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Feeding preference behaviour of Crytopermes cynocephalus Light and Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on twenty-eight tropical timbers
1985 - IRG/WP 1251
A study on the feeding preference behaviour of a dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light and a subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on 28 species of tropical timbers has been conducted. The weight-loss of individual timber and the mortality of termite was·recorded after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days of exposure. The results reveal that there are only five species among 28 species of wood which are completely repellent to both the dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus and the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus. These five wood species are Dalbergia latifolia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Intsia bijuga, Lagerstromia speciosa and Tectona grandis. There are eight wood species which are repellent to Cryptotermes cynocephalus and seven wood species which are repellent to Coptotermes curvignathus. There are also only seven wood species which are completely arrestant or highly arrestant to both species of termite. Agathis alba and Mangifera indica are classified as highly arrestant to both the dry-wood and the subterranean termites. Other species are classified between moderately repellent to highly arrestant.
Nana Supriana


Notes on the resistance of tropical woods against termites
1985 - IRG/WP 1249
This paper deals with a descriptive account on the effect of experimental methods, matrix, species of termites, solid wood and wood extract on the resistance and repellency of woods against three species of termites, i.e. Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light; Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren and Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi). Two methods of experiment were used, the Forced Feeding Test and the Feeding Preference Test. The Feeding Preference Test method was found more appropriate for assessing the arrestancy and repellency of woods against termites. This method is probably appropriate for predicting the normal feeding behaviour of termites in the field.
Nana Supriana


Laboratory evaluation of termite resistance of five lesser-known Malaysian hardwoods used for roof and ceiling construction
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10398
The general laboratory procedure of AWPA E1-97 was used to evaluate the termite resistance of 5 lesser- known species (LKT) of Malaysian hardwoods: Kekatong (Cynometra sp.), Kelat (Eugenia spp.), Mempening (Lithocarpus spp.), Perah (Elateriospermum tapos) and Pauh Kijang (Irvingia malayana) against the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus over 28 days. Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) and Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were included for comparison with these LKT. Employing the AWPA five-point visual rating scale of termite resistance of wood material, Rubberwood and to an extent Mempening, were the least resistant (rating 4-7), Kekatong was virtually immune (rating 9) to the Coptotermes species, while Kempas, Kelat, Pauh Kijang and Perah sustained between light-to- moderate attack (rating 7-9). There was a tendency for higher final wood moisture content, higher mass loss or reduced termite mortality to correspond with the lower visual ratings (low termite resistance) generally. In-ground natural durability test results did not correlate with mass loss or visual rating data from the laboratory test.
A A H Wong, Kee Suan Cheok, J K Grace


Termite resistance of Malaysian and exotic woods with plantation potential: Field evaluation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10289
An in-ground resistance of selected Malaysian and exotic timbers to attack by a representative aggressive subterranean Coptotermes termite was evaluated as part of an on-going collaborative research between the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia and the University of Hawaii on termite control of building timbers under humid tropical conditions. A test site at FRIM, highly susceptible to the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus was chosen for study. The accelarated test protocol consisted of burying small (2 x 2 x 2 cm3) wood blocks of the following timber species at 15-20 cm below-ground with the immediate environment manipulated by addition of residues from oil palm fibres and venners of decay susceptible woods and concealed with forest top soil: Casuarina equisetifolia, Azadirachta excelsa, Tectona grandis (both Malaysian-grown and Burmese material), Hevea brasiliensis, Acacia mangium, Albizia falcataria, Araucaria cunninghamii, P. sylvestris, Koompassia malaccensis and K. excelsa. After 28 days, it was found that the results of the subterranean termite resistance test are consistent with the known/expected termite resistance of these woods when compared with previous natural durability stake test records of FRIM.
A H H Wong, J K Grace, L H Kirton


Performance of Two Imidacloprid-Treated Malaysian Hardwoods in an Accelerated Aboveground Termite Test
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30389
The performance of the chloronicotinyl insecticide imidacloprid as a wood protecting termiticide, under a simulated Malaysian biological hazard class H2 (exposure aboveground indoors against termites and wood borers), was evaluated by a novel termite field test protocol. Replicate end-grain sealed air dried test blocks (20 x 20 x 20 mm) of two Malaysian hardwoods, Kembang Semangkok (Scaphium spp.) and Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were vacuum-atmospheric pressure-impregnated in the laboratory in butanolic solution of imidacloprid to target retention of 0 (control), 1 and 3 g/m3. Halve the replicated blocks were then subjected to a prescribed water-leaching cycle, and conditioned blocks then installed in a novel aboveground H2 hazard class-type termite field test where Coptotermes curvignathus are prevalent. After 8 weeks exposure, untreated hardwoods were severely (termite ratings 1-2) or moderately attacked (ratings: 6.3-7.5), while, with the exception of occasional light grazing, none of the leached nor non-leached test blocks treated with imidacloprid to both target termiticide retention were regarded to be attacked (ratings: 9.8-10).
A H H Wong


