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Durability of larch (Larix spp.) wood against brown-rot fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10228
Durability of the heartwood of Larix decidua, L. sibirica, L. gmelinii, L. gmelinii var japonica, L. gmelinii var olgensis and L. sibirica x decidua against brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum was tested according to EN 113 test method. Parallel samples were used to study the amount and composition of wood extractives. The sample trees originated from the re...
H Viitanen, L Paajanen, P Saranpää, P Viitaniemi


Antagonistic effect of some mycorrhiza fungi as biological control of blue-stain
1987 - IRG/WP 1314
This report discussed the possibility of using some mycorrhiza fungi as biological control of blue-stain. The results show that new bio-technological possibilities are opening, because, by cultivating antibiosis fungi in fermentor, it is possible to prepare extracts which can then be used as the natural preservative to control the blue-stain in wood....
R Benko


Antagonism to spore germination in Scots pine
1990 - IRG/WP 1458
Germination of Lenzites trabea and Chaetomium globosum spores was observed directly on wood blocks, on water soluble extracts and on organic solvent soluble extracts from pine wood. In all cases pine heartwood was found to be antagonistic to spore germination but pine sapwood varied in its antagonism according to the method of drying. Chromatography revealed that extracts from antagonistic wood di...
S M Gray


Bioassays of extracts from scaly ash (Ganophyllum falcatum B1) against the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt)
1983 - IRG/WP 1206
Scaly ash, Ganophyllum falcatum B1. wood shavings were extracted by methanol, and fractionated with ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and water, and the anti-termitic properties of these materials bioassayed against the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Laboratory techniques were developed to overcome the problem of limited extractive materials. The results of the various bioas...
J R J French, J P Robinson, J W Creffield


Preventing fungal attack of freshly sawn lumber using cinnamon extracts
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30432
The potential for using cinnamon oil as an anti-mold and stain compound was investigated on ponderosa pine sapwood. Cinnamon oil was highly effective when used in ethanol, but its activity declined when it was mixed with only water. Attempts to enhance water solubility with surfactants improved solution stability, but had no apparent effect on biological activity. Further studies with other co-so...
Shujun Li, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 2: Laboratory fungal bioassays
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20204
Extracts from sawmill residues of the naturally durable white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla were tested for fungicidal activity in a series of laboratory bioassays. The effects of different extraction solvents, techniques and sources of material on the biocidal efficacy of the resultant extracts were evaluated. Soil jar decay tests were used initially however, contractual time constraints necess...
M A Powell, L M Stephens, L Francis, M J Kennedy


Molecular analysis of the basidiomycete Coniophora puteana
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1534
Sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western Blotting, using a polyclonal antiserum produced against a whole cell extract of Coniophora puteana, were used to analyse the major proteins and antigens of the wet rot organism Coniophora puteana. The macromolecule profiles of this organism were different from other members of the Coniophora genus and from a set of unrelated org...
H E McDowell, D Button, J W Palfreyman


Wood preservation using furanones derived from marine algae
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10506
Halogenated furanones that are analogues of natural compounds extracted from the red seaweed Delisea pulchra were examined in the laboratory for activity against termites and decay fungi. The furanones were found to have broad spectrum activity, some with solution strengths of 0.01% controlling Coptotermes acinaciformis in a filter paper trial, while 2% solutions impregnated into Pinus radiata blo...
L J Cookson, R de Nys, P Steinberg, N Chew


Examination of algal and wood extracts for the control of marine borers
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10306
Extracts obtained from a marine alga and white cypress pine (Callitris glaucophylla J. Thompson & L.J. Johnson) were examined for their ability to control marine borers. In a two week laboratory bioassay, filter papers were soaked in 0-8% extract concentrations, dried, and placed with Limnoria quadripunctata Holthuis in Petri dishes containing seawater. The 8% algal extract virtually prevented...
D Scown, L J Cookson, R De Nys


