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Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro® bait
1982 - IRG/WP 1163
Amdro® - treated paper towels were introduced into two field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite in Hawaii. At the concentration of 180 ppm, the toxicant bait was ineffective one month after the introduction. At higher concentrations (> 6,400 ppm), the baits were eaten initially; however, one week after introduction, termites avoided or covered the baits. The 15,000 ppm baits supressed the activity of one colony but did not affect the other.
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III


Field trials of groundline remedial treatments on soft rot attacked CCA treated Eucalyptus poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3222
A total of 17 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles, which were found to contain 2-5 mm of soft rot in October, 1980, were reinspected in October, 1982. In 1980, 11 of the poles were given a supplemental groundline bandage treatment of either Osmoplastic or Patox, while 6 of the poles were designated as untreated controls. Two years after remedial treatment, samples were removed from the poles for microscopic observations and for chemical retention analysis. It was found that the remedial bandage treatments were effective in preventing any further advance of soft rot. Based on the positive results of this study, a treatment efficacy of five years or longer is predicted.
W S McNamara, R J Ziobro, J F Triana


Field trials of anti-sapstain products. Part 1
1991 - IRG/WP 3675
The results obtained in two field tests of anti-sapatain products, carried out in four locations in Portugal, are presented. Boards from freshly cut logs were hand-dipped, close staked and left to dry for periods from four to six months. The results obtained seem to indicate that some of the products tested performed at least as well and sometimes better, than a 3% NaPCP solution which was used as control product.
L Nunes, F Peixoto, M M Pedroso, J A Santos


Exterior weathering trials on radiata pine roofing shingles
1985 - IRG/WP 3240
A series of test roofs clad with radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) shingles that had been pressure-treated with various water-borne preservative formulations were installed at a Forest Research Institute test site in Rotorua in 1977. A further series of test roofs installed in 1978 included radiata pine shingles pressure-treated with a commercial light organic solvent preservative (LOSP). Evaluation of selected radiata pine shingle test roofs in early 1984 showed that, although preservative leaching had occurred from shingles treated with an alkyl ammonium compound (AAC), a copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservative, and an LOSP, the shingles appeared sound when examined microscopically. Slight lichen growth was evident on some shingles. In contrast, untreated radiata pine shingles displayed marked fungal infection, early stages of decay, and plentiful mould and lichen growth. Western red cedar (Thuja plicata D. Don) shingles, which were used as a reference point from which to judge radiata pine shingles, showed lichen and mould growth after seven years' exposure. Checking and cupping of western red cedar shingles were attributable in part to the inclusion of some flat-sawn material.
D V Plackett, C M Chittenden, A F Preston


Short term preconditioning of preservative-treated wood in soil contact in relation to performance in field trials
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20185
The effect of pre-exposure to primary colonising micro-organisms on preservative-treated wood, prior to a basidiomycete decay test, was determined by preconditioning in two soil types. Scots pine EN 113 blocks treated with 3 model systems (a triazole, a copper quaternary compound and a copper boron triazole) were leached according to EN 84 and subjected to 6 weeks and 8 weeks burial in either John Innes no. 2 (a loam-based horticultural compost) or soil from the Simlångsdalen field site in Sweden. The samples were then tested according to the method described in EN 113. Selective isolations were also performed after soil exposure and compared with those from a longer term field trial. Preconditioning lowered the effectiveness of the 2 copper containing preservatives. Some effect of soil pre-exposure could be noted with the triazole but this was limited. The fungal isolations from preconditioned EN 113 blocks and field exposed stakes were a similar mixture of soft rot and mould fungi. Bacteria were commonly isolated from the preconditioned wood. The role of these micro-organisms in the modification of the preservatives is currently being investigated.
S Molnar, D J Dickinson


