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Bait box technique for remedial subterranean termite contro
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10115
The bait box technique, as described in this paper, was first used as a method to apply the dust toxicant, arsenic trioxide, to large numbers of aggregated subterranean termites. Over the last twelve years or so the technique has been refined, and in recent years, gained acceptance as an alternative subterranean termite control measure by members of the Australian pest control industry. This baiting technique is particularly timely in Australia, given that the organochlorine insecticides are to be banned in termite control strategies in all states as from June 1995, except for a period of extension in the Northern Territory. Details of box construction, placement, and application of the dust toxicant are outlined. Suggestions are offered in the use of this technique with other dust toxicants, such as inclusion compounds and microbial spores pathogenic to termites, and bait toxicants.
J R J French, B M Ahmed, D M Ewart

Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French

Progress towards controlling soft rot of treated hardwood poles in Australia
1977 - IRG/WP 289
H Greaves

Controlling Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestations in buildings with bait boxes
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10372
This paper describes the results of a commercial pest control operators use of the CSIRO bait box procedure in controlling infestations within buildings of subterranean termites ('termites') of the genus Coptotermes. Polystyrene bait boxes (480 x 330 x 210 mm3) were filled with alternate layers of corrugated cardboard and kiln-dried hardwood strips of Eucalyptus regnans F. Meull. (mountain ash). A viewing port at one end of each box allowed for the operator, or the clients, to check the presence of termites in the bait box. On discovering termite activity in the box, a dust toxicant (arsenic trioxide) was applied to the aggregated individuals, and the dusted termites returned to the box, thus spreading the toxin to other members of the nest colony, leading to it's collapse. On average, the time from installation to aggregating termites was about 4-6 weeks. Of the seventy-four boxes installed since 1994, sixty-six boxes were placed inside buildings, while eight boxes were positioned around buildings. Most were placed within buildings in the sub-floor areas, and alongside termite-infested skirting boards and architraves within slab-on-ground constructions. Other boxes were placed in cupboards, on top of termite-infested flooring, roof areas and on floors in garages. Eighty-five percent of the boxes lured termites, while 13% failed to lure any termites. Of those boxes with termites, there was a 82% success rate using arsenic trioxide as the dust toxicant. Eradication of termite colonies was recorded when no further termite activity was found after 6-12 months. These results are discussed in relation to present and future termite control.
J R J French, T Boschma

Laboratory evaluation of chemicals as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1293
Laboratory procedures are described for screening chemicals against subterranean termites. Fast-acting compounds with persistent termiticidal activity are identified in tests using a soil substrate, and slower-acting bait toxicants are evaluated in a series of tests using cellulose substrates.
S C Jones

Potential toxicants for controlling soft rot in preservative treated hardwoods. Part 4: Evaluation of combined diffusion and toxicity
1979 - IRG/WP 2129
A large number of inorganic and organic preservatives were evaluated as potential soft rot control chemicals, by their degree of inhibition of fungal growth after allowing them to diffuse through a 6 mm thick wood slab. The tests were inoculated with wood powder from soft-rotted CCA treated poles. Pentachlorophenol was unable to diffuse quickly through the wood slab, although formulations with hexylene glycol showed some promise. Hydroxyisoxazole gave good results as did a number of other organic materials including "Busan 30", "Busan 52", "Permapruf T", sodium oxinate, sodium trichlorophenate, "Gloquat C", „Hyamine 1622", butyl icinol, and the commercial bandage materials "Osmoplast" and "Wolman pole bandage". Of the inorganic materials tested, good results were obtained with "Basilit BFB", with other Cu-F-B formulations including "Blue 7", and with fluoroborate and fluorosilicate preparations in general. Arsenates also showed some promise.
E W B Da Costa, O Collett

