Your search resulted in 60 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Aureobasidium or Hormonema? A Genetic Approach.
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10529
Aureobasidium pullulans is the main organism causing disfigurement of coatings on wood and the surface of exposed timber. This disfigurement of timber in-service is referred to as “bluestain in-service”. A. pullulans is also associated with the sapstaining of dead wood in the forest and in-service. A. pullulans is noted for its highly variable growth forms (polymorphisms). This variability pre...
M J Ray, D J Dickinson, M Buck
Extraction and analysis of DNA from green and seasoned timber as basic methods for determination of wood species and origin
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20523
Against the background of the European timber trade regulation EUTR, commenced to law by March 2013, the determination of wood species and tracing of its origin is getting a great importance. A promising approach for establishing fast and reliable tracking systems for wood products is DNA analysis. A critical point is the extraction of analysable DNA from the wood and its lignified cell walls. Thu...
K Jacobs, H Mende, W Scheiding
Some characteristics of Pinus radiata wood from trees subjected to resin extraction
1987 - IRG/WP 3403
35 year old Pinus radiata trees growing in La Puntilla (lat. 37° south, long. 72,4° west), Chile, were subjected to resin extraction 5 years ago. After harvesting them simultaneously with control trees of the same place and age, probes were taken from the bottom of each pole, at 3.4 m, 7.8 m and 11.4 m height. Analysis of ethanol/benzene extract, CCA salt penetration tests and sapstain and brown-rot development rate were performed. The extract content differed in both groups. In the ascendent sense it decreases in unextracted trees and increases in extracted. CCA salt penetration was deeper in treated trees than in untreated. Wood subjectect to resin extraction was less susceptible to sapstain development. No significant difference was detected in both groups in relation to the development of brown-rot.
M C Rose, J Navarrete, G Sandoval, A Bedoya, L Ortega, R Zurita
Modelling of PCP migration in the environment: Feeding the models with laboratory data
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-08
In 1989, Hydro-Québec began a study program on pentachlorophenol (PCP) to ensure safe use of the product at all stages. One of the aspects of the study is the creation of a predictive system for evaluating the behavior of PCP and oil migration from wood poles to the environment. This system comprises four mathematical models for predicting PCP and oil migration in and on the surface of the pole, ...
A Besner, P Tétreault, R Gilbert
What can DNA fingerprinting, aggression tests and morphometry contribute to the identification of colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10371
Multilocus DNA fingerprinting, aggression tests and morphometry were compared to evaluate their potential for the identification of colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Hawaii. DNA fingerprinting separates the termites from all studied collection sites. Since the genetic similarity between termites from different collection sites lies...
C Husseneder, J K Grace
Mold susceptibility of oriented strandboard made with extracted flakes
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40402
As part of a larger study on the manufacture of oriented strandboard (OSB) using hot-water-extracted flakes, the mold susceptibility of extracted-flake and un-extracted-flake OSB was assessed using the standard ‘mold box’ test. OSB made with extracted flakes was much less susceptible to mold. This suggests that the extraction of hemicelluloses and other carbohydrates from wood for the producti...
A M Taylor, O Hosseinaei, Siqun Wang
Using DNA probes to characterize the metabolic pathway of pigment production in several wood-staining fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10146
During shipment and storage, lumber is susceptible to sapstain, a wood discoloration caused by fungi. Currently kiln drying and chemical applications are used to control sapstain. However, the chemicals used to protect wood have a broad range of action, and so can affect other organisms. In addition, in Canada most of these chemicals are under temporary registration. Thus there is a need to develo...
R Eagen, S Riecken, J Kronstad, C Breuil
Properties of hot oil treated wood and the possible chemical reactions between wood and soybean oil during heat treatment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40304
Thermal treatment with hot oil as the heating media based on the original idea from oil-heat treatment in Germany was investigated. The treatment was mainly carried out at 200ºC and 220ºC for 2 hours and 4 hours, and the wood species were mainly spruce and fir. This paper focuses on the difference between soybean oil and palm oil and the possible chemical reactions between wood and soybean oil. ...
