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Examination of timbers from the Mary Rose in storage
1988 - IRG/WP 4149
Timbers from the Tudor ship, Mary Rose, have been examined for the presence of fungal fruiting structures. Wood specimens were also examined for the presence of microbial decay patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. Structural timbers were surveyed using the Pilodyn for an overall picture of the extent of decay. Mary Rose timbers were predominantly inhabited by marine fungi. Fourteen species were found fruiting on the surface but fungal decay was localized. Bacterial erosion and tunnelling of the wood cell wall were observed, but were rare. The Pilodyn has shown that decay in timbers exists in isolated pockets. The storage site has proved to be efficient in minimizing further microbial decay, while maintaining the waterlogged state of timbers.
R Mouzouras


Importance of bacteria in the deterioration of archaeological woods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10122
An electron microscopic study of archaeological woods from different sites and of different ages revealed that the woods had been attacked by erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and soft rot fungi. Bacterial erosion appeared to be most widespread, and was present independently as well as together with tunnelling and soft rot attacks. Thus, in many instances bacterial erosion was the only type of microbial attack present. This work recognizes the important role bacteria play generally, and erosion bacteria particularly, in the deterioration of waterlogged archaeological woods.
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, T Nilsson


An evaluation on durability of untreated mining timber support
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20121
Wedge blocks in dimension of 5 x 7 to 8 x 155 cm3 were cut from indigeneous scots pine pitprops. Each of wedge block pairs were numbered and half of them were placed as the test blocks between the steel arches and the strata in a hard coal pit. Controls in laboratory and test wedge blocks in the mine were then sawn into 20 by 20 by 300 mm standard test sticks. Impact bending, static bending and MOE and specific gravity were determined to evaluate the natural durability of timber support against biodeterioration on the test sticks. Strength and specific gravity losses were calculated as a percentage of control values. Furthermore, relationships between residual strength values and losses in specific gravity were statistically evaluated. At the end of exposure period of 2.5 months, decreases in impact bending strength of scots pine wedge blocks were found 46.19%, in static bending strength 28.21% and in MOE 19.54% while the loss of 4.36% in specific gravity was determined. Blue staining moulding and brown-rot were identified on the wedge blocks.
A Bobat


Some studies on fungal deterioration of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis)
1980 - IRG/WP 2140
For the sreening of anti-stain chemicals trials with selected agricultural fungicides and new chemicals were carried out. Botryodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were used at test organisms. For testing the durability of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) suitable local rotting fungi (Basidiomycetes), based on high degrading power, which may later be employed in standard tests, were isolated: Trametes corrugata, Schizophyllum commune, Lentinus blepharodes, Lenzites palisotii, Ganoderma applanatum, Fomes senex and Polyporus zonalis. Several of the fungicides screened, such as benomyl, thiram, quintozene and captafol, are effective against the blue stain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae, at fairly low concentrations. However at the levels required, none of them is cost-effective compared sodium pentachlorophenoxide, the preservative currently used for blue stain control in rubber wood. Of the seven Basidiomycetes tested, two of them - Lenzites palisotii and Ganoderma applanatum - were shown to give a high degree of degradation in rubber wood. These species could perhaps be used as test organisms for evaluating wood preservatives in Malaysia.
A Sujan, A G Tan, M Stevens


Isolation and identification of non-decay fungi affecting the performance of alkylammonium compounds
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10020
The isolation of DDAC tolerant fungi was carried out on lumber treated with a range of antisapstain chemicals containing DDAC as one of their active ingredients. The tolerant fungi were selected by using malt media spiked with DDAC (100 and 2500 ppm). Isolations were tentatively identified into a range of fungi commonly found associated with wood deterioration (i.e. Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma sp.). One particular group showed extreme tolerance to DDAC (growing at 2500 ppm) and were tentatively identified as fungi from Verticillium/Acremonium sp. DDAC was extracted from the above media and analysed using HPLC, in order to determine the fate of the DDAC once the fungi had colonised the plate.
A K Doyle, J N R Ruddick


Durability and Wood Protection for Historic Covered Bridges in the United States
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10829
A majority of the covered wooden bridges in United States were built in the mid -1800’s. These structures represent a unique cultural and technological heritage from that era. Over time, these bridges have been deteriorated by microorganisms and insects or damaged by acts of vandalism and arson. The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides funds to support preservation and restoration efforts for historic covered bridges. The focus of the NHCBP Program is support and technology transfer efforts to preserve, restore and protect covered bridges in conjunction with providing educational resources to the general public. In this paper, an overview of NHCBP research on the durability and wood protection of covered bridges is provided. Research results assist the general public, field investigators and states in their efforts to restore, repair and preserve national historic bridges.
V W Yang, C A Clausen


