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Your search resulted in 223 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Evidence for actinomycete degradation of wood cell walls
1990 - IRG/WP 1444
Several unique patterns of degradation occurring in wood cell walls have been observed in wooden stakes inserted in unsterile soil in the laboratory. Some of the patterns have also been observed in coniferous wood taken from forest floors. All the observed attack types occur within wood cell walls, mainly within the S2 layer. Attack is characterised by channels of varying diameter or small fusifor...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel, S L Bardage


Field study: Wood degradation pattern in buildings and utility poles in tropical climates of Nigeria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1521
The paper is the result of five years field study of wood degradation patterns in three ecological forest zones (Guinea Savannah, Tropical rain forest and mangrove forest zones, respectively). It involved 800 residential buildings and 700 electric overhead transmission poles. The methodology used was a modified Eslyn (6) test. A high rate of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes attack especially on the ...
E O Onuorah


Bacterial degradation of wood cell wall: A review of degradation patterns
1990 - IRG/WP 1460
Information from bacterial degradation studies of 60's and 70's was reviewed by Nilsson in 1982. The application of electron microscopy to this area in recent years has provided much useful information and has eliminated earlier scepticism among workers about the ability of bacteria to degrade lignified wood cell walls. Studies using transmission electron microscopy together with...
A P Singh, J A Butcher


Fungal Attack on Lignin and Cellulose: Elucidation of Brown- and White-Rot Mechanisms Comparing Biomimetic and In-Vivo Degradation Patterns
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10714
This paper examines research and hypotheses that have been developed over several years on wood degradation mechanisms. This information is combined with new data and analyses to explain why wood decay patterns caused by brown-rot fungi and specific types of white-rot fungi are different. New data, including work with both biomimetic studies on low molecular weight compounds, degradative enzymes, ...
V Arantes, B Goodell, A M F Milagres, Yuhui Qian, T Filley, J Jellison, S Kelley


Preliminary evaluation of degradation patterns in wood samples from the Yenikapı shipwrecks
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10798
The uncovering of several shipwrecks during the excavation of the Marmaray Rail Tube Tunnel Project in Istanbul provides an important opportunity to evaluate waterlogged woods buried for centuries. Identification of these woods showed that a variety of species was used in the ships. One shipwreck (a galley) from the Yenikapı Marmaray was examined using electron microscopy. The micrographs rev...
C Köse, A M Taylor


Estimation of wood degradation determined by visual inspection, mechanical testing and DNA characterisation – report after 3 years of exposure
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30700
The influence of two separate treatments, thermal modification and alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ, Silvanolin©) treatment, on fungal decay, visual disfigurement, deterioration in mechanical properties and fungal community structure was assessed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and compared with the performance of two naturally more resistant tree species native to North America: Douglas fir (Pseud...
N Thaler, T Martinović, M Bajc, D Finžgar, H Kraigher, A Sinha, J J Morrell, M Humar


Decay capacity and degradation patterns of Xylaria hypoxylon on different wood species
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10985
A host of physical and environmental factors may influence fungal decay including the wood substrate, temperature, moisture, oxygen, light, pH, and nitrogen. Understanding the effects of these factors on fungal decay is important for the effective utilization of wood decay fungi in biotechnological processes and for understanding the role of these organisms in global carbon cycling. The ascomycete...
E Bari, G Daniel, A Singh, J J Morrell


Microbiological degradation of wooden piles in building foundations
1988 - IRG/WP 1370
White rot, soft rot and bacterial attack have been detected in softwood piles under buildings. In some cases bacteria were found to be the main degradation organisms in the studied piles. The water content of degraded piles was very high. The compression strength was quite low also in the piles deteriorated by bacteria. The density of wood was very variable, and the degree of degradation could not...
L Paajanen, H Viitanen


Fungal and bacterial attack of CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from a water-cooling tower
1991 - IRG/WP 1488
Transmission electron microscopy of decaying CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from an industrial water cooling tower showed presence of a thick biofilm covering some areas of the wood. The biofilm contained various morphologically distinct forms of microorganisms embedded in a slime. The study provided evidence of the activity of soft rot fungi and tunnelling and erosion bacteria in wood cells. T...
A P Singh, M E Hedley, D R Page, C S Han, K Atisongkroh


Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observ...
P D Evans, S Thein


