Your search resulted in 3489 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones ...
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen
Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6....
J K Grace
Evaluation of wood treated with copper-based preservatives for Cu loss during exposure to heat and copper-tolerant Bacillus licheniformis
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20155
Copper-based wood preservatives need to be effective against exposure to all types of microorganisms. Wood treated with six copper-based preservatives was exposed to 121°C and 20 psi pressure for 15 minutes under standard autoclave conditions and the copper-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis CC01, for 10 d at 28°C and 150 rpm. Sixteen to 37 percent of the copper was released from the woo...
D M Crawford, C A Clausen
An introduction to environmental aspects of groundwater arsenic and CCA treated wood poles in Bangladesh
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50081
The environment comprises biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Therefore, environmental science is a multi-disciplinary study, includes life sciences, physical sciences, chemical sciences, geology, geography, meteorology, forestry, agriculture, soil science, hydrology, ecology, public health, engineering etc. Tremendous industrial and mining activities, deforestation and population ...
A K Lahiry
X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe....
Copper based water-borne preservatives: The biological performance of wood treated with various formulations
1987 - IRG/WP 3451
Wood samples treated with the various components of CCA preservative singly and in combination were tested against a soft rot organism, a copper tolerant brown rot organism and in soil burial both unleached and after leaching. The results suggest that, of the elements tested, fixed copper is essential for preventing soft rot attack and fixed arsenic is essential for preventing attack by a copper t...
S M Gray, D J Dickinson
Disposal of CCA treated waste wood by combustion - An industrial scale trial
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50068
Totally 272 m³ (62.7 t) of CCA treated utility poles were chipped and incinerated at Jalasjärvi Gasification Plant. In average the whole batch of chips contained 57 kg of elementary copper, 95 kg chromium and 76 kg arsenic. During the 56 h combustion trial the measured arsenic emission to the air was 76 g in total. Copper and chromium emission was less than 1 g. The condensing water from the coo...
A J Nurmi
The Effect of Soil pH on the pH of Treated Southern Pine in Ground Contact after 12 Months
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50281
Southern pine samples treated with soluble and particulate copper solutions were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and after 6 and 12 months after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH....
L Jin, C Schauwecker, C Vidrine, P Walcheski, A Preston
The volatilization of arsenic on burning copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated wood
1978 - IRG/WP 3111
Small scale burning experiments are described involving copper-chrome-arsenic treated wood. Approximately 20 per cent of the arsenic was volatilised when the wood was burned in air but 60 per cent when burned in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere, this increase is attributed to an increase in combustion temperature. Although a small increase in arsenic evolution was found with an increased concentratio...
A-J Dobbs, C Grant
A Preliminary Report on the Properties of Engineered Wood Composite Panels Treated with Copper Naphthenate
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40294
This paper reports on our preliminary investigation of the properties of randomly oriented strandboard which had waterborne or powdered copper naphthenate (CuN) incorporated into the board during manufacture. When compared to zinc borate-treated controls (ZnB), the mechanical properties of strandboard (MOR, MOE, work-to-maximum load, internal bond strength) were not adversely affected by treatmen...
J W Kirkpatrick, H M Barnes
Leachability And Decay Resistance of Copper-Treated Wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30337
Samples of scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) were treated with solutions of (Copper II sulfat-5 hydro + fluoroboric acid) and (Copper II sulfat-5 hydro + fluoroboric acid + boric acid) in order to determining to leachability and decay resistance against brown rot fungus (Postia placenta) and white rot fungus (Coriolus versicolor). Results indicated that the copper in treated wood is less s...
A Temiz, T Nilsson, I Deemirtas, Ü C Yildiz
Leaching Characteristics of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30316
The leaching characteristics of copper in copper treated bamboo and other wood species such as slash pine and poplar has been conducted in this paper according to AWPA M11-87 standard, the result indicates that: --Copper fixation rate of salts from organic acids such as citrate and oxalate and malate is less than other non-organic acid formulations. --Copper fixation rate of oven-dried bamboo sa...
Mingliang Jiang, Junliang Liu, Daochun Qin, Yamei Wang, Zehui Jiang
Leaching and fixation characteristics of chrome-copper-fluoride-zinc (CCFZ) treated wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30096
The leaching characteristics of radiata pine sapwood blocks treated with CCFZ were evaluated by the AWPA standard leaching test. The rate of fixation of the preservative components in CCFZ treated radiata pine were also evaluated by quantitative analysis of solution expressed from the treated wood. Both leaching and fixation characteristics of CCFZ were compared with CCA-Type C treated wood sample...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Jong-Bum Ra
Kiln drying of CCA-treated wood - Some safety and environmental considerations
1987 - IRG/WP 3443
Vapours and condensate from a condenser kiln in which CCA-treated wood was being dried have been collected and analysed. The concentrations of arsenic, copper and chromium found in the vapours from the drying process were well below Swedish threshold limit values. The contents of arsenic and chromium were also low in the condensate, although the copper content was fairly high. The latter result wa...