Termite resistance of twenty-eight Indonesian timbers
1982 - IRG/WP 1150
A comparative study of termite resistance of 28 Indonesian wood species has been conducted using small samples measuring 5 x 10 x 20 mm³. The drywood termite Cryptotermes cynocephallus (Kalotermitidae) and the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus (Rhinotermitidae) were used in the study. A resistance classification was derived on the basis of cluster analysis. The result reveals that Albizia procera, Dalbergia latifolia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Tectona grandis and Intsia bijuga are completely resistant to both species of termite. Albizia chinensis and Artocarpus integer are resistant only to Cryptotermes cynocephallus, but vary between resistant and moderately resistant to Coptotermes curvignathus. Other wood species are classified as moderately resistant, susceptible or very susceptible.
Nana Supriana, P E Howse


Superior kempas hardwood protection with two proprietary microemulsion termiticdes based on permethrin and cyermethrin against Coptotermes termite attack under H2 an H3 weathered conditions found in buildings
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10931
SARPECO® and AXIL® solutions are water-based wood preservatives approved for dipping treatment providing 25 years of termite protection for solid wood and wood-based products in Europe and for more than 10 years in Indonesia. SARPECO® and AXIL® solutions are patented formulations based on concentrated microemulsions (ME) diluted with water as a dipping treatment but also for vacuum pressure treatment. Field trials conducted in Malaysia by UNIMAS confirmed the efficacy of SARPECO® and AXIL® solutions at three product concentrations on short dip-treated kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) heartwood, a major hardwood species in the Malaysian wood construction market, against the Southeastern Asian subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus exposed to aboveground H2 (indoor, non-wetting conditions) hazard class targeting termites compared to CCA-treated kempas and radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sapwood. Prior to the H2 hazard class termite field test exposure, treated wood blocks were conditioned to either a non-leaching volatilization (H2 hazard class weathered wood blocks) or to a leaching followed by volatilization (H3 hazard class weathered blocks) as well as non-leaching/non-volatilization and leaching/non-volatilization reference treatments. After 6 months field exposure, untreated kempas was severely (termite ratings: 0, mean mass loss: 97.4%) or moderately attacked (mean ratings: 7.7, mean mass loss: 17.5%), while none of the leached-volatilized (H3 hazard class) or non-leached-volatilized (H2 hazard class) test blocks treated with SARPECO® and AXIL® at both target retentions were regarded as attacked (mean ratings: 9.7-10, negligible mean mass loss) regardless of applied termiticide concentration, leached or non-leached wood, volatilized or non-volatilized wood treatments. Excellent performance also prevailed with the remaining treatment combinations of treated wood. Due to their unique compositions, SARPECO® and AXIL® solutions showed excellent performance against Coptotermes curvignathus with low termiticide concentrations where conventional agro-insecticides do not work. In conclusion, SARPECO® and AXIL® are effective for wood protection in buildings against Southeast Asian Coptotermes subterranean termites.
D Messaudi, A H H Wong, C A D Tawi, N Bourguiba, O Fahy


Exemplary aboveground hardwood protection from Coptotermes curvignathus under weathered conditions conferred by proprietary microemulsion-based cypermethrin (SARPECO®) and permethrin (AXIL®) biocides
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30749
SARPECO® (with cypermethrin) and AXIL® (with permethrin) solutions are water-based wood preservatives approved for dipping treatment providing 25 years of termite protection for solid wood and wood-based products in Europe and for more than 10 years in Indonesia. SARPECO® and AXIL® solutions are patented formulations based on concentrated microemulsions (ME) diluted with water as a dipping treatment but also for vacuum pressure treatment. Field trials conducted in Malaysia by UNIMAS confirmed the efficacy of SARPECO® and AXIL® solutions at three product concentrations (norminal cypermethrin concentrations used: 0.08, 0.16 & 0.32%w/w; norminal permethrin concentrations used: 0.05, 0.10, 0.20 %w/w) on 3-minutes dip-treated kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) heartwood, a major hardwood species in the Malaysian wood construction market, against the Southeastern Asian subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus. Such treated wood blocks were exposed to aboveground H2 (indoor, non-wetting conditions) hazard class termite field test and compared with CCA-treated kempas heartwood and radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sapwood. Prior to the H2 hazard class termite field test exposure, treated wood blocks were conditioned to either a non-leaching volatilization (H2 hazard class weathered wood blocks) or to a leaching followed by volatilization (H3 hazard class weathered blocks) as well as non-leaching/non-volatilization and leaching/non-volatilization reference treatments. After 6 months field exposure, untreated kempas was severely (termite ratings: 0, mean mass loss: 97.4%) or moderately attacked (mean ratings: 7.7, mean mass loss: 17.5%), while none of the leached-volatilized (H3 hazard class) or non-leached-volatilized (H2 hazard class) test blocks treated with SARPECO® and AXIL® at both target retentions were regarded as attacked (mean ratings: 9.7-10, negligible mean mass loss) regardless of applied termiticide concentration, leached or non-leached wood, volatilized or non-volatilized wood treatments. Excellent performance also prevailed with the remaining treatment combinations of treated wood. Due to their unique compositions, SARPECO® and AXIL® solutions showed excellent performance against Coptotermes curvignathus with remarkably low termiticide concentrations where conventional agro-insecticides fail to perform. In conclusion, SARPECO® and AXIL® are effective for wood protection in buildings and outdoors aboveground against Southeast Asian Coptotermes subterranean termites.
D Messaoudi, A H H Wong, C A D Tawi, N Bourguiba, O Fahy


