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The Rubber Ruler: Continuous measurement of dimension changes in wood panels
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20033
A new application for a linear transducer called Rubber Ruler was developed. Rubber Ruler provides a simple and reliable method for continuous monitoring of dimension changes in wood panels. This paper presents the methodology. Results of priliminary experiments designed to simulate the movement in wood panels are also discussed....
Siew K Ho, P Vinden, P Kho

Direct measurement of fluid flow within wood
1986 - IRG/WP 2248
The problematics of fluid flow mechanism within wood using a permeability concept are highlighted, and the non-feasibility of a practical and versatile model is explained. An alternative method using a negative temperature coefficient thermistor to measure flow velocity directly is presented. The method has been verified in living trees and shows extreme sensitivity for flow above 1 meter/hour. Fo...
J P Hösli

Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is d...
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton

Use of Transverse Compression Properties as a Measurement of Wood Biodeterioration, Part 1 of 2 - Effect of White-Rot on Yellow-Poplar
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40239
The soil block and agar block test methods are used extensively as a screening process for potential and modified wood preservatives. The extent of decay in standard screening tests, indicative of preservative efficacy, is currently based on mass loss. Mass loss techniques, due to their limit of sensitivity in detecting significant mass loss vis-à-vis decay, require an extended fungus exposure ...
S Janzen, D D Nicholas

Measurement of VOC emissions from curative treated wood: A new emission test chamber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-13
A poor indoor air quality (IAQ) is now recognized as a potential factor affecting occupants health. There are three basic strategies to improve IAQ: source control, improvement of the ventilation and use of air cleaners. Usually, the most efficient way to improve IAQ is to eliminate the different pollutant sources or to reduce their emissions. In order to precisely measure emissions from building ...
F Maupetit, O Ramalho, C Yrieix

The effect of low molecular weight chelators on iron chelation and free radical generation as studied by ESR measurement
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10367
The focus of this work was to improve our current knowledge of the non-enzymatic mechanisms involved in brown-rot decay. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), is an attractive technique for the identification and study of chemical species containing unpaired electrons (such as radicals and certain transition metal species). ESR spin-trapping techniques...
Yuhui Qian, B Goodell

Dimension of lysimeters and the evaluation of the migration of wood preservative components in soil
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50065
In the past, investigations concerning the migration behaviour of wood preservatives were made to a minor extent and no uniform methods of test exist. The migration behaviour of CFB was determined using 5 lysimeters of different dimension. The results of the migration and distribution of the anions in the soil showed considerable differences between both ions. Approximately the whole quantity of c...
E Melcher, R-D Peek

Development of wood retification process at the industrial stage
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-16
Wood is a natural composite material which exhibits outstanding properties from the technical as well as from the ecological point of view. However, it is an anisotropic, hygroscopic material sensitive to biological attacks. We have to stabilise and preserve it if we want to ensure its market shares faced with competing synthetic material, whilst taking the new environmental rules into account. T...
P Gohar, R Guyonnet

Non-destructive stress wave measurement of decay and termite attack in experimental wood units
1986 - IRG/WP 2256
The purpose of this study was to determine if stress wave analysis could be used to monitor the degradation of wood specimens exposed to the brown-rot decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and of wood specimens subjected to attack by subterranean termites. One hundred fifty 3/4 by 3/4 by 12 in. Southern pine specimens were used for exposure to brown-rot decay fungi and two hundred twenty-five 3/4 by ...
R F Pellerin, R C De Groot, G R Esenther

Influence of different resin treatments on the dimension stability of wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40090
The dimension stability of wood is considered to be an important contribution to its durability and its performance in practice. A number of different treatments have been developed to improve the dimension stability of wood. One applied method is the treatment of wood with monomers or resins. The application of appropriate impregnation conditions seemed to be essential to enhance the efficiency o...
M Sailer, A O Rapp

Respiration measurement of dry-rot
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10095
Methods for measuring the production of carbondioxide from wood infected with the dry-rot fungus were evaluated. By enclosing whole wood blocks and measuring the concentration of gas in the headspace by gas chromatography, an exponential increase in the concentration of CO2 was observed for at least 2 months. This technique could therefore present a method for evaluating various treatments of dry-...
L Toft

Computerized axial tomography. A non-destructive method for three-dimensional wood density/moisture content measurement
1987 - IRG/WP 2285
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT-scanning) - used for medical investigations of the brain - has been evaluated as a nondestructive method of three-dimensional wood density/moisture content measurements. Density can be measured with an accuracy of ±3 kg/m³, and the accuracy in average moisture content is ±1% below and above fibre saturation point. It is theoretically possible that measurements...
L O Lindgren

Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20304
The Danish Technological Institute is in co-operation with industry partners running a project aiming at predicting the service life of different wood protecting systems. The project focuses on examining the moisture reducing effect of different wood claddings and the ability to maintain the appearance of the surfaces, when the wood is used in service class 3. A façade construction is exposed t...
B Lindegaard, N Morsing

