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Oxalic acid quantification, oxaloacetase assay and ESI localization of P, C, and Fe from the brown rot fungus Postia placenta
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10063
The mechanism by which brown-rot fungi initiate depolymerization of holocellulose in wood remains unknown. Recently, oxalic acid (OA) has received considerable attention in cellulose breakdown by brown-rot fungi. The OA could serve as a proton donor for hydrolytic or an electron donor for oxidative (Fenton's reaction-H2O2/Fe2+) cleavages of cellulose. The acid may originate via oxaloaceta...
C R Jordan, W V Dashek, T L Highley

Bordered Pit Imaging
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10773
New findings about bordered pits will be presented using the latest microscopy techniques. Three-dimensional imagery at the nanolevel is used, and short 3-D movies will shown as part of the discussion on this topic to reveal new features that have not previously been reported in pits. The implications for both microorganism penetration through lignified cells as well as preservative penetration i...
D Mascheck, B Goodell, H Militz, M Lessard, J Jellison

NMR T1 relaxation time as a non-destructive method for the study of decay in wood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2406
The NMR spectroscopic technique of measuring the T1 spin-lattice relaxation times has been investigated for its potential in the detection of microbial decay in wood. The T1 NMR analyses were carried out on samples of Scots pine and European beech that had been exposed to decay and non-decay fungi representing each of the important groups colonising wood. Decay in the test material was also assess...
P W McCormack, A E G Cass, R J Murphy

Imaging fungal deterioration of wood using x-ray microtomography
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10240
Nondestructive tomographic images of solid Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood and SYP during deterioration by wood decay fungi were obtained by using a new class of synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (CMT). The CMT images will provide information about spatial relationship between degrading fungi and wood structures. Wood samples were scanned with synchrotron-generated X-rays at high resoluti...
B Illman, B A Dowd

Novel microscopic approaches to visualise chitosan within impregnated wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20485
Chitosan, a deacetylated product of an abundant naturally occurring biopolymer chitin, has been used in a range of applications, particularly in food and health areas, as an antimicrobial agent. In the work reported here Pinus radiata wood was impregnated with chitosan as an environmentally compatible organic biocide. It is important to understand micro-distribution of bioprotectants in impregnate...
A Singh, T Singh

Stabilization of IPBC in wood through the use of organosilicon compounds
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30597
The aim of the research was to increase durability of wood treated with 3-Iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC). The study used a blend of silanes. Biological examination against microfungi was performed to determine resistance of Scots pine wood treated with the tested formulations. Chemical analysis by the Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) of water extracts from the leaching per...
B Mazela, W Perdoch

Using hyperspectral imaging to detect and quantify mould and blue stain on coated and uncoated wood
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10822
Hyperspectral imaging has been applied on the surface of samples of coated and uncoated Norway spruce (Picea abies) as a new technique to detect and quantify growth of mould and blue stain fungi. Principal Component Analysis of the hyperspectral images resulted in a clear visualization of the fungi and the amount of mould coverage could be estimated. This indicates that NIR hyperspectral imaging c...
L Ross Gobakken, I Burud, A Flø, K Kvaal, T K Thiis

Modern Instrumental Methods to Investigate the Mechanism of Biological Decay in Wood Plastic Composites
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40674
Various instrumental techniques were used to study the fungal decay process in wood plastic composite (WPC) boards. Commercial boards exposed near Hilo, Hawaii (HI) for eight years in both sun and shadow locations were inspected and tested periodically. After eight years of exposure, both boards were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while a selected area of the board exposed in sh...
G Sun, R Ibach, M Gnatowski, J Glaeser, M Leung, J Haight

The potential of 2D NIR imaging for wood protection research
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20566
Investigating wood and wood-based materials using infrared spectroscopy has since long been explored. Recently, image-based systems have been developed that are used in food and pharmaceutical industries for rapid screening. Such hyperspectral cameras are able to collect spatial and spectral information simultaneously, resulting in a volume with a spectral profile for each pixel of the image. We p...
J Van den Bulcke, N Defoirdt, W Li, J Van Acker

Weather degradation of thin wood samples
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20578
Untreated wooden surfaces degrade when exposed to varying doses of natural weathering. In this study, thin wood samples were studied for weathering effects with the aim of modeling the degradation utilizing Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Several sets of samples were exposed outdoors for time intervals from 0 to 21 days, and one set of samples was exposed to UV-radiation in a laboratory chamb...
I Burud, K A Smeland, K Hovde Liland, T K Thiis, J Sandak, A Sandak, L Ross Gobakken

Distribution and penetration of the tung oil in wood studied by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20593
Water repellents as environment-friendly treatments are gaining their popularity as non-biocidal solutions for wood protection. One of the most important water repellents for wood besides waxes and organosilicon compounds are drying oils. Tung oil is one of the best performing oil. However, tung oil, similarly as other oils, does not penetrate deeply into wood, due to its high viscosity. In order...
M Žlahtič, U Mikac, I Serša, M Merela, M Humar

Profiling fungal degradation of Scots pine sapwood by short wave infrared hyperspectral image analysis
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20667
Hyperspectral image analysis of Scots pine sapwood wood affected by decay fungi has been carried out as part of a Ph.D. thesis within the project Remote Inspection of Wooden Utility Poles (RIWUP). In a lab experiment, Petri-dishes with Scots pine sapwood samples on malt agar medium were infected with two types of decay fungi, a brown rot and a white rot. The wood samples were scanned with a HySpe...
A Jochemsen, G Alfredsen, I Burud

Application of diverse hyperspectral imaging systems for evaluation of heritage objects
2020 - IRG/WP 20-10971
Advanced imaging techniques are able to non-invasively characterize, monitor and evaluate the impact of conservation treatments on cultural heritage (CH) objects. In this specific field, hyperspectral imaging (HI) allows non-destructive characterization of materials by identifying and characterizing colouring agents, binders and protective coatings as constituents of an object’s original constru...
J Sandak, A Sandak, L Legan, K Retko, M Kavčič, J Kosel, F Poohphajai, R Herrera Diaz, V Ponnuchamy, N Sajinčič, Č Tavzes, P Ropret