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Movement of water through quaternary ammonium treated wood
1987 - IRG/WP 3440
Radiata pine sapwood stakes were treated with didodecyl methyl 1, 3 dichloropropenyl ammonium chloride and distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride. Various ratios of these two chemicals were, tested to determine the extent of water movement through the treated wood. Measurements were taken of the amount of water moved through the wood, degree of wetting of various sectors of the stakes, and the distribution of the quaternaries through the stakes. The results showed that didodecyl methyl 1,3 dichloropropenyl ammonium chloride increased the amount of water movement through the stakes compared to untreated, however the addition of distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride reduced the water movement to below that of untreated. Over the twelve weeks of the trial no redistribution of quaternaries was noted.
P J Hayward, J Duff


Effect of borate on uptake and efficacy of an anti-sapstain treatment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30380
The potential for using borates to enhance uptake and efficacy of propiconazole-based anti-sapstain chemicals was assessed on ponderosa pine sapwood wafers. Borates had no consistent effect on either net solution absorption or propiconazole distribution in the wood. Even small amounts of borate, however, markedly improved the performance of propiconazole against fungal discoloration. These results are consistent with previous tests of borate addition to other fungicides and highlight the potential for using less expensive ingredients to boost the performance of more costly biocides.
Jianju Luo, Hua Chen, J J Morrell


Efficacy of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride (DDAC), Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate (DOT), and Chlorothalonil (CTL) against Common Mold Fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30338
The fungitoxic properties of four fungicides, alone and in combination, against four different mold fungi commonly associated with indoor air quality problems were evaluated on two different wood species and sheetrock. The fungicides were chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (CTL) in a 40.4% aqueous dispersion, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in two different forms - a 40% glycol solution and a 98% wettable powder, and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) in an 80% solution. The fungi were Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium brevicompactum, and Stachybotrys chartarum. All fungicide treatments on wood reduced growth, sporulation and discoloration of the mold fungi when compared to nontreated specimens. No single fungicide provided total control of all four fungi on wood. CTL provided the best single-agent protection by totally preventing the growth of C. cladosporioides and S. chartarum and reducing growth of A. niger and P. brevicompactum to low levels. DOT in both forms was very effective against A. niger, but provided only sporadic protection against other fungi. DDAC provided good protection against S. chartarum but was not as effective against the other molds. Combinations of the different biocides were more effective than any single agent. DOT + DDAC totally prevented or greatly reduced growth of A. niger, P. brevicompactum and S. chartarum. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the most difficult organism to control, but even this was achieved when DDAC was increased to 1.0% with DOT. The most consistent control of discoloration, sporulation, and growth of the fungi on wood was obtained with the combination of DOT and CTL. DOT, alone or in combination with DDAC or CTL, was also very effective against the fungi on sheetrock. The results suggest that by using appropriate products, during construction or after water damage, problems associated with the growth of common molds and their potential health effects can be avoided.
J A Micales-Glaeser, J D Lloyd, T L Woods


Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride: toxicity to Coniophora puteana when formulated in water and organic solvent
1986 - IRG/WP 2250
Results from agar block tests using Coniophora puteana demonstrate that the biological activity of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride is affected by the nature of the carrier solvent in which it is applied. In contrast to some earlier work, an alkyl ammonium compound in organic solvent formulation was identified that had significantly greater activity than its aqueous equivalent. A simple solution of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride in xylene did not exhibit increased activity relative to that of the same alkyl ammonium compound in aqueous solution. The reasons for the differences in performance cannot at present be fully explained.
D P Blow


Adsorption of ACQ components in wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30522
To investigate the chemical adsorption capacity of copper-monoethanolamine (Cu-Mea) components on wood, the Na+ cation exchange capacity (CEC) of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) was determined and compared to the adsorption capacity of free Mea and Cu-Mea complexes. The CEC increased with increasing pH. Free Mea adsorption as a function of pH followed the sodium adsorption curve except at pH over 9, when it exceeded the CEC. Cu-Mea adsorbed up to the CEC at pH 9.0-9.5 apparently as Cu(Mea)+, whereas the complex in solution is predominantly of the form Cu(Mea)2+. For the quaternary ammonium compound, alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) adsorption isotherm showed two different adsorption mechanisms into wood: ion exchange reaction at low concentration and hydrophobic interaction at high concentration. ADBAC adsorbed at solution concentrations below a critical concentration (hemi-micelle concentration) had high leaching resistance while ADBAC adsorbed into wood at above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) had low leaching resistance. The CMC decreased with addition of Mea and Cu-Mea. The anion, Cl- of ADBAC was only adsorbed at solution concentrations above the CMC and was easily leached out. The adsorption capacity of ADBAC into wood by cation exchange reaction did not achieve the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of wood. However, the total adsorption of ADBAC and Cu achieve the CEC of wood in the presence of copper amine, and ADBAC competes with copper to occupy the same sites in wood.
Myung Jae Lee, P Cooper


