Your search resulted in 610 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Light organic solvent preservative treatment of glue-laminated radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3380
The high permeability of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) is associated with ray-tissue and in particular the cross-field pits linking ray-tissue to tracheids. This pathway is absent in the tangential grain direction, leading to poor preservative penetration when treatment is restricted to the radial face - for example, timber fabricated into glue-laminated beams....
Soft rot and bacterial decay in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1155
Bacterial type decay was observed in CCA and PCP treated eucalypt power transmission poles. Detailed observations made with the SEM revealed bacterial colonisation and decay, especially in fibres. Plug samples taken from poles throughout Queensland were examined for preservative retention and presence of soft-rot decay. The severity of decay was different according to location, retention and speci...
L E Leightley
The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and ...
M Van der Zee, W J Homan
The Effect of Heat on the Retention of Ammoniacal Copper Quat (ACQ-AB) onto Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40390
In this study, the sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were treated with ammonical copper quat type (ACQ-AB), which is one of the environmentally friendly wood preservatives, by using soaking method as a functions of various temperatures and time. The results indicated that the retention behaviour of ACQ onto the wood was considerably affected by temperature of ACQ solution and treatment t...
M Hakki Alma, A Mukremin Kara
Retention and distribution of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) in pressurised sap-displaced UK grown spruce and pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3366
Increment cores were taken from UK grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima Ait), Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr), and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) distribution poles treated by pressurised sap-displacement using a 1.8% copper, chrome, arsenic (CCA) solution. Each increment core was sectioned radially and the copper, chrome, and arsenic ...
P D Evans, G M Smith, B King
Soft-rot control in hardwoods treated with chromated copper arsenate preservatives. Part 3: Influence of wood substrate and copper loadings
1977 - IRG/WP 2100
The hypothesis is proposed that hardwoods need more chromated copper arsenate (CCA) than softwoods to protect them from soft-rot attack mainly because hardwoods are more readily consumed by soft-rot fungi. Simple model systems, using copper-supplemented agar or groundwood pulp treated with CCA showed that fungi tolerated more toxicant (copper) as more available substrate (malt) was provided. Soft-...
M A Hulme, J A Butcher
Inadequacies in preservative retention and formulation as contributory causes of premature failure of CCA-treated vineyard posts
1984 - IRG/WP 3280
Analyses of severely decayed or failed vineyard posts and examination of stake test data on effectiveness of copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) preservatives have suggested two contributory causes of premature failure of vineyard posts: 1. Preservative retentions in posts are such that after 15 years' exposure some decay is inevitable. 2. The high arsenic, low chrome formulations with which the...
M E Hedley
Preservative treatment of different thatching materials for low cost housing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40144
Preservative treatment were made in seven different roofing materials with Copper-Chrome-Boron (CCB) at different concentration by soaking process. These were paddy straw, wheat straw, jute stick, sungrass, ulu grass, sugercane leaf and Nipa fruticans. It was observed that retention of preservative chemicals varies from species to species at the same concentration. From the service test it was obs...
K Akhter, M Younusuzzaman, M H Chowdhury
Preservative treatment of Golpata (Nypa fruticans) using CCA (Chromated Copper Boric Acid)
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40131
Golpata (Nypa fruticans) leaves provide a cheap but practical source of roof thatches. This study was carried out to determine whether the life span of Golpata could be extended by using CCB (Chromated Copper Boric Acid) treatment. Both leaves and midribs of Golpata , with different moisture contents ranging 16.63% to 70.67%, at the start of the experiment were treated with four different concentr...
G N M Ilias, F Abdullah, M O Hannan, S M Feroz
Water-Borne Copper Naphthenate: An Emerging Wood Preservative
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30280
Waterborne copper naphthenate (WB Cu-N) was used to treat southern yellow pine (Pinus spp) and red maple (Acer rubrum) stakes. The treated stakes were exposed in test sites located in Florida, Michigan and Mississippi for 3 to 6 years. Copper Chromium Arsenate (CCA), Ammoniacal Copper Quat (ACQ) and Oil-borne Copper Naphthenate (OB Cu-N) were also used to treat some stakes for comparison. Results...
P Nzokou, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman
Preservative treatment of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) to increase its service life
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40320
Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) possess excellent properties for interior designing, wood working and furniture making. But it is very much susceptible to sap stain and mould fungi which decreases the service life. For profitable uses , it is necessary to increase the service life of rubber wood. To protect the rubber wood from wood degrading agents, the sawn timber were treated with Borax – b...
Determination of the amine to copper ratio remaining in wood after leaching
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30285
The effectiveness of the protection and the environmental impact of the treated wood are two of the most important aspects that need to be understood for all preservatives. Both are particularly influenced by the loss of biocidal components from treated wood. For amine copper preservatives, copper fixation determines the leaching resistance of the copper and amine compounds formed in wood. Previou...