SEM of wood dust particles
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50084
Dust particles from beech and oak trees have been classified in Germany as being "working materials which are definitely carcinogenic to humans". All other wood dusts, including those from softwoods, are classified as being materials "with reasonable suspicion of carcinogenic potential". The carcinogenic principle of action continues to remain unclear. The mechanical irritation is one of a number of possible triggering principles. In this connection the morphology of the dust particles is of decisive importance. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope this study characterises the dust from spruce, Scots pine, beech and oak. With regard to shape and size the dust particles of all sample collections were divided into 5 groups with principle structural similarity. Therefore a different particle morphology with correspondingly different mechanical irritation in the nose can not be the main principle of action. When compared to asbestos fibers, the small amount of fibrous dust particles as one of the five groups could be clearly distinguished by their structure and dimensions. Mechanical irritation as the main principle of action in the formation of malignant nasal tumors is also contradicted by the findings of different working groups which have established a strong association between hardwood dust and adenocarcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, and a connection between softwood dust and other types of nasal carcinoma.
U Schmitt, R-D Peek, A O Rapp

Effect of fumigant residue in aerated wood blocks on the spore germination of decay fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 2382
Fumigants are increasingly used in several countries for remedial treatments of transmission poles to increase the service life. The present study was initiated primarily to test the remaining toxic effects of spruce (Picea rubra) wood, fumigated with chloropicrin (trichloronitro methane) or MIT (Methyl isothiocyanate) after long period of aeration, on the spore germination of decay fungi. This study indicates that spore germination of decay fungi is more sensitive than mycelia for these fumigants. An assay involving spores could therefore complement the earlier proposed open and closed tube bioassays for assessment of remaining ability to prevent reestablishment of decay fungi in fumigated wood. This assay is sensitive both to bound wood residues contributed by the fumigants as well as to fumigant vapor.
J Bjurman, B Goodell

Inorganic preservatives in wood dust - Cause of nasal cancer?
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50085
Since 1985 dust particles from beech and oak trees have been classified by the Senate Commission of the German Research Council (DFG) as being ,,working materials which are definitely carcinogenic to humans". All other wood dusts, including those from softwoods, are classified as being materials ,,with reasonable suspicion of carcinogenic potential". The carcinogenic principle of action continues to remain unclear despite some partial findings of new studies. The load of wood dust with non-genuine chemicals especially heavy metals is one of a number of possible triggering principles. This study describes wood dust collected in 33 German wood processing companies, with regard to concentration of the dust in the air and load of the dust with chromium, copper and boron. More often than expected the machining of preservative treated wood was found. Besides wood preservatives other sources of contamination of wood dust have been identified. Woodworkers are exposed to higher levels of chromium, copper and boron than average citizen, but are far away from threshold values. The heavy metal exposure levels found seem to be unlikely the sole carcinogenic principle of action.
A O Rapp, K Brandt, R-D Peek, U Schmitt

An initial evaluation of the environmental impact of potential marine biocides
1978 - IRG/WP 441
Pilings and other structures in the marine environment are protected primarily by impregnation with creosote alone, or in combination with coal tar or waterborne preservatives such as copper-chrome-arsenate. Some of these materials are considered as possible ecological hazards and face an uncertain future; perhaps newly developed treatments to replace these conventional ones will pose different problems. Today, for a toxic substance to be approved by cognizant government regulatory agencies it must undergo an extensive evaluation to determine its impact upon the environment. Consequently an initial assessment of the potential environmental impact must be determined for all compounds which have shown promise against marine borers and fungi in our investigations. This has been accomplished by determining their toxicity to marine algae which are the primary producers in the food chain. The principal organism used for this purpose has been Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, but Cyclotella nana and Chaetoceros galvestonensis have also been used.
J D Bultman, P J Hannan

Potential toxicants for controlling soft rot in preservative treated hardwoods. Part 1: Laboratory screening tests using a filter paper technique
1977 - IRG/WP 290
Thirty-one miscellaneous formulations have been screened using a filter paper assay technique, for their efficacy in controlling the growth of Chaetomium globosum, Cephalosporium acremonium, and a mixed inoculum of finely ground soft-rotted wood obtained from preservative treated transmission poles. The formulations consisted of various organic compounds and inorganic preparations made from different salts of the active elements copper, fluorine, boron and arsenic. The most effective toxicants were P. C. M. C., Busan 52, Busan 30, Difolatan, Spergon, and a Cu-F-B formulation. The toxicants with most potential for controlling soft rot in the standing pole, i. e., those which have known diffusing ability when applied as remedial in situ treatments, include Cu-F-B formulation no. 19, cupric proprionate, Cu-F-B formulation no. 15, ammonium bifluoride + arsenic pentoxide (no. 4) and a third Cu-F-B formulation (no. 18). Discussion of synergistic effects of admixtures of active ingredients is presented.
H Greaves