Acceleration of boric acid uptake into the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki using steamed larch wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10353
Laboratory tests were done to measure the efficacy of addition of steamed larch (Larix leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Gord.) heartwood extracts for the uptake of boric acid against the termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Paper discs were treated with the water-soluble fraction obtained from hot-water extracts of steamed larch wood (S-Water) with or without 0.01-2.0% boric acid, followed by expos...
W Ohmura, S Doi, S Ohara


Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 4: Analysis of extracts and treated wood for active components
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20215
In order to facilitate the commercial implementation of a large project aimed at recovering 'waste' durability components from sawmill residues of Callitris glaucophylla, it has been essential to develop analytical methodology for the important bioactive components of the heartwood extract. This methodology will be used 1) to standardise the activity of successive production batc...
Hui Jiang, M J Kennedy, L M Stephens


Protection of hard and softwood through Neem leaves extracts and oil - A direction towards development of eco-friendly wood preservatives
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30394
Conventional wood preservatives like CCA and CCB are facing lot of criticism all over the world. It is essential to address the problem in view of environment protection. Eco-friendly wood preservatives may be considered as one option. The present study is an expolartion of neem leaves and seed oil against wood decaying fungi and termites. Azadirachta indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem is one ...
S Dhyani, S Tripathi


On the reasons of Prunus africana natural durability
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10611
Analysis of Prunus africana heartwood extractives was studied with the aim of understanding the reasons for its high natural durability. Soxhlet extractions of wood powder using different solvents were carried out. Effect of each extracts at different concentrations was evaluated on the growth of several fungi among which Coriolus versicolor, Poria placenta, and Aureobasidium pullulans. Results sh...
F Mburu, S Dumarçay, M F Thévenon, P Gérardin


Potentiality of use extracts from Tetraclinis articulata like biocide against wood destroying organisms: Reticulitermes santonensis
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30418
Screening trials were conducted to determine the antitermitic and antifungal properties of essential oil and methanolic extractives obtained from Tetraclinis articulata heartwood. Extract-treated cellulose pads were used to evaluate antitermitic activity and complete termite mortality was obtained with the essential oil: the threshold is situated under 5% (v/v). Standardised tests according Europe...
F El hanbali, N Amusant, F Mellouki, M Akssira, C Baudasse


Antifungal activity of plant derived extracts against G. trabeum
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30433
While synthetic chemicals have provided excellent protection to woods used in adverse environments, the general public remains interested in naturally derived wood protectants. There are diverse arrays of possible candidates, but many of these compounds are not readily water soluble and efforts to render them soluble often reduce biological activity. In this report, we describe efforts to enhance ...
M Maoz, I Weitz, M Blumenfeld, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Treatment of Selected Lesser Used Timber Species against Subterranean Termites using Heartwood Extracts from Teak (Tectona grandis) and Dahoma (Piptadeniastrum africanum)
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30434
Lesser used timber species represent a valuable material for all-purpose uses but the problem is that most of them are not durable. They have, for this reason, been treated with all manner of chemicals to enhance their natural durability, especially in the tropics. Often, most of these chemicals pose a threat to the environment. Currently, one probable measure of avoiding such a threat to the envi...
A Asamoah, C Antwi-Boasiako


The Comparison of Fixation and Leachability of Bark, Fruit and Leaf Tannin Extracts with Boron Minerals
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30473
Tannins extracted from several plants have natural durability properties. Due to these properties, some of the researchers have studied them for protecting wood. In this study, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and beech (Fagus orientalis) wood samples were treated with bark, fruit, and leaf extracts as well as water-based wood preservative salts at various concentrations to increase fixation. The pen...
S Sen, C Tascioglu, K Tirak