Anti-stain field trials in British Columbia
1981 - IRG/WP 3174
Four alternative anti-sap stain chemicals were subjected to a four month field evaluation during the summer of 1980. The test, established at a Vancouver Island sawmill, was designed to evaluate the potential long-term effectiveness of sodium tribromophenate (Velsicol Ltd.), Biocom XX (Bramco Industries) containing methylene bis-thiocyanate, Woodbrite NTX (Van Waters & Rogers Ltd.) containing 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butyl carbamate and Mitrol 48 (Kenogard) containing guazatine acetate and quaternary ammonium chlorides, on hemfir and Douglas fir. Sodium tribromophenate was found to give surface protection equivalent to that of chlorophenate treated controls. Biocom XX was also effective, although the active ingredient came out of solution at the required treating solution concentration. Woodbrite NTX and Mitrol 48 were found to be ineffective on either species group under the test conditions.
D V Plackett


Field trials on preserved timber out of ground contact
1978 - IRG/WP 3154
This report describes two different field trials studying the performance of preservative treatments on timber exposed to the weather, but above the ground. Results are presented on the protection afforded against decay, and on the efficiency of water-repellent preservative treatments in controlling the uptake of moisture by the timber. Proposals for a standard field test system are briefly discussed.
D F Purslow, N A Williams


Evaluation of termiticides in field trials
1990 - IRG/WP 3633
Termiticide-treated posts and stakes have been tested at the field test site in Kagoshima, Southern Kyushu, Japan. Various commercial and alternative termiticides have been evaluated annually as TAI (termite attack index), calculated by the equation: TAI = R x P, where R is the mean of attack rating of 0 (sound), 10 (sign of tasting), 30 (slight attack), 50 (moderate attack), 100 (severe attack), and P is the ratio of attacked posts (stakes) to total posts (stakes) tested, expressed as 0.0-1.0 . CCA-impregnated Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) posts have well performed keeping 0 TAI over nine years. AAC-treated pine (Pinus radiata) stakes with 9.3 kg/m³ DDAC (didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride) or 9.4 kg/m³ BTAC (methylalkylbenzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) have been free from decay, but they yielded 34 or 42 TAI after eight years. Improvement of termite resistance was revealed by addition of cupric chloride or cuprammonium chloride. Brushing treatment of pine (Pinus densiflora) stakes, with 200 g/m chlordane (2.0%), chlorpyrifos (1.0%) or tetrachlorvinfos (1.0%) solutions, did not provide the perfect control for five years, yielding 30, 42 and 48 TAI, respectively.
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, K Tsunoda, A Adachi, K Nishimoto


Acetylated solid wood. Laboratory durability test (part 2) and field trials
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40048
Degradation of acetylated beech, pine and poplar by soft rot fungi was related to strength loss in a laboratory test. No strength loss was noticed for poplar acetylated to a weight percent gain (WPG) of more than 11.2% and beech with a WPG of 12.8%. Several field trials were set up to determine the durability of acetylated products in practice. They included a field test to determine the durability of acetylated wood, a field test for acetylated claddings with various paints, a field test for acetylated garden wood, an outdoor exposure of acetylated wood to salt water and of acetylated wood to soil and fresh water contact. In these trials the way of design and shape of end products was considered too. This is of industrial use to minimise waste of (expensive) acetylated wood. Results are discussed.
E P J Beckers, H Militz, M Stevens


Effect of angle of exposure on degradation of radiata pine during weathering trials
1988 - IRG/WP 2301
The importance of angle of exposure on the degree of weathering of materials has not been adequately resolved. In conventional tests, specimens are exposed at an angle of 45° facing the equator, but more recently experiments on polymeric materials have suggested that an angle of 0° may be preferable since this angle maximises levels of received ultra-violet radiation. In this paper the degradation of Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) during weathering was assessed at 5 angles of exposure (0°, 45°, 60°, 70°, 90°) over 50 days by measuring changes in weight and chemical composition. In order to confirm previous observations measurements of received ultra-violet radiation (< 320 nm) at these angles of exposure were also made using polysulphone polymer film dosimeters. Roth weight loss and chemical data indicate that degradation of Radiata pine during weathering was negatively correlated (p < 0.001) with increasing angle of exposure. The implications of these findings for the conduct of weathering trials are discussed.
P D Evans


