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Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi ha...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


SEM investigation of the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECM) by some wood inhabiting and wood decay fungi when grown in wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10193
Previous reports have illustrated the involvement of extracellular mucilage (ECM) in wood decay by Basidiomycetes. Its production is investigated in a range of stain, mould and soft rot fungi in Corsican pine, Scots pine and European beech. Fungi examined were: Chaetomium globosum, Ceratocystis coerulescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Ophiostoma piceae, Mucor sp. and Penicillium. sp. The samples were ...
A R Abu, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


SEM investigation of the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECM) by some wood inhabiting and wood decay fungi when grown on inert surfaces
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10194
A range of wood inhabiting and wood decay fungi have been studied for their production of extracellular mucilage when grown on inert surfaces, for comparison with their growth on wood. The species tested were: Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor, Chaetomium globosum, Trichoderma harzianum, Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ophiostoma piceae, Mucor sp. and Penicillium sp. They were grown on plastic me...
A R Abu, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson


Effects of cyproconazole and copper sulphate on the length of the hyphal growth unit (HGU) of the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10473
Wood decay basidiomycetes have been shown to produce appreciable quantities of extracellular mucilaginous materials (ECMM). The relationship between ECMM and total biomass production has been investigated in the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (CTB 863 A). Differences in the amount of ECMM produced by the fungus proportionally to the total biomass, were observed under a range of physiological...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Investigation of extracellular mucilaginous material in some wood decay fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10188
The external morphology of the extracellular mucilagenous material (ECM) produced by Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana during colonization of Scots pine and beech was studies using SEM. Specimens were examined in the frozen hydrated, freeze-dried and critical point dried state. All technics produced artefacts but the ECM was best preserved when examined the frozen hydated state. Critical ...
A R Abu, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Effects of biocides on the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) produced by two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10469
Growth and production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) by the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum (FPRL 108 N) and the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (CTB 863 A) was assessed in liquid culture, supplemented with the biocides CuSO4 and cyproconazole. The production of biomass in G. trabeum was significantly influenced by the concentration of CuSO4 in the medium. When CuSO4 was...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


The influence of crystalline and amorphous cellulose on extracellular hydrogen peroxide production by brown-rot fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1482
The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been suggested to play a key role in the degradation of wood by wood-rotting fungi. The production of extracellular hydrogen peroxide was studied by a quantitative method which detects the oxidation of the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) by H2O2 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in liquid culture medium. The carbon sources u...
A-C Ritschkoff, L Viikari


Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigati...
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr


Mould resistance of lignocellulosic material treated with some protective chemicals
1984 - IRG/WP 3294
Effectiveness of preserving lignocellulosic material against moulding by treatement with water solutions of commercial wood preservatives and mixtures of various inorganic salts was investigated and compared with the effectivenes of sodium pentachlorophenoxide and boric acid....
K Lutomski


Contribution to the testing of wood based board material
1982 - IRG/WP 2176
R G Lea


Extracellular layers of wood decay fungi and copper tolerance
1983 - IRG/WP 1180
Extracellular layers around the hyphae of brown, white and soft rot fungi have been examined using electron microscopy. These layers were isolated for identification. Particular interest was directed towards the extracellular layers of copper-tolerant soft rot fungi....
D M Francis, L E Leightley


Lignin degradation by wood-degrading fungi
1986 - IRG/WP 1310
The wood-degrading white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, has been the subject of intensive research in recent years and, based upon isolation of the extracelluar enzyme ligninase, major advances have now been made toward elucidating the mechanism by which this fungus degrades lignin. From these developments, a model emerges which could explain the process by which wood-degrading fungi in g...
P J Harvey, H E Schoemaker, J M Palmer


Radio frequency heating times for sterilization radiata pine solid piles
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40815
In this work was sterilized wood packaging material of radiata pine, stacked as solid piles without stickers, for determining the heating times using radiofrequency treatment. The experiments were performed in a radio frequency semi-industrial equipment. The results showed that the radio frequency heating times increases with wood volume and that radio frequency treatments were faster than convent...
H Esquivel, V Sepúlveda, J Torres, L Salvo, R A Ananías


Review of remediation methods of sites contaminated by wood preservatives - testing of filter material for use in permeable barrier technology
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50141
Several treatment methods are currently available for treatment of contaminated sites. Soil and water can be treated by immobilisation, separation or destruction of contaminants. It has been common to use intensive treatment methods starting with soil excavation to reach strict purification goals. However, technical and financial reasons make it difficult to reach the desired treatment criteria. A...
G Rasmussen, H Iversen, S Andersen


Soft rot studies on CCA treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1981 - IRG/WP 1132
Initial results found for sixty CCA treated eucalypt poles, from a soft-rot survey are discussed. Retentions of CCA within above and below ground pole samples were variable. The variation was attributed mostly to biodegradation and effect of soil environment, rather than leaching. Bacterial decay was found in many poles and was severe in some cases. Although found in the presence of soft-rot decay...
L E Leightley