The effect of temperature on the rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound (AAC) wood preservative
1984 - IRG/WP 3293
The rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound wood preservative was measured by soaking samples of wood wool in various preparations of the preservative for arbitrary times followed by immediate leaching in water. The wood wool was then analysed for residual preservative. The results indicated that fixation was very rapid and increased at higher temperatures.
P Vinden


Composting of waste building up in sawmill dipping basins
1990 - IRG/WP 3570
We have studied composting of waste building up in dipping basins at sawmills although this waste can also be disposed of by incineration. Controlled composting within the sawmill area seems to be a feasible method. Another possibility is to accomplish composting directly at the local dumping site. Waste containing antistain chemicals is generally classed as hazardous. It cannot therefore be placed as such at common dumps. However after successful composting the permission to do so can probably be obtained. The composted dipping basin waste might also be suitable as land filling or in some cases as soil improvement material - at least in parks and green belt areas.
I A Linderborg, U Ek


Leachability of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound) from four wood species
1982 - IRG/WP 3204
Sapwood blocks prepared from red pine, ponderosa pine, southern yellow pine and hem-fir (a commercial mixture of western hemlock and amabilis fir) were treated with didecyldimethylammonium chloride, (an alkylammonium compound, AAC). After oven drying the blocks were vacuum impregnated with distilled water and subjected to a static leach cycle for 48 hours. The leachate was analyzed and the amount of AAC which leached from each wood species, calculated. The results showed that the leaching of didecyldimethylammonium chloride from ponderosa pine was not unusual, and that the amount of AAC leached for the various wood species increased in the order > red pine > ponderosa pine > southern yellow pine > hem fir.
J N R Ruddick, A R H Sam


Decay and termite resistance of wood treated with boron-containing quaternary ammonia compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) incorporated with acryl-silicon type resin
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30334
This study evaluates the decay and termite resistance of surface-treated wood with didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) incorporated with acryl-silicon type resin emulsion. DBF is a quaternary ammonia compound and contains boric tetrafluoride (BF4-) as a counter ion in its chemical structure. In the study, DBF was incorporated with an acryl-silicon type resin to increase water-resistant of the preservative solution, and, in turn, to increase decay and termite resistance of surface-treated wood after severe weathering processes. Laboratory decay resistance tests were performed using brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris and white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Treated wood specimens were also subjected a 3-week-termite resistance tests using subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. Wood specimens surface-treated with preservative solution including 2% DBF and the resin showed decay resistance against both F. palustris and T.versicolor even after severe weathering. Results suggested that treatment with DBF at 2% or greater concentrations containing acryl-silicon type resin emulsion would protect wood used outdoors against both fungal decay and termite attack.
S N Kartal, W J Hwang, K Shinoda, Y Imamura


Preliminary evaluation of new quaternary ammonia compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate for preventing fungal decay and termite attack
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30375
This study evaluates the decay and termite resistance of wood treated with didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF), a recently developed quaternary ammonia compound containing boron. DBF contains boric tetrafluoride as a counter ion in its chemical structure. Laboratory decay resistance tests were performed using brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris and white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Treated wood specimens were also subjected a 3-week-termite resistance tests using subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. Decay resistance tests showed that wood specimens treated with 0.5 and 1.0% DBF solutions were well protected from both fungi even after a 10-day severe weathering process, suggesting the adequate fixation of DBF in wood. DBF treatment at 0.1% concentration was efficient against subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki based on weight losses in both weathered and unweathered wood specimens. These results suggested that DBF could be used effectively to protect wood used outdoors against both fungal decay and termite attack and discolorations by fungi.
S N Kartal, W J Hwang, Y Imamura


Measurement of electrokinetic potential to evaluate adsorption of quaternary ammonium salt
1991 - IRG/WP 3672
Measurement of z-potential in the wood treated with preservatives is suggested as a method for determination of the adsorption of preservative to wood. It has been found that measurement of z-potential of wood treated with quaternary ammonium salt type preservatives can be a useful method to determine the adsorptives phenomena of preservatives and by which there is a remarkable differences in the adsorbed condition with the components of preservatives concentration of treating solution, treating time and the elapsed time for streaming potential measurement in wood treated with quaternary ammonium salt type, there were differences in values of z-potential against that of untreated wood with a difference in chemical formula of preservatives, addition of chemicals for polymerization and concentration of treating solution. In case of the wood treated with quaternary ammonium salt with silicon, the treating time to reach the completly adsorbed condition of preservatives was about 3-5 minutes in concentration of below 0.75% and was about 15 minutes in above 1.5%. On the other hand, in adsorption of benzalkonium chloride, it took 15 minutes of adsorbing time in below 0.75% and 7.5 minutes in above 1.5%. Regardless of the extension of elapsed time for measuring, the constant values in z-potential was not obtained in wood treated with quaternary ammoniusalt with silicon, this result was attributable to leaching of preservatives. Whereas, for measurement of wood treated with benzalkonium chloride, it took the measuring time of 15-20 minutes to obtain constant values which mean a stable condition in adsorption.
Yeong Suk Kim