Bio-deterioration of Southern Pine Stakes at Geographically Different Testing Sites
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20609
Southern pine (SP) sapwood is commonly used in preparing the standardized stakes for performance testing as referenced in the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) Book of Standards. For example, the standardized above ground test methods E16/E18 and the standardized ground contact test method E7 all use sapwood of SP as the preferred wood species for preservative performance test. In this paper, the decay performance of untreated SP in the above ground and ground contact conditions were examined when the stakes were exposed at geographically different testing sites across the United States, and their decay trend over time at different sites were compared and reported. The results from the E16 test in Hilo, HI demonstrated that untreated SP stakes had a relatively slower deterioration initially, however, the stakes started to have a steep decline after 2 or 3-years exposure in the field. All the stakes had complete failure after approximately 5 – 6 years. The results from the E18 test in Hilo, HI test site showed that decay attack was observed after one-year exposure, and then the average decay rating started to drop markedly with a zero rating after about 5 years. For the Saucier, MS test site, the E18 stake showed minimal decay attack following the first year exposure, and then decay started to take off over the next few years. The stakes failed completely after 5-years exposure. For the Gainesville, FL test site, E18 test stakes appeared to have very slight fungal attack for the first 2 years, then started to show steady decline over the next 5-6 years, and the stakes failed completely after approximately 8-years exposure. The Dorman Lake, MS test site demonstrated similar decay trend as Gainesville site. The results from the E7 stakes installed in Gainesville, FL site started to show quick deterioration after installation, and had a steep decay curve over the 2-years period. Most of the stakes had complete failure after approximately 2-years exposure. In comparison, the E7 stakes installed in the two HI sites and Saucier, MS testing sites appeared to have a less steep decay curve with a complete failure after approximately 3-years exposure. The E7 stakes installed in Dorman, MS had complete bio-deterioration after 4-years in ground exposure.
Jun Zhang, J Horton


Which fungi cause sapstain in Canadian softwoods?
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10285
The Canadian forest products industry suffers considerable losses in revenue due to fungal stains. There is an increased awareness that more complete knowledge about the causal organisms might help solve the problem. A first step was to initiate a thorough survey of bluestain fungi in Canada. Systematic sampling was done at seven selected sawmills in six Canadian provinces. In summer 1997 fresh logs and lumber were set aside a month prior to sampling for fungi. Five commercially important softwoods, Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, P. glauca, Pinus contorta and P. banksiana were included in the studies. The objectives were to identify the main discoloring fungi and subsequently to evaluate the genetic diversity among isolates of the fungal species found to predominate. Fungi isolated from the experimental timber were identified based on their morphological characteristics, measurement of their growth rates, and by testing their mating compatibility with known mating types. A substantial number of isolates and a variety of species were obtained. Most frequently isolated were species from the genus Ophiostoma. A more diverse range of fungi was found in logs than on lumber. Preliminary data suggest that some species tend to predominate on certain wood species and in certain geographic regions but none appeared to be exclusive.
A Uzunovic, Dian-Qing Yang, P Gagné, C Breuil, L Bernier, A Byrne


Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also examined using Fenton's reagent. The enhancement of decay resistance by acetylation was revealed clearly for all cases of exposures but varying with fungal and wood species used. For a brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, the weight loss reached almost nil in all woods at 20 WPG (weight percent gain) of acetylation, after the striking decrease from 10 to 15 WPG. For a white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor, it was counted until 12-15 WPG in the perishable hardwoods used, but not in a softwood Cryptomeria japonica, even at 6 WPG. In cases of another brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and soil burial, effect of acetylation was intermediate between Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor. Anti-degradation mechanism by acetylation was discussed, from these weight loss - weight gain relationships, and the IR-and 13C-NMR spectral analyses of fungus-exposed wood.
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi


Questionnaire - Fungal decay types
1985 - IRG/WP 1265
T Nilsson


JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated.
K Tsunoda


Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports of some copper naphthenate-treated poles rapidly failing. One possible explanation for the varying effectiveness could be that the structure, and resulting biological activity, of the naphthenic acids used to make copper naphthenate may vary. To test this hypothesis several naphthenic acids and copper naphenates were obtained and their fungicidal activity against three wood-destroying fungi measured. In addition, the chemical structure of the naphthenic acids were examined by proton- and carbon- NMR. Different activities were observed, especially against a copper-tolerant fungus. Some apparent correlations were seen between the fungicidal activity and chemical structures for the few samples studied.
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher


The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman


Inhibition of wood-inhabiting fungi by actinomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 1137
Actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Microtetraspora, Nocardia and Rhodococcus, isolated from wood, were laboratory tested for their inhibitory effects against the Basidiomycete fungi Polystictus sanguineus and Sistrotrema brinkmannii. One-third of the representatives of the genus Streptomyces which were tested produced significant inhibitory zones whereas actinomycetes belonging to the other genera did not.
M S Cavalcante, R A Eaton


Comité International Permanent pour la Recherche sur la Préservation des Matériaux en Milieu Marin. Information from the Wood Group
1980 - IRG/WP 460
E G B Jones