Comparative response of Reticulitermes flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus to borate soil treatments
1991 - IRG/WP 1486
Eastern (Reticulitermes flavipes [Kollarl]) and Formosan (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) subterranean termite workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to borate-treated sand in an indirect exposure tunneling assay in the laboratory. In the ten day assay period, both termite species readily penetrated sand containing 5000, 10000, or 15000 ppm (wt. of compound / wt. of sand) disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Tim-BorÒ) or zinc borate (Firebrake ZB-FineÒ). With Reticulitermes flavipes, significant mortality (85-93%) resulted from workers tunneling through sand treated with 5000 ppm disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (higher concentrations were also effective), or 15000 ppm zinc borate. Responses of Coptotermes formosanus workers were lesser and more variable, with only concentrations of 10000 and 15000 ppm zinc borate resulting in mortality 70-89%) significantly different from that in the control groups. These results suggest that differences between these two species in tunneling behavior may reduce exposure of Coptotermes formosanus to the borate-treated sand.
J K Grace


A rapid field bioassay technique with subterranean termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1188
Details are summarised of a field procedure which is designed to ensure continuous exposure to a replenishing termite biomass. After pre-baiting to determine the presence and identification of a termite hazard, test specimens (35 x 35 x 250 mm³) are installed vertically in the ground adjacent to and in contact with bait specimens of the same dimensions and interconnected by susceptible feeder strip.
C D Howick, J W Creffield


Problems caused by termites in buildings in the State of Sao Paulo
1976 - IRG/WP 150
Termites are the main insects attacking buildings in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Their attack occurs in wood and wooden materials as well as paper, textile, leather and so on.
M S Cavalcante


International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in Australia, France, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Unites States of America. Solutions of these two wood preservatives were prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loading of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments were carried out at the Division of Forestry and Forest Products in Melbourne. The treated specimens were dispatched to the participating researchers who subjected these specimens to attack by their test termite species, and have now returned the specimens to Melbourne. This paper reports the amount of wood consumed and the mean mass loss (%) on both treated and untreated wood blocks by the termites in the various laboratory bioassays.
J R J French


Detection of feeding behaviour of termites using AE monitoring
1991 - IRG/WP 1514
Using acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, the feeding activity of the termite inhabiting a wood specimen was investigated. The amplitude and the rate of AE from the specimen of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was larger than that of Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. The AE event rate was higher in the specimen with soldiers than without soldiers. The AE event rate decreased according to the resistance of wood specimens against termite attack.
Y Imamura, M Tokoro, M Owada, Y Fujii, M Noguchi


Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro® bait
1982 - IRG/WP 1163
Amdro® - treated paper towels were introduced into two field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite in Hawaii. At the concentration of 180 ppm, the toxicant bait was ineffective one month after the introduction. At higher concentrations (> 6,400 ppm), the baits were eaten initially; however, one week after introduction, termites avoided or covered the baits. The 15,000 ppm baits supressed the activity of one colony but did not affect the other.
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III


Laboratory evaluation of chemicals as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1293
Laboratory procedures are described for screening chemicals against subterranean termites. Fast-acting compounds with persistent termiticidal activity are identified in tests using a soil substrate, and slower-acting bait toxicants are evaluated in a series of tests using cellulose substrates.
S C Jones


Biological control of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1971 - IRG/WP 100
M Tamashiro, J K Fujii, P Lai, T E Richardson


Fungicidal and termiticidal effectiveness of alkylammonium compounds
1983 - IRG/WP 3232
This paper is related to effectiveness of several AAC's against wood decay fungi and termites by Japanese standardized test methods.
K Tsunoda, K Nishimoto


Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6.4 kg/m3 (0.4 pcf), coupled with complete termite mortality, demonstrates that the mode of action of CCA treatments relies upon toxicity rather than having any repellent effects against termites.
J K Grace