Enhanced biodegradation of cocopeat by soft rot fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10276
Biodegradation of cocopeat (coir dust) was enhanced by the addition of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and inoculation with the soft rot fungus Chaetomium globosum. The N and fungally treated cocopeats had a greater percentage weight loss (27%) after 3 months compared with 7% weight loss without the added fungi and N fertilizer. In addition, their hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents were greatly reduced. The decay patterns examined by light microscopy were typical of soft rot and included cavity formation. A bioassay using cress (Lepidium sativum L.) showed that root growth was inhibited by raw cocopeat extracts. This inhibitory effect was virtually eliminated in extracts from the biodegraded cocopeat. This suggests that the 'composted' cocopeat appeared sufficiently mature for use as a horticultural substrate after 3 months of biodegradation.
P Y Yau, R J Murphy

Intrigue Dust - A new method of eradicating subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) colonies
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10396
Arsenic trioxide is used by pest controllers in Australia to eradicate subterranean termite colonies. In 2000 Bayer Australia introduced Intrigue Termite Dust as a more environmentally acceptable alternative. Intrigue, containing 80% triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, disrupts the moulting process in termites. Dusted termites return to the nest and pass around triflumuron via mutual grooming and trophallaxis, leading to colony decline and death within 1-12 months. The use of Intrigue requires skill and patience and a thorough knowledge of termite behaviour. It is important to apply as little dust as possible to as many termites as possible. Intrigue's greatest advantage is that termite activity in galleries can be treated, using a dust puffer, as soon as it is discovered. There is no need to wait for termites to feed on baits. This paper will discuss the real world case studies with Intrigue, as well as provide an insight into the technique of dusting termites.
W Madden

Silafluofen: Novel chemistry and versatility for termite control
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30069
A novel silicon - containing insectizide, HOE 084498 ('Silafluofen'), with a favourable toxicological profile, has shown activity against a broad spectrum of agricultural and environmental health pests. Results from laboratory and field studies around the world have demonstrated that silafluofen is effective at protecting timber from attack by various species of termite and wood-boring beetle. As a termiticide, silafluofen, applied as a dust-toxicant, may suppress/eliminate Coptotermes sp. Ongoing field trials in France, in cooperation with CTBA, indicate that silafluofen, injected directly into masonry, has controlled Reticulitermes santonensis. No signs of termite activity have been observed in the treated part of an infested house since the application was made, 2 years ago.
A J Adams, A Jermannaud, M-M Serment

The influence of drilling patterns on the distribution of toxicants from Polesaver Rods in hardwood poles
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30051
Polesaver Rods are solid rods of wood preservative that are used as a groundline maintenance treatment to control biodeterioration in hardwood transmission poles in Australia. The rods are inserted in holes that are drilled in a prescribed manner to distribute the toxicants into the critical groundline region of the poles. To determine the influence of drilling patterns on the distribution of toxicants five test drilling patterns, including the prescribed method, were assessed in unseasoned pole-size stubs of tallowwood (Eucalyptus microcorys F. Muell). The distribution of toxicants was visually appraised and is reported for three of the drilling patterns. The results indicate that drilling patterns influenced the toxicant distribution. Two of the trial patterns appeared to provide improved distribution of toxicants for specific applications when compared with the prescribed pattern.
W D Gardner, C N McEvoy