Jieying Wang, P A Cooper
Investigation of temperature effect on fixation of Celcure preservative (ACC) in beech (Fagus orientalis)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40200
In this research, the fixation speed of Celcure 2% (ACC) preservative salt, under temperature of 17°C, 27°C and 50°C, on intact and stained wood specimens of beech was investigated. For this purpose, blocks of wood with 5x5x7 cm dimensions were prepared and saturated with 2% ACC concentration by full-cell process. The specimens were put in three incubators at the above-mentioned temperatures. F...
A Karimi, M Ghorbani
Solvent extraction of CCA-C from out-of-service wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50107
Elimination of CCA from decommissioned wood prior to disposal is a major environmental issue. One approach is to extract CCA from treated wood, then reuse the 'clean' (may contain CCA, but below hazardous level) wood materials for manufacturing wood-based composites. In the present paper, we focus on effective leaching processes, selection of leaching agents and optimum leaching ...
K M F Kazi, P A Cooper
Durability of heat-treated wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40145
Heat-treated wood from the French process were laboratory tested against decay using agar block test and a modified soil block test. Water absorption, bending strength, lignin content and acid number were also determined to evaluate the effect of heat treatment. Heat treated samples exhibit a higher lignin content and a lower acid number compared to untreated control indicating the degradation of ...
D P Kamdem, A Pizzi, R Guyonnet, A Jermannaud
Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 1: Optimisation of the extraction conditions
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30238
As the first phase of a large project aimed at recovering 'waste' durability components from sawmill residues of Callitris glaucophylla, several solvents and extraction methods were evaluated, initially in the laboratory and then at pilot industrial scale. Extracts were compared by crude total dissolved solids content, by chemical analysis using GC-MS and LC-MS, and by laboratory...
M J Kennedy, Hui Jiang, L M Stephens
Alternative technologies for wood wastes recycling - Part A: Supercritical extraction of PAH compounds from wood wastes
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-18 a
Alternative technologies have been investigated to detoxify treated wood. Two classes of organic compounds are studied. Creosote-treated wood are classified in France as dangerous wood wastes. A conventional incineration could be provided for these wood wastes but the cost of this elimination could be very high (> 2000 FFR/ton). For these reasons, we have tested two kinds of new processes as al...
L Schrive, C Perre, G Labat
Application of DNA fingerprinting methods to identify biocontrol strains of fungi imperfecti
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10068
We have analyzed a number of biocontrol strains of Trichoderma harzianum and other Trichoderma strains with the methods DNA fingerprinting and PCR fingerprinting to differentiate and identify these strain which is not possible with morphological or biochemical methods. We could differentiate even gamma-ray induced mutants from each other as well as different strains form the same and different spe...
A Schlick, K Kuhls, W Meyer, E Lieckfeld, T Börner, K Messner
rDNA-ITS sequence of Serpula lacrymans and other important indoor rot fungi and taxon-specific priming PCR for their detection
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10298
Taxon-specific priming polymerase chain reaction (TSPP) is a powerful molecular tool for fungal diagnosis. For its application to indoor rot fungi, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the main fungal species causing wood rot in European buildings was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ITS region was sequenced. The complete sequences are present...
O Schmidt, U Moreth
Recovery of copper, chromium, and arsenic compounds from the waste preservative-treated wood
1991 - IRG/WP 3651
In Japan, about 40 percents of waste wood is incinerated and the residue is dumped into the landfill site. The waste preservative-treated wood, which is mixed in nontreated wood, is incinerated in the same way, too. However, it will cause the serious problems that the gases contained with high concentration arsenic compounds are discharged from the smokestacks of the incineration facilities and th...
A Honda, Y Kanjo, A Kimoto, K Koshii, S Kashiwazaki
A comparison of analytical techniques
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20061
This paper compares carefully-controlled weight retentions and analysis by XRF, ICP, combustion methods and a new extraction procedure for the new preservative, Copper(II) Dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC). Various experimental parameters such as particle size and drying conditions were investigated. In general, the correlations between and among the procedures are very high. The extraction-colorimet...