Treatment of Selected Lesser Used Timber Species against Subterranean Termites using Heartwood Extracts from Teak (Tectona grandis) and Dahoma (Piptadeniastrum africanum)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30476
Lesser used timber species represent a valuable material for all-purpose uses. However, most of them are not durable. They are, for effective utilization, often treated with all manner of toxic synthetic substances to enhance their natural durability, especially in the tropics where conditions favour their deterioration. Most of these toxic synthetic substances often pose a threat to the environme...
A Asamoah, C Antwi-Boasiako, K Frimpong-Mensah


Potential synergy between natural product extracts for limiting fungal decay
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30495
Natural products often exhibit tremendous potential for inhibiting various microorganisms when they are tested in petri dish tests, but perform poorly when tested in vivo. The failures can often be attributed to a lack of broad spectrum activity against the range of organisms present in a natural environment. One method for overcoming this challenge is to use extracts from a number of sources with...
M Maoz, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Effects of Cunninghamia Lanceolata Heartwood Extracts on the Growth of Wood Decay Fungi
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30527
China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood is well known for its good durability. This species is native to China and has been extensive planted there. Mainly, extractives are responsible for the wood resistance to decay fungi. In this paper, the extractives of China-fir heartwood were studied for their effects on various wood decay fungi. Sequential extraction of heartwood in hexane, ethyl acet...
Shujun Li, Jing Wang, Jian Li


Antifungal Effect of Bark and Wood Extracts of Condalia hookerii (Rhamnaceae), Ebenopsis ebano (Fabaceae) and Helietta parvifolia (Rutaceae) on Trametes versicolor
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30532
This research detail the growing inhibition effect on Coniophora puteana and Trametes versicolor fungi caused by hot water sawdust and bark extracts of three semi-arid land species Condalia hookerii, Ebenopsis ebano and Helietta parvifolia diluted in malt extract agar medium at 2000 ppm and 10000 ppm. After 12-14 days incubation the inhibition growing effect was measured based on the difference be...
A Carrillo, J G Marmolejo, F Garza, V Bustamante, M Garza


Antifungal activities of acetone-soluble Eusideroxylon zwageri and Potoxylon melagangai crude extracts against white rot
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30591
The development of natural wood extracts as a wood preservative is a potentially attractive prospect for the wood preservation industry. This study attempts to evaluate the toxicity of Eusideroxylon zwageri and Potoxylon melagangai extractives as potential wood preservatives. These two species are well-known as among the heaviest and very durable timbers. It has been established that natural durab...
I Jusoh, A Tida Henry, Z Assim, F Badruddin Ahmad, S Ujang


First report on the termiticidal activity of extracts of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) seeds and on its active constituent squamocins
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30605
Termites inflict severe damage on wood commodities and impede usage of several forest species. The biological metabolites could potentially replace synthetic termiticidal products which are becoming more restricted to use. Annona squamosa is well known for its edible fruits - tropical custard apple. Annonaceous tetrahydrofuran acetogenins have attracted much interest due to their broad range of bi...
T S Djenontin, N Amusant, P H Ducrot, D C K Sohounhloué, D Pioch


In vitro fungicidal activity of Tunisian essences extracts against Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20544
Bark of six Tunisian species including cork oak (Quercus suber L.), eucalyptus camaldulensis, alder (Alnus glutinosa), Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), nut pine (Pinus pinea) and Chelfi pomegranates (Punica granatum) were tested against two rot-fungi: Coriolus Versicolor (for leafy trees) and Coniophora Puteana (for conifers) according to an adaptation of the European guidelines (NF EN 113, 1986). ...
L Lajnef, N Ayed, B Charrier


Glutathione transferases and wood extracts
2015 - IRG/WP 15-10845
Wood rotting fungi have developed an efficient detoxification system allowing them to be well adapted to their way of life, these fungi generating and encountering potential toxic compounds during wood degradation. Belonging to this detoxification network, glutathione transferases are particularly extended in these fungi and their presence could reflect the chemical environments encountered by the...
A Deroy, F Saiag, Z Kebbi-Benkeder, N Touahri, M Morel-Rouhier, F Colin, S Dumarcay, P Gérardin,


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