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Effect of crude tall oil, linseed oil and rapeseed oil on the growth of the decay fungi
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30299
The influence of crude tall oil, linseed oil and rapeseed oil on the growth of Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor was studied. The selected test oils were observed to have different effects on the the fungal growth. Crude tall oil inhibited the radial growth of all fungi. Rapeseed oil either accelerated or inhibited the growth of fungi depending on the type of fungus involv...
L Paajanen, A-C Ritschkoff


Tall oil – performance after a decade of field exposure
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30672
Water repellents have the potential to enhance biocidal activity by reducing leaching and lowering the moisture levels in wood exposed to rains. A range of studies have been performed in order to evaluate the potentials of tall oils as wood protective systems. The general conclusion has been that tall oil can provide some protection but that they cannot compete with the copper and organic biocide ...
G Alfredsen, P-O Flæte


Fungus cellar and stake tests with tall oil derivatives. Progress Report after 5 years' testing
1987 - IRG/WP 3442
Two derivatives of tall oils have been tested for five years in fungus cellar and stake tests. The samples were relatively quickly attacked on the surface by decay fungi, mainly soft rot, but the decay has progressed very slowly. The performance of the stakes in the tests has so far been equivalent or even better than some CCA preservatives and creosote....
J Jermer, Ö Bergman, T Nilsson


Fungus cellar and field tests with tall oil derivatives. Final report after 11 years' testing
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30007
Two derivatives of tall oil were tested as wood preservatives in a fungus cellar and in ground contact (field test). Stakes of Pinus sylvestris sapwood were used in the tests. For the field test the size of the stakes was 20 x 50 x 500 mm³ and for the fungus cellar test 20 x 20 x 250 mm³. The stakes were vacuum-pressure treated with the two products and exposed in 1981. The field test site used ...
J Jermer, Ö Bergman, T Nilsson


Screening of the efficacy of tall oils against wood decaying fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30354
Tall oil is a by-product in pulping of resinous wood by the sulphate process. Tall oil contains a complex mixture of wood extractives. Some of these extractives act as natural protection against wood decaying fungi while other serve as nutrition for the fungi. This report describes a screening of the efficacy of four refined tall oils with different chemical composition on wood decaying fungi. ...
G Alfredsen, P O Flæte, A Temiz, M Eikenes, H Militz


Chemical treatment of chips for outdoor storage. Evaluation of sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate + sodium 2,4-dinitrophenol treatment
1980 - IRG/WP 2134
Fresh slash pine chips were treated by spraying them with a dilute aqueous solution of sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate and sodium 2,4-dinitrophenol. The were then formed into an experimental chip file 10 feet high, and the pile was maintained for seven months. The treatment effectively slowed heat release and retarded losses in wood substances, tall oil, pulp yield, and pulp strenght. Under certain...
E L Springer, M Benjamin, W C Feist, L L Zoch, G J Hajny


Water repellency and dimensional stabilIty of wodd treated with waterborne resin acids/TOR
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40364
Wood used in above ground applications such as decking undergoes undesired dimensional changes leading to the lumber warping, cupping, splitting, etc. This is a major concern to consumers but it can be reduced by treating lumber with a water repellent. The ability of resin acids, hydrophobic compounds naturally present in southern yellow pines, was examined as a possible water repellent. A wate...
T P Schultz, D D Nicholas, J Shi


Using plant oils as hydrophobic substances for wood protection
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30550
The increased interest to use oils as hydrophobic agents and the current debate about the further use of creosote emphasises the urgent need of better understanding of plant and other oils as wood protectors. The present study sheds light on the hydrophobic properties and distribution of various plant oils in the anatomical structure of Scots pine sapwood. Oil retentions from approximately 70 to 5...
D Panov, N Terziev, G Daniel


Life cycle assessment of creosote treated wood and tall oil treated wood with focus on end-of-life
2016 - IRG/WP 16-50320
The use of creosote for protecting wood products in heavy-duty application outdoors has been common for many years, but stricter regulations have limited creosote’s use. Life cycle assessments (LCA) have shown that in some applications alternatives to creosote treated products do not have less environmental impacts. Searching for alternatives to creosote, tall-oil-based preservatives have been ...
L G F Tellnes, U Hundhausen


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test....
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


Fire resistance of preservative treated fence posts
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30033
Pine fence posts were pressure treated separately with CCA-C, CCA-wax, CCA-oil and creosote. Treated posts and untreated controls were planted in the ground in a randomised block design, weathered for six months and then subjected to a controlled burning test using two fuel loads. Creosote treatment increased the time that posts were alight whereas CCA treatment had no such effect. However, CCA tr...
P D Evans, P J Beutel, C F Donnelly, R B Cunningham


Principles and procedure of the planeing test
1981 - IRG/WP 2162
Small end-sealed samples of pine-sapwood (1.5 x 2.5 x 5 cm³) are treated by brushing and afterwards different parts of the treated surface are removed. The remaining part of the sample is tested against either insects or fungi. If no attack occurs sufficient amounts of biocides have been penetrated at least beyond the zone which has been removed. In spite of some problems the test seems the only ...
H Willeitner, M Gersonde


