weeks. Of the seventy-four boxes installed since 1994, sixty-six boxes were placed inside buildings, while eight boxes were positioned around buildings. Most were placed within buildings in the sub-floor areas, and alongside termite-infested skirting boards and architraves within slab-on-ground constructions. Other boxes were placed in cupboards, on top of termite-infested flooring, roof areas and on floors in garages. Eighty-five percent of the boxes lured termites, while 13% failed to lure any termites. Of those boxes with termites, there was a 82% success rate using arsenic trioxide as the dust toxicant. Eradication of termite colonies was recorded when no further termite activity was found after 6-12 months. These results are discussed in relation to present and future termite control.
J R J French, T Boschma

Recycling of pressure impregnated timber and preservatives - incineration techniques
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-19
The object of the recycling research projects is to determine the technical and economical requirements of the recycling of CCA-impregnated wood. In the first recycling of impregnated timber project the amount and location of recyclable treated wood in Finland was determined and the costs of recycling were calculated. An incineration test was also made (1998). The conclusion of the first project is that it is possible to design a full scale plant for burning CCA-treated wood, to treat condensate water, to purify the gases using a very effective method, and to treat the ash in a copper smelter. The object of the second recycling research project in Finland is to determine the technical and economical requirements of incinerating CCA-impregnated timber so that an investment decision can be taken on whether to build an incineration plant. Thus far in the course of the second project a trial has been established for collecting impregnated sawn timber at waste treatment plants and for cleaning the material of large metal constituents. The first part of the incineration trial was carried out in November 2000 and this will continue in the spring of 2001, after which an interested investor can reach a decision on a possible investment.
T Syrjänen, E Kangas

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