BRE Experience in monitoring decay in out-of-ground exposure trials
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20077
The outdoor field trial has always been regarded as the ultimate test of performance for assessing the effectiveness of a wood preservative. For this reason, the Building Research Establishment (BRE) has invested much effort in such trials over many years. Emphasis in early trials was on ground contact tests which were the basis both for assessing the likely performance of a preservative in protecting posts and poles, and for classifying a timber&apos;s natural resistance to fungal decay. When preservation of timber in the building and construction industry assumed greater importance, the emphasis was placed on the development of out-of-ground field trials to provide data on the likely performance of exterior joinery work in buildings. For these tests, the exposure conditions provided a less severe hazard for out-of-ground timber than for wood permanently in contact with the ground. Out-of-ground trials have been running at BRE since 1967 (Orsler and Smith, 1993) initially using T-joints and L-joints and later the window joinery test rig was established to provide conditions close to those in buildings (Purslow, 1975). All the early trials were assessed only by visual assessment for decay. Later still, small L-joints with a coating (the methodology which was used as the basis for EN 330) were used for a comprehensive study to establish the pattern of colonisation by microorganisms and associated changes to the wood. It was established that the basidiomycete fungi ultimately responsible for the decay are the climax of a colonisation sequence of a range of types of fungi plus bacteria (Carey, 1980). In an attempt to give early indications of long term performance, colonisation by basidiomycetes and changes in the porosity of the wood during exposure have been used as the basis for assessing performance relative to that of a reference preservative (1.0% tri n-butyltin oxide). Hyphen joints were introduced (Orsler and Holland, 1993) for studies of preservative distribution.
J K Carey, R J Orsler


The natural durability assessments of secondary timber species - field trials
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10297
Secondary or &apos;alternative&apos; hardwood timber species can replace traditional hardwoods and contribute significantly to satisfying the overall demand for hardwoods in the UK timber market. A selection of these &apos;alternative&apos; hardwoods is currently being tested at BRE-WTC for natural durability both in ground contact (to EN252) at two field sites, and out of ground contact (as L-joints to EN330) at one site. The objective is to provide an assessment of the suitability of each species for future commercial application. Moisture movement has been monitored in the L-joint tenons showing in less durable timbers, such as rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), rapid in-depth wetting during rain. Other monitored features of timber failure in out-of-ground exposure, including surface mould, cracking, discoloration and rot, indicate to date clear species-based differences. Comparison of the test timbers, based upon responsiveness to moisture and degree of timber failure, classify calophyllum (Calophyllum spp.), Ghanaian teak (Tectona grandis) and niové (Staudtia stipitata) as most durable and least reactive to moisture. The results to date of the ground contact trials, when compared with archived durability data show that the archive records of ground contact natural durability remain valid, although some modern plantation-grown timbers, such as teak (Tectona grandis), appear less durable than material from virgin forest. The likely value and commercial application of some of the secondary hardwood timbers examined is summarised.
E D Suttie, R J Orsler


Field performance of novel antisapstain formulations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30125
The effectiveness as antisapstain formulations of combinations of oxine copper (Cu-8), carbendazim, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, flusilazole, didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), an alkanolamine borate (SB), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), 2-n-octylisothiazolin -3-one (isothiazoline) and p-chlorophenyl-3-iodopropagilformal (CPIPF) was determined for freshly sawn, block-stacked radiata pine in three 18-week field trials: 1. Established in summer 1992 evaluating combinations of hexaconazole, carbendazim and DDAC. 2. Established in autumn/winter 1994 evaluating combinations of hexaconazole, carbendazim, DDAC, BAC and SB. 3. Established in autumn/winter 1995 evaluating combinations of triazoles, DDAC, Cu-8, carbendazim, CPIPF, isothiazoline and SB. Reference standards included: Cu-8; Cu-8 + carbendazim; IPBC + DDAC and TCMTB. In all tests, formulations containing carbendazim + hexaconazole + DDAC gave better protection for 12 and 18 weeks than most other experimental formulations and were equal to or better than commercial standards.
D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals


Design of Field Trials for Evaluation of Antisapstain Products
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20263
Field trialing is an important phase of antisapstain product development and careful planning is required to ensure trial validity for predicting performance in the industrial situation. Experiences of trialing antisapstain products on lumber over a ten-year period are discussed in this paper. It is not mandatory to source "fresh " wood for trialing and useful information can be generated even if the wood shows visible signs of pre-infection. Measurement of uptake of preservative working solution is recommended, as uptakes can differ considerably between preservatives. Also, continuing wood drying after sawing can cause treatment uptakes to progressively increase over the trial duration. Strong moisture gradients develop in treated packets during storage and the moisture profile is a particularly important determinant of the development of the various fungal infections. The period and method of assessment should be appropriate to demonstrate differences between products that would be reflected in sawmill practice.
F W Frazer, N R Edmonds, B J Nairn


Performance trials of treated hardwood fences
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30281
This paper examines the performance of the traditional hardwood paling fence used in Australia, after preservative treatment. Unseasoned rails, palings and plinths of the low natural durability species Eucalyptus regnans (mountain ash) and E. obliqua (messmate) were treated with PEC (pigment emulsified creosote) or PROCCA (an oil emulsion of CCA). Treated posts of these species were also compared with a naturally durable species used for posts, E. camaldulensis (river red gum). As the sawn timbers were mostly heartwood, penetration depths achieved were generally poor. The effect of incising posts, and notching or cutting timbers before and after treatment were examined, along with alternative construction methods. Performance was compared in laboratory ‘agar trays’, an Accelerated Field Simulator, and the field, enabling correlation between the various test methods. Results, including five year field inspections, showed that the above ground portions of the fence were still sound, compared to an untreated model fence. PEC provided better protection than PROCCA to timbers cut after treatment, due to its ability to bleed across cut surfaces. After five years, PEC treated posts performed as well as untreated E. camaldulensis posts.
L J Cookson D Scown, B Iskra


Field trials of Sinesto B at some sawmills in Portugal
1989 - IRG/WP 3512
The efficacy of SINESTO B as antistain chemical for use in Portugal has been studied. The studies were done during the years 1987-1988 at several Portuguese sawmills in co-operation with the Instituto dos Produtos Florestais and the APCIM (Associacao Portuguesa de Comercio e Industria de Madeiras). SINESTO B was used in 5% and 8% concentrations. The storage time varied from 10 weeks to 6 months. In the tests, PCP was used as reference chemical as well as some other commercial antistain products. SINESTO B performed well in most of the tests. It was even better than 3% PCP. 8% concentration is recommended.
I A Linderborg


Laboratory and field trials of novel antisapstain formulations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30146
This document covers the results of laboratory and field trials of combinations of fungicides formulated using a patented technology (PCT NZ 96/00143). A 3 week laboratory trial that uses radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) branch discs as a substrate was used to determine which combinations possessed a suitable spectrum of fungitoxicity against key sapstain, mould and decay fungi. In particular fungitoxicity against Ophiostoma piceae H & P Syd was looked for as this is the most difficult fungus to control on freshly cut radiata pine in New Zealand. The most promising formulations were then tested using block stacked radiata pine stored for 11 weeks during a high hazard summer period. In general the field trial results corroborated with the laboratory disc trial results. The importance of a broad spectrum of fungitoxicity and in particular a high level of activity against O. piceae, was shown by both types of trial. A formulation containing hexaconazole (0.014%w/v) plus carbendazim (0.028%w/v) plus a quaternary ammonium compound (0.291%w/v) was particularly promising. This formulation achieved significantly better (5% level of probability) control than the commercial standards, for 11 weeks of summer storage. The low fungicide concentrations used auger well for it&apos;s cost effectiveness. It is believed that this was in part due to fungicide synergy, broad spectrum activity and the use of microemulsions and solutions of the key fungicide components.
R N Wakeling, P N Maynard, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter


Subterranean termite attack potential in field test sites: assessment methods and field characterization
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10472
To assess subterranean termite attack potential in the field and seasonal variations, trials were set up in each of two managed silvicultural plantations, of Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster, respectively. Termite occupancy in lying dead wood was evaluated by an adaptation of the line-intersection method, and attack potential in soil was assessed by a system of stakes inserted into the ground, combined with baits. Occupancy in fallen dead wood was assessed over one year, demonstrating that there were seasonal changes in foraging activity. Baits and stakes were assessed at three month intervals, providing a corresponding measure of the intensity of the foraging activity under ground. The usefulness of this dual characterization of field sites is discussed.
T Nobre, L Nunes, L Brinca, D E Bignell


Field Trials with mini-stakes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20244
In 1995 an extensive field test program with wood mini-stakes, 8 x 20 x 200 mm, was started. In these trials a large number of parameters are being evaluated, including several new wood preservatives, differently chemically modified woods and natural durability of various wood species. The test sites are three fields in Sweden for in-ground and “close to ground” testing, one subterranean termite field in Indonesia for in ground testing, and finally one fungus cellar. The results of the test program show that some chemically modified woods perform surprisingly well and actually equal to or better than CCA-impregnated wood. This was also true for wood treated with some of the new preservatives included in the program. After more than six years of testing it is clear that the in-ground test results are comparable with ordinary EN 252 results with full sized stakes, 25 x 50 x 500 mm. Mini-stake EN 252 field testing is thereby an economic alternative to ordinary EN252, if the intention is to screen many parameters with a limited amount of material and with limited field space available.
M Westin, A O Rapp, Y S Hadi, T Nilsson


Antisapstain field trials of NeXgen in New Zealand
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30145
This document covers the results of summer and winter log trials of NeXgen, an antisapstain formulation containing methylene bis thiocyanate plus chlorothalonil. Log billets (20 - 25cm diameter) were stripped of bark using a commercial maul debarker and antisapstain treated within 8 hours of felling by dip application. Billets were stored in a pole barn and assessed for internal sapstain and decay and surface mould at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. The performance of NeXgen was compared with two commercial standards tested at 5% (IPBC at 0.35% plus DDAC at 3%v) and 20% (acid solubilised oxine copper at 0.75%). These two formulations are used for protecting export radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) logs in New Zealand. For 24 weeks of winter storage and 16 weeks of summer storage, NeXgen applied to radiata pine log billets at a concentration of 2%w/v (MBT at 0.29% plus chlorothalonil at 0.29%) gave significantly (5% level of probability) better protection against sapstain and at least equivalent protection against decay and surface mould compared to two commercial standards tested at 5%w/v (IPBC at 0.35% plus DDAC 3%) and 20% (oxine copper at 0.75%).
R N Wakeling, T L Woods, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter


Report on the efficacy and performance of the insecticide candidate termiticide in H2 field trials
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10516
This paper explains the field results of phenol pyrazole treated timber against in an above ground mound colonies of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). C. acinaciformis (‘termites’) are the major pest of human structures throughout tropical and sub tropical regions, causing billions of dollars in damage to timber-in-service worldwide. The result of this field test have shown that candidate termiticide at 0.002 % m/m mean retention was unpalatable to the foraging termites. The wood blocks treated with candidate termiticide at the 0.0005 and 0.001 % m/m mean retention failed to prevent termite feeding on the treated blocks.
B M Ahmed, P Vinden, J Hann, J R J French


Development and field trials of Evotek 230, a new antisapstain product
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30140
Laboratory and greenhouse studies, using freshly sawn pine boards, demonstrated that the fungicidal properties of prochloraz and carbendazim were complementary for protection from sapstain and mould under extreme conditions of close stacking and high humidity. Analysis of dip bath solutions before and after dipping 20 boards showed no evidence of any stripping of the active ingredients. Neither fungicide is very active against basidiomycetes that cause decay. Normally, such fungi do not present a significant hazard to freshly sawn timber and they are out-competed by sapstain fungi in the absence of chemical control. Where the prochloraz + carbendazim combination prevented colonisation by sapstain fungi, and where the boards were stored under very humid conditions, some growth of brown rot fungi was observed which could be prevented by tank mixing the anti-sapstain product with borax. Field trials in Europe, S. America and S.E. Asia have confirmed the anti-sapstain efficacy of Evotek 230, a suspoemulsion containing 100 g/l prochloraz and 130 g/l carbendazim, at rates as low as 0.5%.
A Adams, J Oudenweyer, J L Lindars