Potential toxicants for controlling soft rot in preservative treated hardwoods. Part 2: Laboratory screening tests using sawdust
1977 - IRG/WP 2101
A technique is described for the rapid screening of toxicants against microorganisms, represented by the brown rot, Gloeophyllum trabeum, and a natural inoculum from soft rotted wood. Sawdust, in this case from sapwood of Eucalyptus maculata, is pretreated with the candidate formulation and moistened before inoculation. Visual scoring of growth can be used to discriminate suitable candidates as early as 1 to 2 weeks. The test can then be continued, and after 12 weeks there is good agreement between weight loss data and surface colonisation scores for all chemicals tested. Of the three formulations tested against Gloeophyllum trabeum, octanoic acid was more toxic than copper sulphate or copper lactate, the same being true for soft rot organisms. All additional preservatives tested against soft rot were better than octanoic acid, with "Busan 30" being better than PCMC or the "Versatic acid 911". Other applications of the test include ecological studies, easy isolation of tolerant organisms, and screening of formulations for remedial treatment of soft rotted transmission poles. Of the miscellaneous formulations screened for the latter, sodium pentachlorophenate, "Blue 7", and "Basilit BFB" seemed the most suitable.
J D Thornton

Field evaluation of several bait toxicants for subterranean termite control: A preliminary report
1988 - IRG/WP 1376
Since 1983, field studies have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of several bait toxicants in reducing subterranean termite populations at the Chipola Experimental Forest in Florida. Tests with fenoxycarb (Ro 13-5223), Ro 16-1295, and Avermectin B1 indicated that fenoxycarb showed the most promise. Large numbers of presoldiers and intercastes have continued to occur in plots treated with the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb, and termite numbers and damage to wooden stakes have been significantly reduced when compared to control plots.
S C Jones

Laboratory evaluation of AC 217,300 as a termiticidal dust
1983 - IRG/WP 3247
Laboratory bioassays are described with the amidinohydrazone, AC217,300, a candidate termiticide to replace arsenic trioxide in termite control. When used as a dust and topically applied, AC217,300 was toxic to Coptotermes acinaciformis and Mastotermes darwiniensis. Although arsenic trioxide dust causes faster mortality in Coptotermes acinaciformis than AC217,300 dust, the latter has lower mammalian toxicity and shows promise as a termiticide.
J R J French, P J Robinson

Efficacy of Avermectin B1 dust and bait formulations in new simulated and accelerated field tests
1985 - IRG/WP 1257
Avermectin B1 on a silica carrier dust was used in dust and bait formulations whose efficacy against Reticulitermes flavipes was assessed in new simulated and accelerated field tests. A 0.5 mg avermectin/mg dust and a bait with 50 ppm avermectin in paper pulp sandwiched between pieces of corrugated boxboard caused nearly complete mortality in bioassays and suppression of foraging in field tests. These results indicate that the formulations can be developed into control effective gallery injection and/or bait treatments.
G R Esenther

Evaluation of literature on adenocarcinomas in wood workers
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50092
Occupational exposure to wood dust alone or chemically treated is suspected to be associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity, which in the general population is very rare; fewer than 10% of nasal cancer deaths are adenocarcinomas, which have an annual incidence of 1-2 per million. However, the epidemiological data available are not sufficient to make a definitive assessment between occupational exposure to wood and increased risk for cancer. The data presently available are not sufficient to make a definitive assessment between wood dust exposure and increased risk for cancer other than nasal cancer and do not clearly identify the specific agent(s) responsible for these effects. Therefore, a review of literature was carried out from the standpoint of a wood scientist. The results reported in this paper are necessary to understand the association between wood dust exposure and nasal cavity tumors, along with demographic differences in cancer rates, and to develop strategies for intervention and reduction of disease causing agents in order to reduce risk to wood industry workers.
A Voss, R-D Peek