Resistance of Alstonia scholaris vestures to degradation by tunnelling bacteria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1547
Electron microscopic examination of vessels and fibre-tracheids in the wood of Alstonia scholaris exposed to tunnelling bacteria (TB) in a liquid culture showed degradation of all areas of the secondary wall. The highly lignified middle lamella was also degraded in advanced stages of TB attack. However, vestured pit membranes and vestures appeared to be resistant to degradation by TB even when oth...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Effect of medium-term degradation of beech wood by erosive (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and lignin-selective (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) strains of white rot fungi on its selected physical properties
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40292
At the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology a fungal delignification of normal and tension beech wood by erosive and lignin-selective strains white-rot fungi has been studied. The pre-treatment of both kind of wood samples was accompanied by partial delignification and apparent changes of their physical properties influencing the polar liquids penetration....
R Solár, S Kurjatko, M Mamonová, J Hudec


Detoxification of preservatives: Tri-n-butyltin oxide as a biocide
1982 - IRG/WP 1156
T E Dudley-Brendell, D J Dickinson


The present classification of wood degradation factors
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10071
The revised version of classification of wood degradation factors is presented after discussion and remarks sended by IRG-Members. The classification contains the biotic and abiotic factors in two aspects: etiological and symptomatical....
J Wazny


Airborne algae as a wood degradation factor
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1549
The occurrence of airborne (aerophytic) algae on wood is a very frequent phenomenon. However, there is currently a lack of information concerning their effect on the wood tissue. Some important genus of algae infesting wood under natural conditions are listed, as well as the results of experimental studies in the "in vitro" culture concerning the effect of two selected algal species on some physic...
K J Krajewski, J Wazny


Biological agents of timber degradation in Portugal. Marine borers
1991 - IRG/WP 4171
A brief report of the studies carried out in Portugal on marine borers is presented. The marine borers found in the portuguese coast are refered as well as the wood species where those organisms were identified. Emphasis is given to a study carried out from 1960 to 1975 at the Tagus estuary in Lisbon with the purpose, among others, of establishing the natural durability of different timbers....
J S Machado, L Nunes


Studies of the distribution and degradation of tributyltin naphthenate in double-vacuum treated wood
1983 - IRG/WP 3230
The effects of forced solvent evaporation by kilning redwood (Pinus sylvestris) that has been double-vacuum treated with tributyltin naphthenate (TBTN) have been investigated. Contrary to previous studies reported, it has been shown that forced evaporation can have a considerable influence on the losses of the fungicide. It has been found that, whether the solvent is allowed to evaporate slowly or...
J Jermer, M-L Edlund, W Hintze, S V Ohlsson


Accelerated ageing of preservatives in treated wood
1988 - IRG/WP 3476
New preservatives are tested in the laboratory and often in field tests before they are used commercially. Some preservatives, however, tested in the laboratory do not show the expected stability when used in service. The differences between laboratory tests and practical use can never be completely eliminated but must be minimized as far as possible by relevant testing methods. Studies of the eff...
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, B Jensen, C-E Sundman


Contribution to study of the degradation caused in Pinus spp. poles used in field test
1989 - IRG/WP 1417
The study of the degradation produced by soil natural microflora on wood in contact with it in the field, has been going on for several years now. Our contribution to this aim in the present work has dealt with the possible relationship of the microorganisms in the soil. The microscopic visualization of wood colonization by the microorganisms, and the chemical analysis of the degraded wood compare...
M T De Troya, A Garcia, M J Pozuelo, A M Navarrete, A Cabanas


Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigati...
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr


A comparison of the effectiveness of a vacuum oven and a wind tunnel in the accelerated ageing of treated wood by evaporation
1989 - IRG/WP 2334
R J Orsler, G E Holland


The effect of didecyldimethylammonium chloride on growth of different strains of mould fungus Gliocladium roseum
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10105
The tolerance and degrading ability of different strains of Gliocladium roseum towards didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were studied. All four of the strains of Gliocladium roseum were tolerant to DDAC and after their growth on amended malt agar, the retention of DDAC in the medium was reduced....
Yu Zheng, J N R Ruddick


Lignin degradation by wood-degrading fungi
1986 - IRG/WP 1310
The wood-degrading white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, has been the subject of intensive research in recent years and, based upon isolation of the extracelluar enzyme ligninase, major advances have now been made toward elucidating the mechanism by which this fungus degrades lignin. From these developments, a model emerges which could explain the process by which wood-degrading fungi in g...
P J Harvey, H E Schoemaker, J M Palmer


The present classification of wood degradation factors
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10031
Contemporary classification of biotic and abiotic wood degradation factors is presented in two aspects: etiological and simptomatical one....
J Wazny


Cytochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide in brown rot fungus Tyromyces palustris by cerium chloride technique
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10299
Cerium chloride (CeCl3) was used to localize H2O2 cytochemically for studying relationship between ultrastructural and functional characteristics of cellulose degradation by brown rot fungi. This technique proved very useful in localizing discrete electron-densereactionproducts at high resolution with minimal nonspecific deposition. The cytochemical localization of extracellular H2O2 by CeCl3 usin...
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi


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