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Dimensional stabilization of wood with dimethylol compounds
1987 - IRG/WP 3412
This study showed that a substantial degree of dimensional stability can be imparted to wood by crosslinking with low concentrations of dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. It was demonstrated that by selecting the right catalyst system the cure temperature can be reduced to the point that strength loss of the treated wood is minimized.
D D Nicholas, A D Williams

Combined effects of the treatment of wood with formaldehyde
1978 - IRG/WP 3117
Treatment of fibrous materials with reagents in a vapor phase is neither new nor unique. Numerous examples exist in literature of vapor phase experiments on cellulose fibers and fabrics, and on wood. For many years the textile research and industry have used vapor phase processes for the treatment of textiles. The chemical modification of cellulose is based on different types of reactions e.g. esterification, alkylation, resin formation or polymerization, monomer grafting and crosslinking. Vapor phase treatment of wood offers certain potential advantages over the conventional liquid phase wood impregnation. The higher mobility of low molecular weight compounds in the gaseous state ensures a rapid, uniform and homogeneous distribution throughout the wood structure. The vapor phase treatment of wood is also a better approach from the standpoint of cell wall penetration. Bulking, which takes place in the cell wall only, means that less chemicals are required and that the final weight of the composite is limited. Furthermore, due to the low viscosity of a gas, the application of a lower pressure differential remains possible. Within the framework of a wood improvement programme carried out at the Laboratory of Wood Biology and Wood Technology (University of Ghent, Belgium) the treatments were based on the impregnation of wood with liquid synthetic monomers and with gaseous formaldehyde. The results of the hygroscopic and dimensional behaviour of the wood-plastic-combinations have been published previously. Other papers deal with the physical and chemical interactions between the synthetic products and the natural polymers of the cell wall. This contribution will be restricted to the treatment of wood with formaldehyde in the gaseous state.
M Stevens, J Schalck

Effects of a formaldehyde and sulphur dioxide treatment on decay and mechanical properties of aspen waferboard
1983 - IRG/WP 3242
Aspen wafers were sequentially treated under vacuum with formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide gas and pressed into waferboard bonded with powdered phenol formaldehyde resin. Decay resistance and strength properties were determined before and after simulated weathering. The water resistance of the phenol bonding system was lost in board made from the gas-treated wafers. This white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor was unable to decay treated waferboard in a soil block test, but the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria placenta decayed the samples as severely as untreated controls.
E L Schmidt

Microscopical analysis of formaldehyde-acid modified wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3182
Cross-linking of wood with gaseous formaldehyde improves its hygroscopic and dimensional behaviour, and its resistance against micro-organisms. However, formaldehyde cross-linking reactions take place only in the presence of an acid catalyst, which results in losses in mechanical By optimization of a formaldehyde-sulfur dioxide vapour phase process the reaction conditions were established to limit losses in modulus of elasticity and bending strength to a few percent. Under these circumstances, impact strength losses of about 50 to 75% were still noted. The reaction of formaldehyde with cellulose has been studied intensively in textile research. However little is known on the fundamental aspects of the interaction of formaldehyde with lignin and wood. In order to get further insight into the effects of a formaldehyde-acid catalyzed reaction on the technological properties of wood a fundamental analysis of the interactions of both compounds with wood has been carried out.
M Stevens, N Parameswaran

Preliminary results of the treatment of wood with chlorosilanes
1981 - IRG/WP 3172
It is clear from the initial data reported here that the treatment of pine sapwood with chlorosilanes under the reaction conditions employed did not significantly reduce the decay by both white rot and brown rot fungi. Only the dichlorosilane compounds showed to possess some protective action against fungal attack. Before drawing conclusions on the application of organosilicon compounds as potentially alternative wood preservatives much more work is needed. At present the anti-blue stain activity of the different types of chlorosilanes is being tested. Further investigation on the treatment is also required with respect to the effect of wood moisture content and the use of other types of acid acceptor on the silylation reaction. Current studies also deal with the effect of the treatment on physical and mechanical properties of wood. The initial physical tests on the sorptive and dimensional behaviour of treated wood revealed that the dichlorosilanes might give better results again.
M Stevens

Effect of aqueous polymer treatments on wood properties. Part 2: Mechanical properties
1990 - IRG/WP 3611
Partially air-dried sapwood of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and southern pine (Pinus spp.) was treated with either aqueous polyacrylate or aqueous dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) solutions. Tests for static bending, toughness, and hardness were conducted on matched treated and untreated pieces according to ASTM Standards. Properties of pine were not affected by treatment with the polyacrylate. With sweetgum, the modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity were reduced, while hardness was improved. For the DMDHEU treatment, reduction in property values for both species was related to curing temperature.
Z Ashaari, H M Barnes, D E Lyon, R C Vasishth, D D Nicholas

Chemical modification of cellulose nanofibrils for tailoring properties of composites
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40934
Due to its natural abundance, complete biodegradability and excellent properties, cellulose is one of the most promising materials for the production of bio composites, as well as one of the most promising fillers for biodegradable polymer composites. This is also true for nanocellulose. A large number of hydroxyl groups on the surface of fibers or fibrils enables a whole series of chemical reactions and thus chemical modification of the (nano)cellulose. Chemical modification of the surface of (nano)cellulose in order to improve the compatibility between hydrophilic cellulose and hydrophobic polymer has long been a hot topic in the literature. In this review, we present the research activities of our research team in recent years. Two important reactions in the chemical modification of nanocellulose, namely the esterification reaction and the oxidation reaction, are presented, focusing on the possibilities of using modified cellulose nanofibrils for the preparation of various types of composites and to study the influence of modified nanocellulose on the mechanical and optical properties of bionanocomposites. Some possibilities for the use of the prepared bionanocomposites are proposed.
I Poljanšek, J Levanič, V Ž Bogataj, V Vek, P Oven