J Jermer, B Lundberg
Applications of the shower test. Part B: Results from CC and CCB treated wood: influence of fixation process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50010
This report outlines the results of shower tests conducted on CC and CCB treated wood. The results indicate the fairly good fixation of chromium and the reasonable fixation of copper in CC and CCB formulations, as judged by the leaching limits within the Environmental Regulations. In general boron leaches to a higher extent than chromium and copper. The shower test has proven to be a useful qualit...
W J Homan, H Militz
Experiences with penetration of copper-based wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20233
In the Nordic countries there is a long tradition of result type based specifications for preservative-treated wood. A common Nordic standard for treated pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood was published in 1976. After a revision in 1989 this standard, then named INSTA 140, defined four classes of treated wood: M, A, AB and B. Treaters producing according to this standard had to be affiliated to a qualit...
J Jermer, F G Evans, I Johansson
Susceptibility of CCB treated wood to fungal colonization
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10492
CCB treated wood is generally resistant to all wood decay fungi. However, like CCA impregnated wood, susceptibility of CCB treated wood to copper tolerant fungi have been observed. The ability of various brown rot fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood samples was investigated. Samples made of Norway spruce (Picea abies) were impregnated with 5 % CCB solution according to the EN 113 proc...
F Pohleven, U Andoljsek, P Karabegovic, C Tavzes, S A Amartey, M Humar
Report on the burning of wood treated with wood preservatives containing copper, chromium and arsenic
1976 - IRG/WP 379
Mixtures of copper, chromium and arsenic salts are used extensively in the UK to preserve timber. This report is concerned with the fate of these metals when timber treated with these salts is burned. A large percentage of the arsenic present in the timber is shown to be volatilised during combustion and the potential environmental implications of this are assessed by comparison with the release o...
A J Dobbs, C Grant
Evaluation of the corrosivity of the treated wood - Laboratory vs field test methodologies
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20211
The corrosivity of treated wood to fasteners has been evaluated using laboratory test procedures, including AWPA Standard E12-94. The standard method was modified in order to allow detailed study of commercial metal fasteners in terms of sample types, installation configuration and exposure conditions. Parallel field tests were also performed. The experimental results generated from these tests su...
L Jin, A F Preston
Copper leaching from Kemwood ACQ and Embalit CBC treated wood products
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50150
TNO has performed a study on the leaching of copper from Kemwood ACQ and Embalit CBC treated wood products, further referred to as ACQ and CBC. The sawn dry wood has been impregnated using an industrial vacuum-pressure process with ACQ (with or without Ultrawood 4) or with CBC, under supervision of Flexchemie B.V. After treatment samples have been transported and subjected to leaching tests at TNO...
P Esser, W L D Suitela, H Trompetter
The influence of copper (II) chemicals on the weathering of treated wood. Part 1: ACQ treatment of wood on its weathering
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30040
Wood weathering can be accelerated by alkylammonium compound (AAC) treatment, and slowed by ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) treatment. This study aims at investigating the influence of ACQ treatment of wood, especially the present of copper (II), on its weathering. ACQ, CCA and DDAC treated microtomed sections of southern yellow pine earlywood were prepared and naturally weathered for five periods, t...
Ruiying Liu, J N R Ruddick, L Jin
Fungal remediation of CCA-treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50210
This study evaluates oxalic acid accumulation and bioremediation chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood by three brown-rot fungi, Fomitopsis palustris, Coniophora puteana, and Laetiporus sulphureus and ten mold and staining fungi, Aspergillus niger, Aureobasidium pullulans, Gliocladium virens, Penicillium funiculosum, Rhizopus javanicus, Ceratocystis pilifera, C. peceae, Alternaria alternata...
S N Kartal, Y Imamura
Microbial decomposition of salt treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-22
Specialized microorganisms which are able to convert fixed inorganic preservatives from treated wood into water soluble components are investigated. A number of brown rot fungi like Antrodia vaillantii have been isolated from cases of damage and examined under unsterile conditions with CCA-, CCB-, CCF- and CC-treated wood at retention levels of at least 50% higher than recommended for wood in grou...
R-D Peek, I Stephan, H Leithoff
Soft-rot control in hardwoods treated with chromated copper arsenate preservatives. Part 3: Influence of wood substrate and copper loadings
1977 - IRG/WP 2100
The hypothesis is proposed that hardwoods need more chromated copper arsenate (CCA) than softwoods to protect them from soft-rot attack mainly because hardwoods are more readily consumed by soft-rot fungi. Simple model systems, using copper-supplemented agar or groundwood pulp treated with CCA showed that fungi tolerated more toxicant (copper) as more available substrate (malt) was provided. Soft-...
M A Hulme, J A Butcher
Copper storage in the digestive caecae of Limnoria tripunctata and Limnoria quadripunctata (Crustacea: Isopoda) tunnelling in CCA treated and untreated wood in laboratory cultures
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10257
Digestive tract tissues of Limnoria quadripunctata Holthuis and Limnoria tripunctata Menzies, tunnelling untreated and CCA treated Scot's pine sapwood under laboratory conditions were examined using X-ray microanalysis and transmission electron microscopy. Populations of both Limnoria species tunnelling treated and untreated wood stored copper within their digestive caecae in the form of ...
C Wykes, A J Pitman, S M Cragg