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Insect resistance of preservative treated tropical plywood against Lyctus
1990 - IRG/WP 1453
Seven plywood types composed of tropical wood species, vulnerable to Lyctus, were treated with various commercial water-borne and oil-borne preservatives. A wide range of preservative retentions was obtained by treating boards with dip treatment, steeping, double-vacuum and vacuum-pressure impregnations. Selected samples were subsequently tested for their insect resistance against Lyctus africanus during 6 to 8 months according to European Standard EN 20. All control samples were attacked, except one Obeche plywood exhibiting only 50% attack. Water-borne preservative solutions containing arsenic, boron or fluoride could not prevent attack at common retention levels for interior use e.g. lower than 5 kg/m³. Quaternary ammonium compounds showed no insecticidal efficiency, up to 3 kg/m³. TCMTB at 1.5-1.7 kg/m³ proved to be able to reduce slightly the susceptibility for insect attack. Organic insecticides gave the best results, with nearly no attack for plywood treated with lindane or cypermethrin. In spite of a preservative uptake of 25 to 30 kg/m³, endosulfan only could reduce attack by 50%. Protection by permethrin at 0.1% a.i. required a retention of 28 kg/m³. Besides the fact that variability in wood species and composition of the plywood are leading to different retention levels, variation in penetration and distribution of a.i., and as a consequence to a different insect resistance of the impregnated boards, some poor results were directly related to inadequate insecticidal activity and/or concentration of a.i. in some commercial formulations for Lyctus control.
J Van Acker, M Stevens, M Pallaske


Health aspects concerning the use of bifluorides in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3173
An attempt has been made to find a correlation between the quantities F¯ and HF present among other ions in an 'Improsol' solution consisting of NH4F.HF and KF.HF, the quantity absorbed by the wood from this after immersion and the toxicological effects of this treated wood when it is used in rooms destined for the residence of people or animals or for the storage of foodstuffs.
H F M Nijman


The 1999-2000 annual report for the IRG - Wood Preservation in Egypt
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40188
The wood destroying insects in Egypt are belonging to several families of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Isoptera. Imported woods are treated by The Agricultural Quarantine or the authorized companies. The materials used for protection as pre-treatment are the same of the treatment. They are Bromide methyl, copper or fluoride salts, organo-phosphorus compounds, pyrethroides, creosote or creosodial. Any preservative should be evaluated by the Ministry of Agriculture before recommendation. Of the preserved woods are Lumbers, sleepers and poles, woods used in constructions and furniture as well. The woods used in furniture, constructions or woodworks are mostly imported from Sweden, Russia, Finland or Korea. Several kinds of woods are imported as Picea sp., Pinus sp., Phagus sp. Local woods used are limited in kinds and amount, as Casuarina sp., Eucalyptus sp., Ficus sp., Acacia sp. Treated woods are potentially increasing in use. There are neither restriction for the use of treated woods, not any regulation concerning the desposal of these woods.
S I M Moein


Preliminary results of investigations on screening test of chemical compounds suitable for the preservation of lignocellulosic materials against biodeterioration
1976 - IRG/WP 262
This paper investigates the possibilities of reducing the time needed for the determination of the effectiveness of chemical compounds from the point of view of their eventual application to lignocellulosic materials for preservation against decay and soft-rot.
K Lutomski, S S Neyman


The use of bifluorides-diffusion in remedial treatments
1983 - IRG/WP 3256
A description is given about the experience to date of a 14 years' development to bring bifluorides-diffusion from laboratory evaluation to commercial service application. The described treatment is an adjunct to good design and not a replacement for it. The process is also used with an injection method for the remedial treatment of premature decayed external joinery.
H F M Nijman


Interaction mechanisms of F/Cr/As/B type preservative and wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3183
The paper reports results of investigations on the fixation of the components of a F/Cr/As/B preservative in wood and its lignin and cellulosic components.
N Ermush, I Andersone


Performance if internal remedial treatments to arrest fungal attack in poles and large timbers
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40834
Internal remedial treatments have been used to arrest internal fungal attack in utility poles and other large timbers. Water diffusible systems and volatile fumigants have both been used for this purpose. While both work, it is important to understand the performance attributes of each system. This paper reviews the literature on both systems and makes recommendations for future research.
J J Morrell