Biological resistance of didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF)-treated wood in soil-bed and Basidiomycetes tests
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30393
This study evaluated the decay resistance of treated wood with a new quaternary ammonia compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) in laboratory soil bed and Basidiomycetes tests. Treated sugi sapwood specimens with DBF at various concentration levels were first subjected to soil bed tests using two types of soil. The specimens subjected to soil bed tests were then used for Basidiomycetes tests using two different test fungi. Compost soil caused more mass losses in the specimens in comparison with field soil. DBF treatments at the highest retention level (7.7 kg/m3) did not protect wood entirely in soil bed tests suggesting that detoxification or bio-leching of DBF chemical due to various organisms or chemical reactions occurred in the soil matrix. In Basidiomyecetes tests, the white rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor caused less mass losses compared to the brown-rot fungus, Coniophora puteana. The specimens subjected first to soil-bed tests showed higher mass losses in Basidiomycetes tests using C. versicolor than those not subjected to soil-bed tests. C. puteana tests, however, showed variations in the mass losses of the specimens. These results may suggest that DBF can be used as a wood preservative to protect wood in above-ground applications.
S N Kartal, C Brischke, A O Rapp, Y Imamura


A comparison of soft rot, white rot and brown rot in CCA, CCP, CCF, CCB, TCMTB and benzalkonium chloride treated Pinus radiata IUFRO stakes, after 9-15 years exposure at five test sites in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1485
The aim of this study was to determine if decay type varies significantly between five field trial test sites of different soil type, aspect and climate in 9-15 year old, replicate CCA, CCF, CCP. CCB, TCMTB and AAC treated IUFRO stakes. A visual on-site assessment of decay type on every test stake was made and observations confirmed by microscopical examination. Regression analyses were used to determine significant differences of percentage frequency of occurrence of each rot type between sites and preservatives. Large differences in percentage frequency of occurrence of rot type were evident between sites. One site was dominated by brown rot (85%) and two were dominated by soft rot (99 and 91%). The fourth site had intermediate proportions of brown rot (40%) and soft rot (71%) but had the second highest occurrence of white rot (32%) (highest = 37%; lowest = 11%). The fifth site was distinct in that a large proportion of stakes (69%) had both well established brown rot and soft rot. Stakes at the other four sites tended to have only one rot type. Some highly significant preservative effects were also found. Possible causes of these differences are discussed in terms of inter-site soil type, climate and other differences.
R N Wakeling


Observations on the colonization of freshly-felled timber treated with prophylactic chemicals by mould and sapstain fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1394
Field tests using freshly felled pine sapwood were set up to determine the effectiveness of a range of antisapstain compounds and to study the problems of colonization by mould and sapstain fungi. Differences were recorded both in the overall performance of the compounds and also their selectivity in controlling specific fungal types. These results were found to be useful in gaining a better understanding of biocide - fungal interactions.
G R Williams, D A Lewis


Cytochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide in brown rot fungus Tyromyces palustris by cerium chloride technique
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10299
Cerium chloride (CeCl3) was used to localize H2O2 cytochemically for studying relationship between ultrastructural and functional characteristics of cellulose degradation by brown rot fungi. This technique proved very useful in localizing discrete electron-densereactionproducts at high resolution with minimal nonspecific deposition. The cytochemical localization of extracellular H2O2 by CeCl3 using TEM demonstrated the presence of H2O2 within the fungal hyphae. Furthermore, our results give an indication of the diffusion of extarcellular H2O2 from brown-rot decay fungi into the intact wood cell walls in the early stages of decay.
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi


Results of co-operative studies on determining toxic values against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes. Preliminary report to Sub-group members
1986 - IRG/WP 2271
A F Bravery, J K Carey


The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and chromium. When related to the retention of both salts after impregnation, no differences could be found between samples previously treated with anti-blue-stain preservatives and untreated samples. However, the retention of CC diminished significantly by application of quaternary ammonium compounds.
M Van der Zee, W J Homan


