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The effects of density on vertical variation of permeability of Sitka spruce within tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40156
Tree improvement of Sitka spruce is a combination of silviculture and tree breeding aimed at producing higher quality products including increased growth rate and timber yield, and wood density. It is useful to know annual ring structure and density distribution when studying the quality of wood, grading it, or determining how the wood structure affects residual flow in softwoods. Since density is...
I Usta.

Implications for comparability of laboratory experiments revealed in studies on the variability in survival and wood consumption between colonies of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae
1983 - IRG/WP 1196
(Summary of paper 1193) Groups of Coptotermes acinaciformis, originating from six colonies, three taken from each of two localities, 1500 km apart, in northern Australia (Townsville, Darwin) were kept at population densities of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02 g termites/mL. Survival and wood consumption of the groups after 8 weeks followed a similar pattern in the colonies from both collection areas. Groups were least vigorous at the lowest population density; their performance reached a maximum at a population density of 0.01 g/mL. The subsequent decline in vigour was less marked as the highest population density was approached. However, the actual values for survival and wood consumption varied widely between colonies, irrespective of their origin. It is recommended that in all laboratory experiments which use survival and wood consumption as indicators of termite vigour, controls of a favourable as well as an unfavourable food type are included which would serve to monitor the vigour of the termites. Results from termite sources whose vigour falls below a certain threshold value would have to be treated with caution and could not be used in definative data, as e.g. in defining critical retentions of wood preservatives.
M Lenz

The Pilodyn instrument as a non-destructive tester of the shock resistance of wood
1978 - IRG/WP 2107
A new non-destructive shock resistance tester, the PILODYN, has been developed. The instrument measures the fracture surface area created by a constant amount of energy. It operates by shooting a blunt pin into wood by an exact amount of energy. The penetration depth is read on a scale. A wide field of application is open to a non-destructive shock resistance tester such as: 1) assessment of the r...
P Hoffmeyer

A standardised procedure for the treatment of timber with test chemicals
1986 - IRG/WP 2257
A procedure is described which allows the standardisation of sample handling and data manipulation during trials invastigating the treatability of timber with test chemicals. The use of computer software allows the data to be handled efficiently....
J Norton, A Zosars, L E Leightley

Natural resistance of twenty-six Guianese wood species against marine borers
1988 - IRG/WP 4144
This note is a contribution on the study of the natural resistance of some wood species from French Guiana, some of which could be found too in the neighbourhood. Here are presented the results after one year exposure in the marine environment....
L N Trong

Absorption of inorganic salts solutions. Retentions of inorganic salts. Fire retardants
1990 - IRG/WP 3625
The study aims evaluated the impregnation capacity using fire retardants on woods with differents densities. At the same time, impregnation with several fire retardant salts were carried out in order to obtain their absortion and retention in wood....
A Garcia, J Navarro

A summary of tests and practical experiences with the Pilodyn wood testing instrument
1980 - IRG/WP 282
This paper presents a summary of the reports, tests and practical experiences with the Pilodyn wood tester not only, however, concerning poles but also in other fields such as standing trees, sawn timber etc. The principle of the Pilodyn is a spring-loaded pin which is fired into the object and the depth to which the pin penetrates is correlated to physical and mechanical properties of the object....
H Friis-Hansen

Some relationship between physical characteristics and treatability of Bolivian woods
1987 - IRG/WP 3434
Using the available data on physical characteristics of 25 Bolivian woods, some relationships between porosity, specific gravity and treatability (hot and cold open tank process with 5% pentachlorophenol) were analysed. The aim of this report is to give information on technical characteristics of Bolivian hardwoods which have been studied in this country by Centro de Desarrollo Forestal and in Per...
A S Viscarra

Ancillary properties of vapor boron-treated composites
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40210
This paper discusses the water absorption, thickness swelling, and internal bond strength of North American composites treated using a vapor boron treatment process. For oriented strandboard, high boron loadings led to lower internal bond strength and lower thickness swelling. Water absorption results were variable but no deleterious effect of treatment was noted. For medium density fiberboard, th...
W A Jones, H M Barnes, R J Murphy

Methods for testing fumigant efficacies against termites
1986 - IRG/WP 1297
Methodologies for testing fumigants against termites are reviewed and factors needed to be taken under consideration for standardization listed. Toxicity should be defined by both direct exposure to the gas and under more practical "barrier" conditions which include test enclosures simulating abiotic surroundings of the termites, i.e. wood, nest material, etc. To observe latent effects, mortality ...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn

Treating Eucalyptus tereticornis wood with boron: Optimizing treatment conditions
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40309
Even though Eucalyptus tereticornis wood is suitable for small timber purposes, being non-durable, it needs to be treated with preservative chemicals. As it is a heavy, hard and difficult to treat species, the possibility of using diffusible boron compounds was investigated. The present study explored the effect of impregnation conditions such as treatment schedule, concentration of treatment solu...
T K Dhamodaran, R Gnanaharan

Effect of incising depth and density on treatment of Douglas fir, hem fir and spruce-pine-fir lumber with CCA, ACZA or ACQ
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40093
Incising markedly improves both the depth and uniformity of preservative treatment of refractory wood species, but there are few studies directly comparing the effects of incising depth and density on penetration and retention of commonly used waterborne preservatives in wood species from the western United States. The effects of two incision densities (7300 and 8900 incisions/square meter) at two...
M Anderson, J J Morrell, J E Winandy

Examination of the Pilodyn as a non-destructive test method for detecting decay in CCA treated eucalypt poles
1982 - IRG/WP 2177
Below groundline condition of 274 CCA treated eucalypt poles comprising 13 different species was examined using 6 and 12 Joule Pilodyn units with 2 and 2.5 mm diameter pins. The data obtained was used to calculate regressions of density on pin penetration. A decrease in density was accompanied by an increase in pin penetration. The best correlation was found using the 6 Joule, 60 x 2.5 mm² diamet...
L E Leightley