International standardisation: a hypothetical case study with stand-alone borate wood preservatives
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20147
The possibility of developing wood preservation standards with a global remit has a number of obvious advantages as well as far reaching ramifications, many of which are undefined as yet. The commercial implications of adopting international standards are clearly considerable, but equally, such a development is likely to focus attention on the conceptual differences in the way that different regions view standards, especially with regard to test methodology and assessment. Boron-based wood preservatives have been used world-wide for a number of decades. Coupled with the fact that they have been used in a wide range of environments, this track record makes borates an excellent vehicle for exploring how international standardisation might proceed. Particular attention is paid to the protected, above ground situation and the challenge posed by potentially inappropriate test criteria, conflicting results obtained with different tests and timber variability. The underlying reasons for countries stipulating different retentions for essentially the same level of biological hazard are considered, following review of actual toxic values obtained using a variety of standard tests. Following discussion, a proposed international requirement for borate wood preservatives is given. This &apos;case study&apos; concludes that there are good reasons to be optimistic about deriving working standards for wood preservatives which can usefully be adopted on an international basis. However, it has also been recognised that the task is easier in this particular case than for other preservative systems and this is discussed.
M W Schoeman, J D Lloyd


Three-year field trials of polymeric formulations which provide a new basis for the invention and design of non-toxic wide-spectrum wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40029
Three types of non-toxic polymeric formulations invented using a new approach to wood preservation were challenged with termites and fungi in three-year ground-contact field trials in the sub-tropical climate of Natal. These formulations were copper soaps of carboxylic acid groups of unsaturated fatty acids of waxes and edible vegetable oils; of resin acids of rosin, and, of synthetic unsaturated polyester resins. The formulations self-polymerise within lumena of wood elements after pressure-impregnation and also co-react with carbon-carbon double bonds and aromatic nuclei of lignin. The biocidal mechanism is based on the release of copper by hydrolysis under humid conditions and on the reformation of the same bond on redrying of the treated timber in service. All formulations tested were effective and durable. Rosin formulations at retentions of 0.91 kg/m³ and polyester formulations at retentions as low as 0.4 kg/m³ each out-performed creosote at 37.5 kg/m³.
A A W Baecker, A Pizzi


Microbial ecology of treated Lap-joints exposed at Hilo, Hawaii for 24 months
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20107
This paper is a continuation of previous work reported in IRG/WP 96-20089 by Molnar et al. (1996) in which Lap-joints, made from Southern yellow pine and treated with ACQ, DDAC or propiconazole were sampled over 12 months exposure at Hilo, Hawaii. 18 and 24 month samplings have since taken place and are reported here. TnBTO treated Lap-joints made of scots pine which were exposed later as a standard treatment (ENV 12037: 1996) have now been sampled up to 12 months. The observations and conclusions reached after the recent 18 and 24 month exposure period have, in the majority of cases, been consistent with those made from the earlier samplings. Visual assessments according to ENV 12037 indicated that only the untreated joints were starting to fail at 24 months. Visual assessment also indicated that ACQ treatments performed well but DDAC samples less so. It was observed from detailed sampling that the discoloration of a sample may give a misleading rating, many joints appearing poor but being internally sound. Differences in the pattern of colonisation of the Lap-joints after 24 months exposure were now more clearly associated with different treatments. Bacteria and moulds were common throughout the 24 months, although moulds were inhibited in TnBTO treated samples. Bacteria and yeasts were abundant in propiconazole and DDAC treated samples. Soft-rots were uncommon, with the exception of Phialophora sp. which occurred frequently with ACQ, and rarely in propiconazole treatments. Aureobasidium pullulans was a common stainer but was inhibited by propiconazole and ACQ treatments. A. pullulans was dominant on TnBTO treated Lap-joints. A limited number of Basidiomycetes were isolated, especially from the untreated samples, and these included Phellinus sp., Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum sp.
S Molnar, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


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