Efficacy of triflumuron dust against Schedorhinotermes intermedius (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30226
Insecticidal dusts have been used against termites for decades, with arsenic dust being the standard in Australia. While fair success over the years has been achieved against genera such as Coptotermes and Nasutitermes, Schedorhinotermes has been much more difficult to control. This genus has nests which are very difficult to locate and thus it is problematic to determine whether a treatment has been successful. Work carried out during 1997-99 tested an 80% triflumuron dust against activity of Schedorhinotermes intermedius. Termites at 20 sites, were treated in either their active workings; or in wood monitors placed in areas of known activity. Termite activity was monitored by a thorough inspection of the property at each visit. In all but one case, termite activity ceased within 10 months and did not re-appear during the 18 months study period. At many sites activity was gone within 4 months. A second dusting helped control other colonies. Triflumuron dust appears to be very effective in controlling this species even when only relatively low numbers of termites are treated.
W Madden, P Hadlington, M Hill

Laboratory evaluation of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (TIM-BORÒ ) as a wood preservative or a bait-toxicant against the Formosan and eastern subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1991 - IRG/WP 1513
A no-choice bioassay indicated that termite feeding was significantly reduced when wood was treated with TIM-BORÒ at retentions of >3600 ppm and >900 ppm (w/w) for Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes, respectively, and thus these wood preservative retention rates may be considered for these termite species. Results of a choice bioassay suggested retention rates of 450-1800 ppm and 450-900 ppm may be considered for Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes, respectively when TIM-BORÒ is used in a bait-toxicant application.
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn

Laboratory evaluation comparing three commercial termite baits based on chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSIs) against the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10625
This laboratory bioassay report describes laboratory evaluation undertaken to compare the efficacy, and palatability of Requiem®, Nemesis® and Sentricon® AG as candidate bait toxicants against the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt. The laboratory bioassay results confirmed palatability and efficacy differences between the three commercial bait toxicants. Requiem® is the most palatable of the bait toxicants, while Nemesis® caused higher mortality rate with less bait substrate consumed.
B Ahmed

Transfer of Termiticidal Dust Compounds and their Effects on Symbiotic Protozoa of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10661
Dusting of termites in situ has been used as a control measure for decades; however environmental awareness of the toxicity of certain compounds now limits their use (eg arsenical dusts). Our laboratory is in the process of suppressing an isolated colony of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) from a small village of 250 homes in mid-central Wisconsin (Endeavor, WI). Initial treatment of the colony involved the use of 200 Microgen bait cartridges containing 0.25% diflubenzuron. The presence of many living termites occupying bait stations throughout the season prompted the addition of various dusting compounds, such as boron, N-N’naptahaloylhydroxylamine (NHA) and other dusts to aide in colony elimination. This laboratory study explores the efficacy of various insecticidal dusts to kill termites as well as to transfer the insecticide to nest mates. Mortality after primary (direct) dusting was found to occur with sodium borax, zinc borate, concrobium polymer (CP) and NHA in 7, 9, 9 and 21 days respectively. However, the ability to cause mortality to 25 un-dusted termites was impaired in the concrobium group and delayed in others. Further tests were performed to determine the mechanism of transfer by examining the survival rates of the symbiotic flagellated protists in the termite hindgut over time after dusting to determine if termiticidal dusts were killing the protozoa necessary for cellulose digestion. Possible mechanisms of mortality are discussed as well as the potential of using dusting compounds in termite treatment or eradication.
F Green III, R A Arango, G Esenther

The utilization of sand dusts of MDF panel as filler in wood plastic composites
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40500
Waste management is getting important in the world. Most of wood based panel industries are interested in utilization of wood residues such as saw dust, sand dust and wood flour in other applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the usability of sand dust of MDF in wood plastic composites. HDPE and PP based composites with 30 % sand dusts loading were compounded in the single screw extruder. Extrudates were first collected and grinded into pellets and then were compression molded into rectangular panels. The thermal and mechanical properties such as flexural strength, flexural modulus, tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break, and impact strength of wood plastic composites were determined. The flexural and tensile modules of the composites were increased while the other mechanical properties were decreased. All specimens provided flexural strength over the required standard. In the case of plastic type, PP based composites had better mechanical properties than HDPE based ones except impact strength values. This study showed that sand dust of MDF can be utilized as filler in HDPE and PP based wood plastic composites.
A D Cavdar, H Kalaycioglu, F Mengeloglu, K Karakus, H Yel