Development of software to automate the quantification of checking occurring in preservative treated wood exposed to weathering
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20228
Surface checking often disfigures the appearance of wood treated with water-borne preservatives and treatments designed to reduce such checking have been receiving increasing attention. Progress in this area has however been slowed by the lack of a method of rapidly and accurately quantifying checking at treated wood surfaces. A software package has therefore been developed which identifies, measu...
A G Christy, P D Evans

Effect of post-treatment drying schedule on the modulus of elasticity of CCA-treated southern pine dimension stock using nondestructive methods
1987 - IRG/WP 3413
This paper describes the results from the nondestructive testing for modulus of elasticity (MOE) of southern pine (Pinus sp.) 2 x 6's treated with chromated copper arsenate and redried using three commercial kiln schedules. The data indicate that redrying CCA-treated southern pine dimension stock treated to above-ground retentions (4 kg/m³) has no deleterious effect on the MOE, regardles...
H M Barnes, S Moore

Measurement of electrokinetic potential to evaluate adsorption of quaternary ammonium salt
1991 - IRG/WP 3672
Measurement of z-potential in the wood treated with preservatives is suggested as a method for determination of the adsorption of preservative to wood. It has been found that measurement of z-potential of wood treated with quaternary ammonium salt type preservatives can be a useful method to determine the adsorptives phenomena of preservatives and by which there is a remarkable differences in the ...
Yeong Suk Kim

Termite baiting system: A new dimension of termite control in the Philippines
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10608
The performance of a baiting system and efficacy of an insect growth regulator (IGR), chlorfluazuron, was evaluated against three economically important species of subterranean termites in the Philippines i.e., Coptotermes vastator Light, Microcerotermes losbañosensis Oshima and Macrotermes gilvus Hagen. Preliminary tests were conducted on secondary nests of M. losbañosensis and mounds of M. gil...
C M Garcia, M Y Giron, S G Broadbent

Measurement of wood decay by dynamic MOE in an accelerated soil contact test
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20390
Current laboratory and field testing of preservatives involves various techniques to determine the extent of fungal attack, including visual inspection, mass loss, and static bending and compression strength measurements. The objective of this study was to compare decay measurement by conventional compression strength versus dynamic MOE, employing small wood stakes in an accelerated laboratory so...
Gan Li, D D Nicholas, T P Schultz

Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content: Status after 5 years of Outdoor Exposure
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20401
The Danish Technological Institute is in co-operation with industry partners running a project aiming at predicting the service life of different wood protecting systems. The project focuses on examining the moisture reducing effect of different protecting systems for timber claddings and the ability of these to maintain the appearance of the surfaces, when the wood is used in service class 3 (EN ...
E Tang Engelund, B Lindegaard, N Morsing

Use of Confocal Profilometry to Quantify the Weathering of Wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20421
The methods that have been used to screen chemicals for their ability to prevent the weathering of wood involve assessing the loss in weight and tensile strength of treated wood veneers or measuring the rate of erosion of exposed and unexposed (masked) wood subjected to weathering. The erosion of wood during natural weathering occurs slowly and long exposure times are required to produce differenc...
Chunling Liu, P Evans

Continuous moisture measurement (CMM) to detect failure of moisture resistance
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20422
A wood coating system will fail to perform properly after a certain time of weathering. From that moment, the substrate is especially prone to fungal attack. Moisture plays a key role on weathering performance, wood protection efficacy and decay susceptibility of wood. Therefore, knowledge of the moisture dynamics of the applied wood protection is of significant importance in the prediction of the...
I De Windt, J Van den Bulcke, J Van Acker

Variation in moisture content in field trials according to use class 3.2 conditions
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20580
Different test methods to determine the durability of wood in use class 3 (EN 335:2013) are available. Fungal degradation of wood requires liquid water. Different Standards (EN 335-1:2006; DIN 68 800:2011) specify the risk for decay with moisture content (mc) of above 20%. EN 335 (2013) does not specify moisture content but rather defined limited wetting conditions (use class 3.1) or prolonged wet...
S Bollmus, A Gellerich, H Militz

Measurement of Cell Wall Moisture in Acetylated Radiata Pine Using Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20583
Understanding the interaction of water with acetylated wood is necessary to explain how the protective mechanism of acetylation functions. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance is one technique for assessing water in wood. Pinus radiata earlywood sapwood samples were acetylated to various weight percentage gains and then analysed with this method. Increased levels of acetylation showed significantl...
H G Beck, C A S Hill

Development of software to automate the quantification of the extent of penetration of treated wood
2021 - IRG/WP 21-20678
In Japan, Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and Approved Quality (AQ) by the Japan Housing and Wood Technology Center have established the penetration standard for treated wood. In our company, we measure the degree of penetration by either visual assessment or image processing. In the visual assessment, the degree of penetration is determi...
Y Susa, D Watanabe, T Shigeyama, Y Sugai

Measurement of copper concentration in Cu-HDO treating solutions by handheld XRF
2022 - IRG/WP 22-20685
Copper based preservatives diluted in water dominate the wood preservative industry around the world. Periodically measurements and adjustments of the concentration of treating solutions must be performed as a part of the quality control at the treatment plant to achieve desired quality of the preservative treated wood. Many analytical methods are time consuming and must be performed under laborat...
P O Flaete