Inspection results of preservative treated stakes, maximum 33 years in field
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3690
Since in 1958, we have undertaken field experiments in Japan. For these field experiments, we used sapwoods of Japanese cedar called Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) because of majority of plantation forest soft wood species in Japan. For some preservatives, we added sapwood of Japanese beech called Buna (Fagus crenata), a main Japanese hard wood species. Dimensions of these specimens were 30 x 30 x 60...
K Suzuki, K Yamamoto, M Inoue, S Matsuoka


Modelling of PCP migration in the environment: Feeding the models with laboratory data
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-08
In 1989, Hydro-Québec began a study program on pentachlorophenol (PCP) to ensure safe use of the product at all stages. One of the aspects of the study is the creation of a predictive system for evaluating the behavior of PCP and oil migration from wood poles to the environment. This system comprises four mathematical models for predicting PCP and oil migration in and on the surface of the pole, ...
A Besner, P Tétreault, R Gilbert


A new ground-contact wide-spectrum organic wood preservative: DNBP
1986 - IRG/WP 3358
A new organic wood preservative, which 25 years field tests have proved to be of efficiency and effectiveness comparable to CCA wood preservatives for ground-contact applications, is presented. Physical and chemical tests, supporting the long term field test results as well as indicating the characteristics of this preservative, are also presented....
W E Conradie, A Pizzi


Comparison of decay rates of preservative-treated stakes in field and fungus cellar tests
1980 - IRG/WP 2135
With the exception of acid-copper-chromate, zinc-chrome-arsenate, and sodium pentachlorophenoxide, the relative performance of preservatives in the fungus cellar was similar to that in the field....
M E Hedley


Effects of various preservative treatments on the mechanical and physical properties of plywood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40007
The technical properties of plywood are related to both the intrinsic characteristics of its composing wood species and the quality and performance of the glue bond which acts as an interface between veneer sheets. Consequently mechanical and physical testing and glue bond strength analysis offer an appropriate means for studying the effect of preservative treatments on the overall quality of plyw...
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Improved resistance of Scots pine and Spruce by application of an oil-heat treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40162
Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were subject to a heat treatment which was carried out in an oil-bath. The aim was to improve the dimensional stability of the treated wood and its resistance against fungi. The bath of vegetable oil provides a uniform heat transfer at temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C and protects the submersed wood from oxygen. Heat trea...
M Sailer, A O Rapp, H Leithoff


Wood preservation in the Australian beekeeping industry
1988 - IRG/WP 3473
This paper reports the results of a survey of Australian commercial beekeepers working 200 or more hives in June/July 1985. Nine hundred and forty seven apiarists were asked to participate and to provide information on their wood preservation methods, painting procedures and maintenance of bee boxes. Three hundred and eighty-four apiarists returned completed questionnaires (41%). The main wood pre...
P J Robinson, J R J French


Effects of some essential oils on wood destroying organisms
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10047
Three wood destroying fungi: Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. (stain), Gloeophyllum sepiarium (brown rot), and Pycnoporus sanguineus (white rot) were exposed to six plant essential oils: the peppermint, kaffir lime or leech lime, lavender, tarragon, holy basil, and the eucalyptus. The peppermint oil showed most effective to inhibit fungal growth, while eucalypus oil was the least effective. The othe...
K Atisongkroh, C Anantachoke, P Lekuthai, S Pensook, T Kittirattrakarn


Determination of toxic limits of wood preservatives towards wood-destroying Basidiomycetes. Investigation on the effect of the use of two impregnated wood blocks and of one impregnated and an untreated block respectively in Kolle jars on the toxic limits of wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 225
O Wälchli


Preventing fungal attack of freshly sawn lumber using cinnamon extracts
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30432
The potential for using cinnamon oil as an anti-mold and stain compound was investigated on ponderosa pine sapwood. Cinnamon oil was highly effective when used in ethanol, but its activity declined when it was mixed with only water. Attempts to enhance water solubility with surfactants improved solution stability, but had no apparent effect on biological activity. Further studies with other co-so...
Shujun Li, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Chapter 6 - Preservatives of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-06
Almost all currently available oil-borne, water-borne and compound types of preservatives suitable for the preservation of bamboo or wood have been described along with their classifications, applications, formulations, merits and demerits, history of invention or discovery and development. The preservatives suitable for wood are also considered suitable for bamboo....
A K Lahiry


Biological effectiveness of ground-contact wood preservatives as determined by field exposure stake tests
1984 - IRG/WP 3297
Field exposure tests conducted on stakes treated with different creosotes, mixtures of creosote and waxy oil as well as different CCA wood preservatives over a period of 25 years, gave the following results: The CCA preservatives provided excellent biological protection to treated stakes, especially against fungal attack. The CCA Type I, currently approved for use under South African conditions is...
W E Conradie, A Pizzi


The distribution of introduced acetyl groups and a linseed oil model substance in wood examined by microautoradiography and ESEM
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40169
Microautoradiography, a photographic method that shows the localization of substances labelled with radioactive isotope, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) were combined to enhance sensitivity, resolution and reliability for examination of the distribution of introduced substances in wood. The preparation of microautoradiographs is less complicated when investigated with ESEM an...
M Rosenqvist


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