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Light organic solvent preservative treatment of glue-laminated radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3380
The high permeability of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) is associated with ray-tissue and in particular the cross-field pits linking ray-tissue to tracheids. This pathway is absent in the tangential grain direction, leading to poor preservative penetration when treatment is restricted to the radial face - for example, timber fabricated into glue-laminated beams.
P Vinden

Soft rot and bacterial decay in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1155
Bacterial type decay was observed in CCA and PCP treated eucalypt power transmission poles. Detailed observations made with the SEM revealed bacterial colonisation and decay, especially in fibres. Plug samples taken from poles throughout Queensland were examined for preservative retention and presence of soft-rot decay. The severity of decay was different according to location, retention and species.
L E Leightley

The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and chromium. When related to the retention of both salts after impregnation, no differences could be found between samples previously treated with anti-blue-stain preservatives and untreated samples. However, the retention of CC diminished significantly by application of quaternary ammonium compounds.
M Van der Zee, W J Homan

The Effect of Heat on the Retention of Ammoniacal Copper Quat (ACQ-AB) onto Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40390
In this study, the sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were treated with ammonical copper quat type (ACQ-AB), which is one of the environmentally friendly wood preservatives, by using soaking method as a functions of various temperatures and time. The results indicated that the retention behaviour of ACQ onto the wood was considerably affected by temperature of ACQ solution and treatment time.
M Hakki Alma, A Mukremin Kara

Retention and distribution of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) in pressurised sap-displaced UK grown spruce and pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3366
Increment cores were taken from UK grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima Ait), Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr), and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) distribution poles treated by pressurised sap-displacement using a 1.8% copper, chrome, arsenic (CCA) solution. Each increment core was sectioned radially and the copper, chrome, and arsenic content analysed. All four wood species showed a higher CCA content in the outer sapwood which declined radially towards the centre of the pole. The net preservative retention in the outer sapwood of Scots Pine, Corsican Pine and Norway Spruce was in the range 13-23 kg/m³. The CCA content in the outer sapwood for Sitka spruce was low (in the range 4-7 kg/m³). Little longitudinal variation in CCA content occurred along the length of the poles for the four wood species studied. The concentration of the individual CCA components varied in a radial direction. Chrome and Arsenic concentrations were at a maximum in the outer sapwood in all four wood species whereas Copper tended to be in a maximum concentration in the inner sapwood some 20-40 mm from the pole surface. This effect was particularly noticeable in Scots pine and Corsican pine. It is believed that the preservative gradients reported may be important in determining the performance of treated wood and as such should be taken into account when designing predictive tests of the efficacy of preservative treatments.
P D Evans, G M Smith, B King

Soft-rot control in hardwoods treated with chromated copper arsenate preservatives. Part 3: Influence of wood substrate and copper loadings
1977 - IRG/WP 2100
The hypothesis is proposed that hardwoods need more chromated copper arsenate (CCA) than softwoods to protect them from soft-rot attack mainly because hardwoods are more readily consumed by soft-rot fungi. Simple model systems, using copper-supplemented agar or groundwood pulp treated with CCA showed that fungi tolerated more toxicant (copper) as more available substrate (malt) was provided. Soft-rot tests with CCA-treated hardwood blocks provided typical dosage-response curves when results were expressed as a ratio of substrate to toxicant (wood to copper). Furthermore, hardwoods needed 10 to 20 times more copper as CCA than softwoods to prevent soft-rot attack. When CCA was substituted by ammoniacal copper arsenate in 5 hardwoods, similar threshold values for soft-rot attack were obtained in terms of a wood-to-copper ratio. Hence, CCA may be behaving poorly against soft-rot fungi in our hardwood specimens mainly because the substrate contained too little copper. The practical implications of these results are discussed.
M A Hulme, J A Butcher

Inadequacies in preservative retention and formulation as contributory causes of premature failure of CCA-treated vineyard posts
1984 - IRG/WP 3280
Analyses of severely decayed or failed vineyard posts and examination of stake test data on effectiveness of copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) preservatives have suggested two contributory causes of premature failure of vineyard posts: 1. Preservative retentions in posts are such that after 15 years' exposure some decay is inevitable. 2. The high arsenic, low chrome formulations with which the posts were treated are less effective in controlling decay than low arsenic high chrome formulations previously used in New Zealand, on the performance of which many concepts of CCA effectiveness are based.
M E Hedley

Preservative treatment of different thatching materials for low cost housing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40144
Preservative treatment were made in seven different roofing materials with Copper-Chrome-Boron (CCB) at different concentration by soaking process. These were paddy straw, wheat straw, jute stick, sungrass, ulu grass, sugercane leaf and Nipa fruticans. It was observed that retention of preservative chemicals varies from species to species at the same concentration. From the service test it was observed that by using low concentrated solution at minimum immersion period, durability of the thatching materials can increased which is economically acceptable and enviromnental pollution is also minimized.
K Akhter, M Younusuzzaman, M H Chowdhury

Preservative treatment of Golpata (Nypa fruticans) using CCA (Chromated Copper Boric Acid)
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40131
Golpata (Nypa fruticans) leaves provide a cheap but practical source of roof thatches. This study was carried out to determine whether the life span of Golpata could be extended by using CCB (Chromated Copper Boric Acid) treatment. Both leaves and midribs of Golpata , with different moisture contents ranging 16.63% to 70.67%, at the start of the experiment were treated with four different concentrations of CCB for 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours by dipping method. The treated samples were analyzed for chemical penetration and retention. Penetration was measured with a copper and boron indicator whilst retention was determined by X-ray spectroscopy. Results showed that moisture content had no significant effect for treating Golpata, but both chemical concentration and duration of dipping period have considerable effect on the preservation of Golpata. Better retention was exhibited by 6 hours of dipping time. Statistical analysis showed at 5% level of significance (confidence) that the effect of treatment times were also significant. Chemical concentration shows a significant effect on penetration of Golpata leaves but concentration has no effect on the retention. At 1% level of confidence, it is seen that the effect of chemical concentration, moisture content and their interaction on the penetration is not significant. For midribs it was found that the treatment time, different moisture content, chemical concentration and their interaction had no statistically significant effect at 1% confidence level on the increase of retention.
G N M Ilias, F Abdullah, M O Hannan, S M Feroz

Water-Borne Copper Naphthenate: An Emerging Wood Preservative
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30280
Waterborne copper naphthenate (WB Cu-N) was used to treat southern yellow pine (Pinus spp) and red maple (Acer rubrum) stakes. The treated stakes were exposed in test sites located in Florida, Michigan and Mississippi for 3 to 6 years. Copper Chromium Arsenate (CCA), Ammoniacal Copper Quat (ACQ) and Oil-borne Copper Naphthenate (OB Cu-N) were also used to treat some stakes for comparison. Results obtained showed that decay fungi and termites destroyed untreated samples within 2-3 years on all sites. After 3 years exposure in Florida, red maple stakes treated at retention of 0.04pcf (0.561kg/m3) were destroyed by decay fungi and termites. All red maple treated above 0.07pcf (1.092 kg/m3) and yellow pine treated at retention ranging from 0.04pcf (0.708 kg/m3) of copper to 0.68pcf (10.9 kg/m3) of copper from WB Cu-N performed well. After 6 years exposure in Mississippi and Michigan, 0.07±0.007pcf (0.708 kg/m3) and 0.12±0.01pcf (1.95 kg/m3) of Cu metal from WB Cu-N respectively for yellow pine and red maple, offered a good protection comparable to CCA and ACQ treatments. This study clearly suggests that WB Cu-N can be used as a wood preservative for both above ground and ground contact applications.
P Nzokou, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman

Preservative treatment of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) to increase its service life
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40320
Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) possess excellent properties for interior designing, wood working and furniture making. But it is very much susceptible to sap stain and mould fungi which decreases the service life. For profitable uses , it is necessary to increase the service life of rubber wood. To protect the rubber wood from wood degrading agents, the sawn timber were treated with Borax – boric acid solution and Copper-chrome -boron solution by soaking process and Lowry empty cell pressure process following moderate treatment schedule. It was found that rubber wood can be treated satisfactorily by both the processes with acceptable penetration and retention.
K Akhter

Determination of the amine to copper ratio remaining in wood after leaching
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30285
The effectiveness of the protection and the environmental impact of the treated wood are two of the most important aspects that need to be understood for all preservatives. Both are particularly influenced by the loss of biocidal components from treated wood. For amine copper preservatives, copper fixation determines the leaching resistance of the copper and amine compounds formed in wood. Previous research has suggested that the degree of copper fixation may be influenced by the amine-copper formulation (including the type of amine), the copper concentration and the ratio of the amine to copper in the treating solution. However, the relationship between amine and copper concentration and the fixation efficiency is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of a) the type of amine, b) the concentration of copper, and c) the amine to copper mole ratio, on the fixation chemistry of amine-copper preservatives.
N Lucas, J N R Ruddick

Soft rot decay in CCA treated eucalypts in Queensland - A comment
1986 - IRG/WP 1301
A survey has been completed concerned with the distribution and severity of groundline soft rot decay in the CCA treated sapwood of eucalypt poles in Queensland. The survey encountered some 1000 poles of which 55% were slightly, 28% moderately and 17% severely decayed. Soft rot decay was more severe in urban than rural locations. Embedment of poles in concrete resulted in severe soft rot. No significant correlation was found between an increase in CCA retention and decrease in severity of soft rot. Soft rot decay was found to be very variable. Management of this variability could be made by practising realistic and efficient pole inspection techniques.
L E Leightley

Effect of species, retention and conditioning temperature on copper stabilization and leaching for ACQ-D
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30342
The time to stabilization or equalization of the copper component of ACQ-D was highly dependent on treating solution concentration (preservative retention) and post treatment temperature. Stabilization was rapid for low preservative retentions but extended times were needed for wood treated with higher concentration solutions. The extent of stabilization was also concentration dependent with a higher percentage of copper fixed with lower retention treatments. Increasing the temperature of the treated wood from 22°C to 50°C reduced the stabilization time by up to ten times depending on the ACQ retention and the wood species. There was little species effect for low extractive content red pine (Pinus resinosa), jack pine (Pinus banksiana), white spruce (Picea glauca), balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). Neither was there a significant difference in the stabilization rates of jack pine sapwood and heartwood. However, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stabilized at a greater rate and to a higher degree than the other species with heartwood reacting faster and more completely than sapwood. This is likely attributed to the high reactivity of copper at high pH with phenolic extractives in Douglas-fir.
Y T Ung, P A Cooper

Interaction of copper-amine complexes with wood: Influence of copper source, amine ligands and amine to copper molar ratio on copper retention and leaching
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30203
The absorption and leachability of copper in copper amine (Cu-EA) treated wood are influenced by the formulation and the composition of copper amine treating solutions. The sources of copper used, Cu(OH)2, CuCO3, CuSO4 and Cu(NO3)2, in the copper amine complex formulation affect the leachability of copper. Data show that copper amine from CuSO4 and Cu(NO3)2 treated wood has less copper loss during laboratory water leaching than those from Cu(OH)2 and CuCO3 treated wood. Increasing amine to copper molar ratio increases the copper retention by wood, but reduces the leaching resistance of copper. The nature of amine ligands, such as monoethanolamine (primary amine), 2-methylamino-ethanol (secondary amine) and N, N-dimethyl-ethanolamine (tertiary amine), has some effect on copper retention and copper leaching. As the molecular weight of amine ligands increases, copper loss during leaching decreases.
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem

CCB Preservative treatment of split muli (Melocanna baccifera ) bamboo by soaking process
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40336
This study was carried out in order to investigate the retention of chemicals inside the split muli ( Melocanna baccifera ) bamboo after preservative treatment by soaking process. Treatment with 10% aqueous solution of CCB (copper-chrome-boron) was applied in split bamboo of two sizes (1/4 part and 1/8 part) at three different moisture contents and five time periods (24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours). It was found that maximum retention was found in split bamboo both ¼ part and 1/8 part at 15% moisture content. Due to more exposed area 1/8 part split bamboo attained more chemicals than ¼ part split. It was found that after 72 hours soaking the retention of the chemicals were 8.82 Kg /m3 and 11.46 Kg/M3 for ¼ and 1/8 split bamboo respectively which is sufficient to protect split bamboo in outdoor condition.
K Akhter, M H Chowdhury

Preservative treatment of Golla cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana) by pressure process
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40379
The feasibility of preservative treatment of golla cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana (Griff) Mart). by pressure process has been studied using water borne preservatives CCB (copper-chrome-boron). Cane samples of three different lengths 1m, 2m and 3 m. were treated at different pressure and time period to evaluate the extent of penetration and retention of preservative chemicals. It was observed that the complete penetration was not possible for 3-meter length sample, using 7 Kg/m2 pressure and 1 hour time period by pressure process. Samples of small (1m) and medium (2m) length can be treated satisfactorily by the pressure process following a moderate treatment schedule (3.5 Kg/m2 & 30 minutes time period) with conventional water-borne preservative CCB (copper- chrome- boron).In air dry condition, an average dry salt retention (DSR) of 21.3 Kg/m3 and 22.5 Kg/m3 were obtained for small (1 m) and medium (2 m) length sample respectively.
K Akhter, M Hoque Chowdhury

Effects of sodium hypochlorite on compression strength and copper retention of spruce wood treated with copper azole and alkaline copper quat
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40362
This work investigates the effects of sodium hypochlorite on compression strength values and copper retention ratios of refractory spruce wood (Picea oriental L.) treated with the waterborne preservative Copper Azole, (CBA-A, Tanalith-E 3492) and alkaline copper quat (ACQ-2200). Before the copper azole and alkaline copper quat treatment, the samples were immersed in 500 ml of sodium hypochlorite solution for three different durations (2, 4, and 6 hours). A 2 % active ingredient solutions of CBA-A and ACQ were applied for use in vacuum treatment of the sapwood samples. Average copper contents of the specimens were higher than that of the control groups except of the 6-hours sodium hypochlorite treatment in ACQ impregnation. The highest copper value was seen in the variation the 6-hours sodium hypochlorite treatment in the CBA-A impregnation. Compression strength values generally slightly reduced compared to the control groups especially in ACQ impregnation.
S Yildiz, E Dizman, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz

Effects of acetic acid and nitric acid pre-treatment on copper content of spruce wood treated with CBA-A and CCA
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40406
This work investigates the effects of nitric acid and acetic acid on compression strength values and copper retention contents of refractory spruce wood (Picea oriental L.) treated with the waterborne preservative Copper azole, (CBA-A, Tanalith-E 3492) and copper / chrom / arsenic (CCA). Before the CBA-A and CCA treatment, the samples were immersed in 500 ml of nitric and acetic acid solutions for two different durations (3 and 6 hours). A 2 % active ingredient solutions of CBA-A and CCA were applied for use in vacuum treatment of the sapwood samples. According to the results, average copper contents of the specimens were higher than that of the control groups except of the 3-hours nitric acid treatment in CCA and CBA-A impregnation. Acetic acid exhibited better performance than nitric acid although it was used at lower concentration. The highest copper content values were obtained in the variations of the 6-hours acetic acid pre-treatments for both CCA and CBA-A impregnations. Compression strength values generally slightly increased compared to the control groups.
S Yildiz, E Dizman, Ü C Yildiz

Effects of planning and sanding on penetration and retention properties of some softwood species treated with copper azole
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40410
This work investigates the effect of some woodworking treatments on penetration and retention properties of four different (scotch pine—SP, Siberian scotch pine—SSP, Siberian larch—SL, and oriental spruce—OS) heartwood species with the waterborne preservative copper azole (CBA-A). A 2.4% active ingredient solution of CBA-A was applied for use in vacuum/pressure treatment of the heartwood samples. Two different woodworking treatment were used, namely planning and sanding. Maximum and minimum penetration values were measured as percentage of cross-sectional area. Penetration of preservative was also determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis (ASOMA). SP resulted in the highest penetration and retention values complied requirements stated in the American Wood Preservers’ Association (AWPA) standards. Siberian scotch also showed satisfactory results for standard requirements. SL and OS showed lower penetration and retention results than those of pine samples which can be related to their refractory characteristics. On the other hand, woodworking treatments such as planning and sanding done before impregnation process did not affect total preservative and copper retention, moreover, interestingly increased preservative retention of the wood specimens in most variations.
Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz

Comparison of gauge and assay retention in crossties treated with copper naphthenate
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40667
Creosote has been the most widely used preservative for wooden railroad crossties or sleepers for over 100 years. Alternative preservatives such as copper naphthenate (CuN) have been shown to provide equivalent performance against decay fungi and wood destroying insects; however, the use and specification of CuN involves an education process for treaters and railroad customers alike. One difference between the two preservatives is use of a diluent or carrier oil with CuN, where both copper and oil retention become treating factors. Another is the ability to easily determine copper concentration in various zones throughout the interior of ties treated with CuN. Assay retention and other results-based specifications may be somewhat new concepts to tie treaters accustomed to measuring gauge retention based solely on volumetric or gravimetric uptake of creosote or creosote solutions. The objective of this study is to compare preservative retention in oak/hickory and mixed hardwood crossties treated with CuN in diesel oil solutions when measured by gauge and assay, and to determine if minimum copper retentions are achieved even when gauge retention (net solution uptake) appears deficient. Gauge and assay retention was measured from 272 commercial hardwood tie charges treated with CuN solutions, and copper retention was determined in core borings at various assay zones. The data confirm that adequate copper retention is achieved in both oak and mixed hardwood charges even when at relatively low solution retention levels, either because of refractory species or low copper concentration in the treating solution. Copper retentions measured by assay exceeded by 26-67% the values for gauge retention estimated from solution uptake, in part due to selective adsorption of copper.
J Brient, H Tomlinson, J Hughes

Overview of the treated wood quality control program in the United States with the recent challenges and advances
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20616
In the past two decades, there have been significant and rapid changes in wood protection technologies for residential applications which have moved away from long established heavy duty metal oxide based products such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The successor generation of wood protection systems usually contain copper as the primary biocide, in combination with carbon-based co-biocides such as quaternary ammonium compounds (Quat), and/or triazoles (Tebuconazole and/or Propiconazole). The most recent developments have given rise to even more complicated combinations including multiple carbon-based biocides formulated in the form of emulsions or dispersions with or without water repellents or polymers aiming to minimize the use of heavy metals as well as provide improvement in wood dimensional stability and surface weathering performance. Also, long developed non-biocidal wood modification treatments, such as acetylation, thermal modification, furfurylation and hydrocarbon wax/oil treated wood have finally gained more commercial traction in the market place, especially in Europe. These new developments have challenged the industry to develop and use appropriate methods in order to meet the quality control (QC) standards and requirements in respect to concentration of treatment solutions, as well as chemical retention and penetration in treated wood. In the US, the QC system for treated wood product includes three key elements: treating plant internal QC for treating solution, treated wood, and treatment process; QC assistance and monitoring by the chemical/technological suppliers for their customers, and QC inspection by third-party inspection agencies. The enforcement of the QC standards through this comprehensive system is essential to ensure the performance of the treated wood products, the validity of product warranty program, and ultimately for the protection of consumers and the public. This paper overviews the US’s current QC standards and procedures used by treating plants, suppliers and independent inspection agencies. The chemistry challenges with the recent developments of multi-component systems and complex wood protection technologies, and their impacts on quality control methods are also discussed. Case studies have been used to illustrate how some of these challenges can and have been successfully addressed.
L Jin

Treatability of South African-grown Eucalyptus grandis with water-borne copper azole and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate wood preservatives
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40920
This study investigated the treatability of the sapwood and heartwood of sawn Eucalyptus grandis with copper-azole (CuAz) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) water-borne preservatives towards improving its durability for enhanced use in structural solid wood applications. The results obtained showed that, at a moisture content of 12 ± 1%, sawn E. grandis sapwood can be impregnated to a mean retention level of 4.61 kg/m3 with CuAz and 7.98 kg/m3 boric acid equivalent (b.a.e) with DOT. The highest mean retentions obtained in the heartwood were 2.10 kg/m3 and 3.52 kg/m3 b.a.e for CuAz and DOT respectively. The findings revealed high sapwood and limited heartwood permeabilities of E. grandis, thus agreeing with the South African National Standards (SANS 10005:2016) categorization of E. grandis as amenable to impregnation. This study outcome showed that obtaining suitable preservative retention levels in sawn E. grandis with considerable sapwood content is feasible. Furthermore, the study provides a basis for consideration of sawn E. grandis durability treatment with CuAz for hazard classes H3 and H4, and DOT for class H3 subject to other conditions being met such as the SANS 10005:2016 prescribed coating maintenance required for the latter treatment.
A A Alade, Z Naghizadeh, C B Wessels

Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy creosote were less decayed than poles treated with medium-heavy creosotes. Poles treated with a light creosote were most decayed.
Ö Bergman

Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports of some copper naphthenate-treated poles rapidly failing. One possible explanation for the varying effectiveness could be that the structure, and resulting biological activity, of the naphthenic acids used to make copper naphthenate may vary. To test this hypothesis several naphthenic acids and copper naphenates were obtained and their fungicidal activity against three wood-destroying fungi measured. In addition, the chemical structure of the naphthenic acids were examined by proton- and carbon- NMR. Different activities were observed, especially against a copper-tolerant fungus. Some apparent correlations were seen between the fungicidal activity and chemical structures for the few samples studied.
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher

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