Evaluation of some polyurethanes as protective marine coatings for wood
1985 - IRG/WP 4115
Several polyurethane formulations were evaluated in the marine environment as possible replacements for Irish felt used on U.S. Navy minesweepers as a marine borer barrier between the main wooden hull and an outer, wooden sheathing which covers it. Pine panels coated with the candidate materials were tightly juxtaposed with untreated pine baitwood to simulate the hull/sheathing configuration, the ...
J D Bultman, J E Pinto


Immunolocalization of extracellular metabolites from Tyromyces palustris
1991 - IRG/WP 1491
Polyclonal antisera produced to extracellular metabolites from the brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris was used in immunogold TEM studies. Gold labelling was detected in the fungal cell wall and extracellular slime layer but little or sporadic labelling was noted within the cytoplasm of the fungal hyphae. Gold particles were also found within the wood cell wall of Pinus densiflora decayed by Tyro...
Yoon Soo Kim


The effect of tunicamycin on production and secretion of extracellular carbohydrate-degrading enzymes by Postia placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1342
The extracellular carbohydrate-degrading enzymes of wood-decay fungi are usually heavily glycosylated and therefore stable under most denaturing conditions. It is unlikely that wood decay can be prevented by simply inactivating these enzymes. Tunicamycin, an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lysosuperificus, prevents the glycosylation of glycoproteins and can interfere with the secretion of thes...
J A Micales, T L Highley


Determination of the water sorption properties and preliminary results from field tests above ground of thermally modified material from industrial scale processes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40279
In this study the differences in moisture behavior and durability above ground of heat treated wood originating from different European industrial heat treatment plants by means of the water sorption properties as well as field tests were examined. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood (Premium wood)/ Finland and Menz Holz/ Germany, where Oil-...
C R Welzbacher; A O Rapp


Preservative effect of cellulose insulation material against some mould fungi and brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana in pine sapwood
1991 - IRG/WP 1484
The influence of mineral wool and loose-fill cellulose wool on biodeterioration of pine sapwood was studied. The test fungi were mould fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium sp. and Aureobasidium pullullans and brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana. Cellulose wool inhibited the growth of mould fungi on the face of wood contacted with insulation material at RH of 97 an...
H Viitanen


Proposed model for the penetration and decay of wood by the hyphal sheath of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1989 - IRG/WP 1391
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of Pinus sp. decayed by the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta confirmed the existence of extracellular membranous structures previously described by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These structures appear to be an integral part of the hyphal sheath and assume a variety of forms including lamellar sheets, fibrils, and vesicles. These structures were observe...
F Green III, M J Larsen, L L Murmanis, T L Highley


Resistance of wood inorganic material composites against decay fungi and subterranean termites
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40062
Double diffusion process was applied to the treatment of small sound sapwood specimens [20(T) x 20(R) x 10(L) mm³] of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don. The specimens were consecutively dipped in the two kinds of acqueous solutions to form water insoluble deposits within the wood after an expected reaction between the solutes. Following the comparison of deposits formed and treating conditions (tempera...
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura, M Takahashi, S Hirao, H Usui


Invasion and colonisation of bamboo culm material by stain and decay fungi
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10453
Two distinct stages of the fungal infection of bamboo culms can be identified: entry into the culm itself (invasion) and further colonisation by spread within the culm wall tissue. This laboratory study aimed to characterise different invasion strategies of a variety of fungi. Well-known isolates of white- (Coriolus versicolor, Schizophyllum commune), brown- (Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum tra...
G Kleist, I Morris, R J Murphy


Extracellular hydrogen peroxide producing and hydrogen peroxide reducing compounds of wood decay fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1516
Extracellular H2O2-producing and H2O2-reducing compounds were isolated from wood-containing cultures of all the white-rot and brown-rot fungi and Ascomycetes which well degraded wood, but were not detected in the culture of the fungi which degraded little wood. The compounds are glycopeptides with a low molecular weight, require H2O2 for one-electron oxidation, catalyze the redox reaction between ...
A Enoki, G Fuse, H Tanaka


Control of sapwood-inhabiting fungi by fractionated extracellular metabolites from Coniophora puteana
1991 - IRG/WP 1494
The objective of this study was to test the fractionated metabolites released by Coniophora puteana for their antagonistic activity against the sapstain fungi Ceratocystis coerulescens and Aureobasidum pullulans, and the molds Asperigillus niger and Penicillium spp. The acetone-soluble fraction obtained from the culture filtrate prepared from Coniophora puteana grown on 6% malt extract agar inhibi...
S C Croan, T L Highley


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