A study of wood quality of Juglans nigra and hybrid walnut (MJ 209xRA) : durability against Coriolus versicolor, density and MOR
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10522
The study investigated possible effects of harvesting season on some wood properties of Juglan nigra (JN) and a hybrid walnut (MJ209xRA). The samples were taken from trees which were harvested in June July, August, November of the same year, and March in the year after to determine whether there were any significant differences in wood properties as regards the harvesting seasons. In order to test...
B Charrier, F Charrier, D P Kamdem, J B Aurel, G Janin

Comparative study on physical properties of four fast growing timber species of Bangladesh
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10570
Ghoraneem (Melia azedarach), Rain tree (Albizia saman), Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) and Akashmoni (Acacia auriculiformis) plantations are started as a fast growing timber specie from a few years back in Bangladesh. Initian objectives were to get fuel wood only from those trees, but a very positive response was found for Ghoraneem, Rain Tree, Sissoo and Akashmoni timber in the users market by c...
M M Islam, B K Dey, M O Hannan, G N M Ilias

Dip-diffusion of dressed timber - Effect of drying
1989 - IRG/WP 3509
The effect of drying on dip-diffused dressed freshly sawn timber was determined by the depth of penetration of boron achieved on the two test timber species, White cheesewood (Alstonia scholaris) and Light Hopea (Hopea papuana). The results obtained showed that light density White cheesewood was completely penetrated even after 3 days drying while Light hopea, treated immediately achieved 5.2 mm p...
H C Konabe

Evaluating the natural durability of native and tropical wood species against Reticulitermes flavip
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10539
Environmental pressures to eliminate arsenate from wood preservatives has resulted in voluntary removal of CCA for residential applications in the United States. A new generation of copper organic preservatives has been formulated to replace CCA for decking and in-ground applications but there is no guarantee that these preservatives represent a permanent solution to all related problems. There...
R A Arango, F Green III, K Hintz, R B Miller

MDF manufactured from blends of cypress pine and radiata pine shows enhanced resistance to subterranean termite attack
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40214
Medium density fibreboards consisting of blends of the naturally durable wood species white cypress pine (Callitris glaucophylla) and non-durable wood species were manufactured in a commercial plant and subjected to a bioassay using the subterranean termite species, Coptotermes lacteus. A board composed of 30% cypress pine, 30% slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and 40% of the naturally durable hardwood...
P D Evans, S Dimitriades, C Donnelly, R B Cunningham

Effects of seed origin and site on both wood density and longitudinal fluid uptake of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) with height in the tree grown in the United Kingdom
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40226
The variation in density and longitudinal fluid uptake was investigated in short specimens of wood taken from eight seed origins of Sitka spruce trees grown at two sites in the UK. Five trees of each seed origin at each site were sampled at three heights (1, 2 and 3 m above ground level). The density of the samples decreased with increasing height within the stem. This corresponded with increasin...
I Usta, M D C Hale

Natural durability, density and extractive contents of 42 wood species of Bangladesh.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10490
Natural durability, density and major extractive contents of 42 lesser used or unused wood species of Bangladesh have been studied. Correlation analysis between these properties has been performed. It has been shown that natural durability of these species neither explained by water soluble nor by alcohol benzene extractive contents. Density has a weak but significant positive correlation with dur...
S Akhter, K Akhter, S C Das

Eucalyptus globulus. Impregnability in relation with plantation and crop
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2402
Eucalyptus globulus Lasill is currently classified in Pr EN 350 on the basis of the characteristics of the first log. In practice, there are usually several following crops of branches developped on each stump in plantations. Up to a diameter of 8 cm, round wood of 2nd crop and further crops present a maximum of sapwood and characteristics which differ significantly from the basic classification a...
D Dirol

Dip-diffusion of dressed timber - Effect of drying
1990 - IRG/WP 3603
The effect of drying on BFCA dip-diffused, dressed, freshly sawn timber was determined by the depth of penetration of boron achieved on two test timber species, White Cheesewood (Alstonia scholaris) and Light Hopea (Hopea papuana). The results obtained showed that the light density White cheesewood was completely penetrated even after 3 days drying while Light Hopea, treated immediately achieved 5...
H C Konabe

A novel guide for the determination of the physical properties of wood including kiln drying and full-cell preservative treatment
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20298
An ideal flow chart for the sequential experimental determination of a range of physical properties relevant to wood drying and subsequent preservation was designed as a novel guide to assist wood scientists. In this manner, data assembly and experimental processing are shown. This was designed according to experience and published literature. Aspects emphasised in this review were the physical p...
I Usta, M D C Hale

Variation in natural durability of British grown Douglas fir ((Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Part I. Effect of density and growth rate
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10445
Seed origin trials of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in Britain have provided important information on growth differences between origins (Lines, 1987), but the variation in wood properties between origins has not been reported. The present paper describes a study of the variation in natural durability against two brown rot fungi (Coniophora puteana and Postia (Poria) placenta) and in a fung...
S Akhter, M D C Hale

On the laboratory use of X-rays in timber decay evaluations
1981 - IRG/WP 2144
The paper reports the results of laboratory experiments on the X-raying of some Pinus radiata sapwood blocks infected with Serpula lacrymans to determine the effect of density and moisture content on the absorption of X-rays by wood. It is concluded that with increasing moisture content there is a very marked increase in time required to pass a constant quantity of X-rays through a test block and ...
J D Thornton, J W Creffield, O Collett

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