Termite trail-following substances in Houttuynia cordata
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10409
Termite trail-following active compounds in the plant, Houttuynia cordata Thunb., were studied by a combination of chemical analyses and bioassay using Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki as a test termite. We have found that termites were attracted to methanol extracts from H. cordata. The n-hexane(Hex) extracts, that showed a trail-following activity, were fractionated by a silica-gel column chromatography with Hex/ethyl acetate(EtOAc) successively increasing the polarity. The obtained 5%, 10%, 15% EtOAc/Hex fractions were found to be active. GC-MS analysis of the 5% EtOAc/Hex fraction showed a peak corresponding to 2-undecanone, which revealed weak activity.
W Ohmura, K Yamamoto, M Saegusa, T Ohira, A Kato


Evidence supporting the use of termite baiting systems for long-term structural protection
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10377
The efficacy of the Sentricon Colony Elimination System containing Recruit II termite bait (0.5% hexaflumuron) in controlling active subterranean termite infestations has been demonstrated in numerous studies. This baiting system and other termite baiting systems are now widely used, and generally accepted, tools for remedial termite control in North America, Hawaii, and other parts of the world. The role of baiting systems in prevention of termite damages and long-term structural protection, however, is more controversial than their use in remedial control. We discuss three lines of evidence in support of the use of baits for long-term structural protection: (1) successful control of termite populations with baits in remedial studies allows a conceptual leap to preventative efficacy, since baits target colonies and populations and cannot be evaluated directly for prevention in the manner of soil insecticide barriers; (2) field and laboratory studies demonstrate that termite colonies feed on multiple resources and continue to radiate outward from each of those resources in search of additional food, increasing the likelihood of rapid bait discovery; and (3) results of our long-term field studies over the past decade demonstrate that newly invading termites will reuse existing galleries in the soil left by earlier colonies that lead to monitoring stations, were detected in monitoring stations, and were subsequently eliminated without any noticeable evidence of structural infestation or damage.
J K Grace, N-Y Su


Response of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus) to Cellulose Insulation Treated with Boric Acid in Choice and No-Choice Tests.
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10532
The tunneling ability of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki through a cellulose insulation material containing11.1% boric acid was tested in choice and no-choice bioassays. We examined tunneling behavior and mortality of termites exposed to treated and untreated insulation material in miniature simulated wall voids. In a choice test termites tunneled through untreated insulation in all but one of the replicates used. Termites were unable to fully penetrate any of the replicates containing treated insulation and experienced a significantly higher mortality (78.4 ± 18.4%) than termites exposed to untreated insulation (11.6 ± 5.6%, F = 60.4, df = 1, P < 0.0001). In a no- choice test termites fully penetrated all replicates containing untreated insulation and experienced 37.1 ± 37.2% mortality. Termites exposed to treated insulation in this test experienced a significantly higher mortality of 100.0% (F = 14.3, df = 1, P < 0.005), and did not fully penetrate the treated insulation.
M E Mankowski, J K Grace


Development of a Granitgard® particulate termite barrier for use in tropical Australia
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10190
Granitgard® is superficially simple technology; graded crushed aggregate, sieved to a size range impenetrable to subterranean termites. However, behind this apparent simplicity lies a large research effort. In this paper we describe the laboratory development of a grading of Granitgard suitable for use against the wide range of termites which attack timber in northern Australia, above the Tropic of Capricorn.
D M Ewart, E R Rawlinson, A D Tolsma, G C Irvin, P R Wiggins


Natural durability studies in an accelerated field simulator - A novel approach
1983 - IRG/WP 2197
A study of the natural durability of untreated timbers to both decay and termite attack is described. The work illustrates the versatility of the Accelerated Field Simulator as a novel approach to biodeterioration research.
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, J W Creffield, C D Howick


Wood-destroying Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) in the oriental region
1984 - IRG/WP 1236
Species of the family Rhinotermitidae are important wood-destroying termites. From the Oriental zoogeographical region, 85 species of the family are reported of which some are wide spread and cause extensive damage to wood, wooden articles and other cellulosic products. The distribution, biology, ecology and pest status of the important wood-destroying species, in the Oriental region, are given in this contribution.
O B Chhotani


Microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion as a soil termiticide
1991 - IRG/WP 1478
The efficacy and the mode of action of a microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated. The physicochemical property that this formulation does not allow the active ingredient to diffuse through the capsule wall contributed to a long lasting efficacy and safety for the men spraying. The residual effect of the fenitrothion microcapsule in soil was revealed as well as that of chlordane in the laboratory test. It was clarified that the transmission of poisoning through the worker&apos;s self- and mutual grooming behavior contributed to the efficacy of this formulation. And it was suggested that the transmission of poisoning of fenitrothion through mutual grooming led to the collapse of a colony.
H Teshima, T Itoh, Y Abe


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