A C Gallacher, C R McIntyre, M H Freeman, D K Stokes, W B Smith
Investigation of CCA fixation in wood by sequential extraction. I Determination of CCA component fixation and preliminary extraction results
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50188
The fixation of CCA-C preservative was investigated in sapwood of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and red maple (Populus tremuloides Michx.) at target retentions of 4.0, 6.4, 9.6 and 30.0 kg/m3. Treated wood sawdust was water extracted at close time intervals during the fixation and analyzed for the contents of unfixed hexavalent chromium, total Cr, Cu ...
S Radivojevic, P A Cooper
Development and Implementation of a DNA – RFLP Database for Wood Decay and Wood Associated Fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10527
We are developing Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence databases for wood decay basidiomycetes and other fungi associated with wood. These databases currently house information for 39 fungal species consisting of 9 brown-rot basidiomycetes, 12 white rot basidiomycetes, 1 soft rot, 1 stain fungi, and 16 molds or other ascomycetes or imperfe...
S V Diehl, T C McElroy, M L Prewitt
Anti-fungal properties of pyrolytic oils derived from softwood bark
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30218
Thermal decomposition of balsam fir and white spruce mixed bark residues at 450°C and under vacuum (< 20 kPa abs.) results in high yields of pyroligneous liquors rich in phenolic content. This vacuum pyrolysis process has been scaled-up to a pyrolysis plant with a feed capacity of 3.5 t/h of softwood bark, which is the largest plant of this type in the world. The pyrolytic aqueous condensates ...
D Mourant, Dian-Qing Yang, Xiao Lu, C Roy
Proposal for a method aiming at the quantification of the impact of wood extraction in Life Cycle Assessment
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50113
Life Cycle Assessment has been accepted as an instrument for the assessment of the environmental impact of products. Characterisation factors for impact assessment of emissions from products have been established. To date no characterisation factor exists for the extraction of biotic resources, for example wood. Since the main disadvantage of using wood as a material lies in the extraction of reso...
P Esser, E Van der Voet
Effect of remediation on the release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from particleboard made from CCA treated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50170
This study sought to determine the effect of remediation with oxalic acid (OA) extraction and Bacillus licheniformis fermentation on the release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from particleboard made from remediated wood particles and also investigates durability of the particleboard against white and brown- rot fungi. Particleboard samples were manufactured using untreated, CCA-treated, OA-extr...
S N Kartal, C A Clausen
The extraction of boron from treated wood for quantitative analysis: A comparison of procedures
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2414
The extraction of boron preservative from treated rubberwood and scots pine samples was compared using methods based on refluxing and extraction in 1N NaOH or distilled water at 80°C. The extract solutions were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma spectroscopy (ICP/AES). A simple extraction procedure based on immersion of wood samples of approximate dimension 2 x 1 x 1 cm³ in distilled water a...
R J Murphy, D J Dickinson, P W McCormack, M K Lung
A comparison of fatty acid and molecular profiles for identification of wood colonizing basidiomycota
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20278
Two methods that are currently being employed to detect and identify wood decay fungi are Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) analysis and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. A FAME library and RFLP library for 9 species and up to 10 strains within each species have been developed. The profiles generated by these methods have been compared for each species and strain to test for...
T C McElroy, L Prewitt, S V Diehl
Detection of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10245
Isolates of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans and the wild merulius S. himantioides were investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analyses (ARDRA) of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS). The technique uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the variable region of the ITS between the conserved 18S and 28S genes of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The ITS region of all isolates of Serpula lacrymans and S. himantioides was successfully amplified. The length of the amplified product was about 630 bp. Subsequent double digest of the ITS with the restriction endonucleases Haelli and Taql separated the closely related fungi by species-specific fragments. Thus, ARDRA-ITS proved to be suited for the detection of the dry rot fungus.
O Schmidt, U Moreth