Nondestructive Evaluation of Oriented Strand Board Exposed to Decay Fungi
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20243
Stress wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being used in our laboratory to evaluate the performance properties of engineered wood. These techniques have proven useful in the inspection of timber structures to locate internal voids and decayed or deteriorated areas in large timbers. But no information exists concerning NDE and important properties of wood composites exposed to decay fungi. For our pilot study on several types of wood composites, we examined the relationship between nondestructive stress wave transmission, decay rate and the bending properties of OSB exposed to the brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum (MAD-617). The following measurements were taken: stress wave transmission time (pulse echo test method), static bending test (ASTM D3043-95), and decay (expressed as percent weight). Stress wave measurements correlated with strength loss and with increasing rate of fungal decay. Stress wave NDE has great potential as a method for inspection of wood composite load-bearing (in-service) structures, detection of decay in laboratory tests, assessment of chemical additives to improve wood composite durability, and prediction of long term composite performance.
B Illman, V W Yang, R J Ross, W J Nelson


Screening potential preservatives against stain and mould fungi on pine timber in Zimbabwe
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30063
The search for environmentally and toxicologically safer chemicals for use in the timber preservative industry against stain and mould fungi has been intensified during the past few years. Results of field tests with two chemicals previously evaluated in the laboratory are presented. The conventional sodium pentachlorophenate was the more efficacious chemical against stain and mould fungi, providing up 90% control at a concentration of 2.5%. A potential alternative, Stopstain a borate-based chemical, gave results only slightly better than the untreated control timber, at a concentration of 5%. Unless the environmental cost and toxicological hazards of traditional chemicals are highlighted the newer and safer chemicals will be reluctantly accepted by industry as they are regarded as being prohibitively expensive.
A J Masuka


Moisture content levels and decay of hemlock
1986 - IRG/WP 1287
As a model of decay conditions of wooden members in wooden houses, a decay test was set up in which samples of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) under 4 moisture levels were examined. Each week the samples were weighed and if the weights indicated that their moisture contents were lower than the expected levels, distilled water was added. Every 8 weeks 3 samples from each condition were oven dried at 60°C for 48 hours, up to 48 weeks. After 48 weeks, 3 samples from each condition were oven dried every 16 weeks. The results obtained were as follows: After examining the samples for 96 weeks at 27°C, the mean weight loss of the hemlock samples kept at about 50-100% moisture content level was larger than those of the other levels. If the samples were dried every 8 weeks, the amount of decay in them was not significant. Decay was also not significant in the samples kept at approximately 20-30% moisture content level.
K Suzuki


The restricted distribution of Serpula lacrymans in Australian buildings
1989 - IRG/WP 1382
Temperature data has been gathered over a number of years, not only for flooring regions of various buildings in Melbourne, but also within roof spaces and external to the buildings. Findings are discussed in relation to the distribution of Serpula lacrymans within Australia, its restriction to certain types of building construction and its restriction to flooring regions. The subfloor spaces of badly-ventilated, masonry buildings are highlighted as being better suited than are the subfloor spaces of, for example, Japanese buildings for the activity of this fungus. Hence Serpula lacrymans is very restricted in its distribution in Australia, yet where it is active it does grow rapidly and causes rapid flooring failures.
J D Thornton


Monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi. [Fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores]
1970 - IRG/WP I 5B
C Jacquiot


On Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouzar
1986 - IRG/WP 1285
Donkioporia expansa is found more often in houses than realised until now. Virulence tests according to EN 113 show not only an attack of oak, but also of other hardwoods and even soft-woods.
G Buchwald


Additions and corrections to recent names for some common decay fungi
1977 - IRG/WP 167
A Käärik


Effect of medium-term degradation of beech wood by erosive (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and lignin-selective (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) strains of white rot fungi on its selected physical properties
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40292
At the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology a fungal delignification of normal and tension beech wood by erosive and lignin-selective strains white-rot fungi has been studied. The pre-treatment of both kind of wood samples was accompanied by partial delignification and apparent changes of their physical properties influencing the polar liquids penetration.
R Solár, S Kurjatko, M Mamonová, J Hudec


Essais biologiques sur poteaux traités à la Wolmanit C.B. suivant le procédé Boucherie modifé
1974 - IRG/WP 336
D Lapetite, C Jacquiot, J Campredon


Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 3: The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans compared to other fungi commonly isolated from wood surface coatings
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10035
The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans was previously examined, using agar plate tests, with regard to nutrient sources that are potentially available in fresh and weathered wood (Sharpe and Dickinson, 1992). This study compared these findings with the nutritional capability of four other fungi (Alternaria sp., Cladosporium cladosporoides, Stemphylium sp. and Trichoderma sp.) commonly isolated from wood surfaee coatings. The liquid culture techniques were used to assess the relative abilities of the fungi to utilise a range of simple sugars, wood sugar alcohols, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin degradation compounds. The observations were used to explain why Aureobasidium pullulans is able to occupy so successfully, often in monoculture, the wood-paint interface niche.
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson


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