Patent on the use of tannic acid and ferric chloride against marine borers, etc
1982 - IRG/WP 495
R Mitchell, T D Sleeter


Laboratory study on the effectiveness on photostable pyrethroids formulated with benzalkonium chloride to be used on furniture
1985 - IRG/WP 3346
The first results are presented of a study on the effectiveness of photostable pyrethroids formulated with banezalkonium chloride. Initially the products were submitted to preliminary tests and then the more efficient formulations were tested with a new essay that tries to simulate a dry-wood termite attack on furniture.
A M F Oliveira, A T De Lelis


The effect of didecyldimethylammonium chloride on growth of different strains of mould fungus Gliocladium roseum
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10105
The tolerance and degrading ability of different strains of Gliocladium roseum towards didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were studied. All four of the strains of Gliocladium roseum were tolerant to DDAC and after their growth on amended malt agar, the retention of DDAC in the medium was reduced.
Yu Zheng, J N R Ruddick


Kinetic modelling of adsorption of quaternary ammonium compounds by Scots pine wood sawdust (Pinus sylvestris L.)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30369
The adsorption of new quaternary ammonium compounds from aqueous solutions onto Scots pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) sawdust was studied. The pseudo first- and second- order kinetic models were used for the mathematical description of the sorption dynamic process of QACs onto wood. The highest correlation coefficients were obtained for the pseudo-second order kinetic model, those suggest that chemisorption is involved in the adsorption process.
J Zabielska-Matejuk


Conditions for basidiospore production in the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum separium in axenic culture
1984 - IRG/WP 1232
Attempts to control and optimize the production of hymenial structures and basidiospore production in Gloeophyllum sepiarium in axenic culture resulted in the proposal of the following conditions as being suitable. The dikaryotic mycelia originally isolated from basidiocarps could consistently be induced to produce hymenial structures and pure basidiospore collects if illuminated by near ultraviolet light with emission maximum at 355 nm ("black light") at a temperature of 15°C on a chemically defined medium, where the concentration of the carbon and the nitrogen sources were shown to be of critical significance. The necessary conditions for basidiospore production in lignicolous fungi in general are is briefly discussed.
J Bjurman


The performance of wood preservatives in soil-bed soft rot tests
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20007
Testing the efficacy of wood preservatives in soil is recognised as a fundamental part of the assessment of long-term wood protection in ground contact. Laboratory based tests can provide a hazardous environment in which a preservative can be challenged by a range of micro-organisms. This paper presents the results of tests carried out to investigate the performance of wood preservatives in a wet soil environment using both strength loss and weight loss as the main criteria for performance assessment.
G R Williams, S Caswell


The Role of Coformulants in Preventing Bacterial Biotransformation of IPBC
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10436
The inhibitory effects of disodium tetraborate decahydrate and benzalkonium chloride (BAC), two common coformulants of IPBC in antisapstain treatments, on an IPBC-transforming enterobacterial isolate ‘W1’ were determined by their effect on the specific growth rate constant in vitro. The IC50s of IPBC, BAC and borate were found to be 0.46, 0.026 and 5.7 mM respectively. The IC50 of the Arch antistain product AntibluTM Select was 0.024 mM, based on its BAC content. Although their IC50’s were significantly different, it was clear that the vast majority of the bacterial toxicity of the AntibluTM Select was due to its BAC content. The degradation of 0.4 mM IPBC by the bacterium W1, as measured by the accumulation of its degradation product, iodide, in liquid culture, was completely inhibited by BAC concentrations greater than 18 μM, and the toxicity of the spent culture medium to Aspergillus niger, as measured by an antibiotic assay disc assay, was not ameliorated above this concentration. Below 18 μM, the toxicity of the spent broth was significantly reduced, and the accumulation of iodide occurred rapidly. Demonstrating the toxicity of BAC to bacteria, and its consequent inhibition of IPBC degradation in vitro, are indicative of the importance of coformulation in controlling bacteria that might otherwise cause preservative loss, and of their significance in determining the ultimate environmental fate of cobiocides.
S R Cook, D J Dickinson


Proposed degradation pathway for quaternary ammonium compounds by mould fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10166
One group of chemicals that has attracted considerable attention as potential wood preservatives are the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Based upon results of previous research this study confirmed the degradation pathway employed in QAC-tolerant fungi. For this experiment the two dialkylammonium compounds didecyldimethylammonnium chloride and dioctyldimethylammonium chloride were used. QAC-treated wood blocks were inoculated with the tolerant fungi Gliocladium roseum and Verticillium bulbillosum. After incubation the remaining QACs were extracted with acidified acetonitrilic and HPLC was used to quantify and detect the degradation products.
J L Bürgel, J Dubois, J N R Ruddick


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