N Lucas, J N R Ruddick
Soft rot decay in CCA treated eucalypts in Queensland - A comment
1986 - IRG/WP 1301
A survey has been completed concerned with the distribution and severity of groundline soft rot decay in the CCA treated sapwood of eucalypt poles in Queensland. The survey encountered some 1000 poles of which 55% were slightly, 28% moderately and 17% severely decayed. Soft rot decay was more severe in urban than rural locations. Embedment of poles in concrete resulted in severe soft rot. No signi...
L E Leightley
Effect of species, retention and conditioning temperature on copper stabilization and leaching for ACQ-D
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30342
The time to stabilization or equalization of the copper component of ACQ-D was highly dependent on treating solution concentration (preservative retention) and post treatment temperature. Stabilization was rapid for low preservative retentions but extended times were needed for wood treated with higher concentration solutions. The extent of stabilization was also concentration dependent with a h...
Y T Ung, P A Cooper
Interaction of copper-amine complexes with wood: Influence of copper source, amine ligands and amine to copper molar ratio on copper retention and leaching
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30203
The absorption and leachability of copper in copper amine (Cu-EA) treated wood are influenced by the formulation and the composition of copper amine treating solutions. The sources of copper used, Cu(OH)2, CuCO3, CuSO4 and Cu(NO3)2, in the copper amine complex formulation affect the leachability of copper. Data show that copper amine from CuSO4 and Cu(NO3)2 treated wood has less copper loss during...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem
CCB Preservative treatment of split muli (Melocanna baccifera ) bamboo by soaking process
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40336
This study was carried out in order to investigate the retention of chemicals inside the split muli ( Melocanna baccifera ) bamboo after preservative treatment by soaking process. Treatment with 10% aqueous solution of CCB (copper-chrome-boron) was applied in split bamboo of two sizes (1/4 part and 1/8 part) at three different moisture contents and five time periods (24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours). It...
K Akhter, M H Chowdhury
Preservative treatment of Golla cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana) by pressure process
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40379
The feasibility of preservative treatment of golla cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana (Griff) Mart). by pressure process has been studied using water borne preservatives CCB (copper-chrome-boron). Cane samples of three different lengths 1m, 2m and 3 m. were treated at different pressure and time period to evaluate the extent of penetration and retention of preservative chemicals. It was observed that t...
K Akhter, M Hoque Chowdhury
Effects of sodium hypochlorite on compression strength and copper retention of spruce wood treated with copper azole and alkaline copper quat
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40362
This work investigates the effects of sodium hypochlorite on compression strength values and copper retention ratios of refractory spruce wood (Picea oriental L.) treated with the waterborne preservative Copper Azole, (CBA-A, Tanalith-E 3492) and alkaline copper quat (ACQ-2200). Before the copper azole and alkaline copper quat treatment, the samples were immersed in 500 ml of sodium hypochlorite s...
S Yildiz, E Dizman, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz
Effects of acetic acid and nitric acid pre-treatment on copper content of spruce wood treated with CBA-A and CCA
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40406
This work investigates the effects of nitric acid and acetic acid on compression strength values and copper retention contents of refractory spruce wood (Picea oriental L.) treated with the waterborne preservative Copper azole, (CBA-A, Tanalith-E 3492) and copper / chrom / arsenic (CCA). Before the CBA-A and CCA treatment, the samples were immersed in 500 ml of nitric and acetic acid solutions for...
S Yildiz, E Dizman, Ü C Yildiz
Effects of planning and sanding on penetration and retention properties of some softwood species treated with copper azole
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40410
This work investigates the effect of some woodworking treatments on penetration and retention properties of four different (scotch pine—SP, Siberian scotch pine—SSP, Siberian larch—SL, and oriental spruce—OS) heartwood species with the waterborne preservative copper azole (CBA-A). A 2.4% active ingredient solution of CBA-A was applied for use in vacuum/pressure treatment of the heartwood s...
Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz
Comparison of gauge and assay retention in crossties treated with copper naphthenate
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40667
Creosote has been the most widely used preservative for wooden railroad crossties or sleepers for over 100 years. Alternative preservatives such as copper naphthenate (CuN) have been shown to provide equivalent performance against decay fungi and wood destroying insects; however, the use and specification of CuN involves an education process for treaters and railroad customers alike. One differe...
J Brient, H Tomlinson, J Hughes
Overview of the treated wood quality control program in the United States with the recent challenges and advances
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20616
In the past two decades, there have been significant and rapid changes in wood protection technologies for residential applications which have moved away from long established heavy duty metal oxide based products such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The successor generation of wood protection systems usually contain copper as the primary biocide, in combination with carbon-based co-biocides s...
Treatability of South African-grown Eucalyptus grandis with water-borne copper azole and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate wood preservatives
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40920
This study investigated the treatability of the sapwood and heartwood of sawn Eucalyptus grandis with copper-azole (CuAz) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) water-borne preservatives towards improving its durability for enhanced use in structural solid wood applications. The results obtained showed that, at a moisture content of 12 ± 1%, sawn E. grandis sapwood can be impregnated to a mea...
A A Alade, Z Naghizadeh, C B Wessels
Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy...
Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher