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Tests with ammoniacal copper and alkyl ammonium compounds as wood preservatives
1984 - IRG/WP 3299
Formulations based on copper and alkyl ammonium compounds in ammonia solution have been tested in a fungus cellar on Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica. This type of products gives promising results as wood preservatives, especially on hardwood and are safe to destroy by e.g. combustion. The best results were achieved with a dialkyl ammonium compound, Cu/octyldecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (NH3)....
C-E Sundman


A new concept of oxalic acid biosynthesis in physiology of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10394
Recently, a wide variety of roles of oxalic acid (oxalate) in wood decay systems have been receiving much attention. Copper tolerance of wood-rotting basidiomycetes has been believed to be due to the detoxification of copper wood preservatives by oxalate produced by these fungi. However, biochemical mechanism of oxalate biosynthesis in relation to physiology of wood-rotting fungi has not been eluc...
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada


Oxalic acid production of fifteen brown-rot fungi in copper citrate- treated southern yellow pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10388
Non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives have grown in number since the 1980's as a response to environmental concerns posed by arsenicals. Interest in copper tolerant decay fungi has increased accordingly. Oxalic acid (OA) production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Serpula,...
F Green III, C A Clausen


Sterilization of mango wood (Mangifera indica L.) without heat
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30065
Researches revealed that boric acid can play an important role for sterilizing wood instead of heating. Wet (green) mango boards (Mangifera indica L.) were pressure treated in treating cylinder at initial vacuum of 508 mm Hg for 15 minutes and impregnation pressure of 7 kg/cm² for 4 hours with 5% solution (w/v) of 1:1:1 commercial grade (95% pure) sodium dichromate, copper sulphate and boric acid...
A K Lahiry


Copper naphthenate: An analysis of the materials found in the worldwide marketplace using a new analytical technique
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30224
Naphthenic acid has been recovered from products of petroleum refining for well over 100 years. The metal soaps, specifically copper and zinc naphthenate, have been evaluated and used as commercial wood preservatives for in excess of 60 years. Most of the early data supporting the continued use of copper naphthenate as a wood preservative was based on materials manufactured from naturally occurrin...
J A Brient, R E Moyer, M H Freeman, H Jiang


Fungal remediation of CCA-treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50210
This study evaluates oxalic acid accumulation and bioremediation chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood by three brown-rot fungi, Fomitopsis palustris, Coniophora puteana, and Laetiporus sulphureus and ten mold and staining fungi, Aspergillus niger, Aureobasidium pullulans, Gliocladium virens, Penicillium funiculosum, Rhizopus javanicus, Ceratocystis pilifera, C. peceae, Alternaria alternata...
S N Kartal, Y Imamura


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. A final report after 60 months' testing
1989 - IRG/WP 3534
Remedial treatment of CCA treated utility poles of Pinus sylvestris with incipient decay was carried out in 1983 and the results of chemical and microbiological analyses 6 months after treatment were reported in Document No: IRG/WP/3388 while microbiological studies 12 and 28 months after treatment as well as chemical analyses of poles treated with boron rods or boric acid paste 28 months after tr...
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


Preservative treatment of Golpata (Nypa fruticans) using CCA (Chromated Copper Boric Acid)
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40131
Golpata (Nypa fruticans) leaves provide a cheap but practical source of roof thatches. This study was carried out to determine whether the life span of Golpata could be extended by using CCB (Chromated Copper Boric Acid) treatment. Both leaves and midribs of Golpata , with different moisture contents ranging 16.63% to 70.67%, at the start of the experiment were treated with four different concentr...
G N M Ilias, F Abdullah, M O Hannan, S M Feroz


Wood surface pretreatments with metal tannates
1989 - IRG/WP 3552
The sequential application of aqueous solutions of tannins derived from radiata pine bark and water-soluble metal salts was examined as a means of improving the water repellency of wood surfaces. Nine metal salts were screened in combination with tannin solutions and, based on water repellency of pretreated filter paper, four were selected for further study. The two-step application of tannin solu...
D V Plackett, D R Cronshaw


Removal of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA treated wood using boron compounds
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50230
This study evaluates the copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) removal from CCA treated wood using boron compounds such as boric acid, borax (sodium tetraborate), and Timbor (DOT, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) at varying (3 and 5%) concentrations. Remediation processes were taken at 1, 5 and 10 day intervals. Metals in remediated chips or sawdust were then analyzed using ICP and XRF. Res...
B Tarakanadha, T Hata, S N Kartal, W J Hwang, Y Imamura


Influence of carboxylic acids on LEACHING of copper amine based preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30365
The importance of chromium free preservatives is increasing. Leaching of copper from wood preserved with such solutions is still higher compared to leaching from wood impregnated with copper chromium ones. In order to decrease leaching, different carboxylic acids (octanoic, 2-etilheksanoic, decanoic) were added to copper/amine/boron aqueous solutions. Experiment of leaching of copper from Norway s...
M Humar, P Kalan, F Pohleven


Influence of acidification on decay processes of CCB treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10514
The phenomenon of copper tolerance by brown rot fungal strains has been known for a long period but the complete mechanism of copper tolerance by these fungi is not understood yet. Copper tolerance has previously been linked to oxalic acid excreted by copper tolerant brown rot fungal strains. This acid reacts with copper in the wood to form an insoluble and therefore less toxic copper oxalate. The...
M Humar, S A Amartey, M Šentjurc, F Pohleven


Preservative treatment of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) to increase its service life
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40320
Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) possess excellent properties for interior designing, wood working and furniture making. But it is very much susceptible to sap stain and mould fungi which decreases the service life. For profitable uses , it is necessary to increase the service life of rubber wood. To protect the rubber wood from wood degrading agents, the sawn timber were treated with Borax – b...
K Akhter


A possible role of unique TCA cycles in wood-rotting basidiomycetes
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10461
The copper tolerant brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris, acquires metabolic energy by use of the constitutively-occurring Kornberg’s glyoxylate cycle coordinating with oxalate biosynthesis and glucose oxidation (Erman Munir et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, (2001) 98, 11126-11130). Furthermore, this fungus does not have the normal TCA cycle, lacking 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase which is a ke...
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada


Occupational exposure risk assessment at a commercial treatment plant using copper azole preservative
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-15
Experience with traditional water-based preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) applied in closed system vacuum pressure impregnation plants has shown that operator atmospheric exposure is low during normal operation. TANALITH E is a commercially available copper azole wood preservative introduced as a chrome and arsenic-free alternative to CCA based on the actives copper, tebuconaz...
A S Hughes, M Connell


The effect of acid rain on CCA treated timber
1990 - IRG/WP 3579
The effect of acid precipitation on the leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from timber treated with different CCA preservatives was studied in the presence of three types of soil under simulated field conditions. Pine sapwood, embedded in soil, was subjected to simulated rainfall at three different levels of acidity. The CCA preservative formulations tested were:- American Wood Preservers&am...
R J Murphy, D J Dickinson


Investigation of copper fixation in timber by sodium nitrit
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3707
Solutions containing mixtures of water soluble copper salts and sodium nitrite have been shown to be capable of producing leach resistant copper treatments when impregnated into timber. A rapid leaching trial showed that copper fixation levels of 85-90% were possible which compared well with the fixation level obtained with conventional hexavelant chromium containing systems in the same test regim...
C Waldie, J A Cornfield


Chemically modified tannin and tannin-copper complexes as preservatives for wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30271
The efficacy of Mimosa tannin, chemically modified tannin, and tannin-copper complexes as wood preservatives was studied. When the tannin-ammonia-CuCl2 solutions were impregnated into wood specimens in a one-step procedure, a large quantity of the tannin-copper complex was fixed in the specimens. Little of the complex was leached from specimens by a weathering treatment, and these specimens showed...
H Yamaguchi


The fixation of copper in Pinus sylvestris using the sodium salts of two polyhydroxycarboxylic acids
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3706
As part of the research concerned with the development of fixed, copper based preservatives, the salts of polyhydroxycarboxyIic acids, have been used in copper sequestration studies and fixation trials in Pinus sylvestris splinters. Selected compounds have been shown to be effective sequestrants at low concentrations allowing alkaline solutions to be formulated. Leaching trials following a 48 hour...
M Bacon, J A Cornfield


CCA removal from treated wood by chemical, mechanical and microbial processing
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-26
Most preservative-treated wood produced and consumed in the U.S. is treated with toxic inorganic compounds containing copper, chromium, and arsenic. Because chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is fixed to the wood, treated wood has not been considered toxic or hazardous and is currently landfilled. Increasing public concern about environmental contamination from treated wood combined with increasing q...
C A Clausen, R L Smith


Effects of the sulfuric acid modification of CCA treating solution
1987 - IRG/WP 3415
Sulfuric acid modification of CCA treating solution is often used to control the formation of sludges and undesirable deposits on the surface of treated wood. The consequences of sulfuric acid addition are examined in this work and negative effects are shown to far outweigh any benefits. Major risks include the loss of copper due to leaching from treated wood and the accelerated corrosion of treat...
R F Fox, H J Fry, E A Pasek, A S Ross


Effects of hard water, sea water and humic acid on the release of CCA components from treated wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50228
Leaching medium is an important factor affecting release of preservative components from treated wood because physical and chemical characteristics of medium increase or decrease the solubility of fixed preservative components. This study evaluated the leaching properties of copper, chromium and arsenic elements from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood specimens subjected to laboratory le...
S N Kartal, W J Hwang, Y Imamura


A physiological role of the glyoxylate and TCA cycles in fruitbody formation of the coppertolerant brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10430
Changes in activity of the representative enzymes involved in biosynthesis of oxalic acid (oxalate) and carbon metabolism of glucose were investigated in relation to the fruit body formation of the copper-tolerant brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris. Changes in specific activities of the two glyoxylate (GLOX) cycle key enzymes (isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS)), the two oxalate-fo...
Jeong-Jun Yoon, T Hattori, M Shimada


The role of oxalic acid in tolerance to N’N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine in Tyromyces palustris
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10584
Certain wood decay fungi exhibit tolerance to one or more wood preservatives. Copper tolerance of brown-rot fungi has been studied in our laboratory for the past six years. We have observed some degree of tolerance to N’N-naphthaloylhydroxamine (NHA), a recently patented termite bait, by the brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris TYP-6137. In an effort to try and confirm this tolerance in other is...
R A Arango, C A Clausen, F Green III


Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chemicals used for wood durability improvement by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20349
The Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could be a suitable technique to assess chemicals used for wood durability improvement in the forest products industry. NIRS methodology can be used to obtain results more quickly, less costly and without damaging the wood. In this study, wood samples selected from heartwood and sapwood of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) were prepared to assess the artificial d...
S Zahri, F Charrier, H Baillères, B Charrier


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