Diffusion of bifluorides and borates from preservative rods in laminated beams
1991 - IRG/WP 3644
Laminated beams from spruce, pine and larch were treated with two preservative rods, based on bifluorides and octaborate respectively. After 3 and 6 months placed in different climates (65% r.h., 100% r.h., water) the diffusion of the active ingredient was measured. After the 6 months period, the diffusion of the bifluorides was, in all species, ca. 5 times larger than the diffusion from octaborate rods. The bifluorides were not hindered by the glue-lines. The diffusion of the borate was poor, mainly perpendicular to the grain and was hindered by the glue-line.
H Militz


Remedial treatment of joinery. Comparison of distribution of organic solvent preservative and ammonium bifluoride
1978 - IRG/WP 3115
It is some years since it was recognised in the United Kingdom that there was a problem of premature decay in untreated external joinery. Consequently, recommendations for preservative treatment were made by the Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory. In addition, the National House-Building Council has also included the preservative treatment of external joinery in its requirements. Thus, a large proportion of external joinery manufactured in the U.K. is now preservative treated, mainly in double vacuum impregnation plants. There still remain, however, relatively new buildings where preservative treatment has not been specified and where fungal decay is a problem. Decay occurs most frequently in the lower horizontal members such as cills, and the lower rails of opening lights. The damage is often most severe at the joints, where entry of water is facilitated by exposure of end grain. In some circumstances such as in Local Authority buildings where some of the more exposed joinery has already decayed, it has been considered economic to treat the remaining sound or near-sound joinery in situ in order to prevent future attack and to arrest any slight decay that may already be present. This treatment is normally applied by injecting organic solvent preservative under pressure in the region of the joints and where considered necessary along the lower horizontal member. As an alternative method of treatment, we have investigated the possible use of ammonium bifluoride, since diffusion of gaseous hydrogen fluoride may be expected to penetrate more extensively into wet timber than organic solvent preservative. The work described below was carried out in order to assess the comparative penetration of fluoride and organic solvent preservative in redwood (Pinus sylvestris).
J M Taylor


Fluoride woodpill
1987 - IRG/WP 3431
Decay problems of spruce joinery in the Netherlands in the 1960's and 1970's led to the introduction of preservative treatment. Because of the known penetration difficulties with Spruce, the results of the treatments were not always successful. The fact that the decay was found only in the joints led to development of the philosophy of "local preservation" of the joints in remedial and preventative treatments, like preservative injections or use of rods and capsules containing preservatives. However the diffusion of the preservatives used in most of these systems is often poor in spruce. Because Spruce joinery dip-treated with bifluorides showed good penetration and protection, a pill consisting of a hydrophylic polymer and bifluorides was developed by TNO. Various laboratory tests carried out with this pill have confirmed good penetration of the bifluorides in the wood and activity against decay fungi.
J W P T Van der Drift, K J M Bonsen


Determination of total fluoride in preservative-treated wood by ion selective electrode, without steam distillation
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20086
An analytical method was developed to determine total fluoride in wood treated with aqueous fluoride or borate-fluoride formulations. Ground wood was mixed with 60% sodium hydroxide solution and oven-dried overnight before furnacing at 600°C. The cool fused product was dissolved in warm water before adding a powerful complexant/buffer solution containing sulphosalicylic acid and EDTA. Fluoride was measured by ion-selective electrode (ISE) against appropriately matrix-matched calibration standards containing 1, 10, or 100 ppm F. The method compared favourably with two alternatives; one employed the time-consuming distillation step included in the AWPA A2 1994 method, with a titration finish, and the second employed a double fusion and ISE finish, using TISAB buffer. The chosen buffer system exhibited better capacity than TISAB to complex excesses of model interferant Al. B and Si were also accommodated. Recovery from spiked Eucalyptus maculata (at 0.05-0.5% m/m F) was 94-96%. Precision when analysing Alstonia scholaris containing 0.35% m/m F was about 2%. The method enables better throughput than the AWPA A2 94 method
M J Kennedy


The use of a physical field model to study the effects of remedially treated timber on the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and rye (Secale cereale), and the accumulation of toxic preservative constituents in Lolium perenne
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-02
Low cost laboratory model systems can be used to give relatively rapid indications of the environmental effects of preservative treated timber in soil contact. This paper details the effects of remedially treated timber on the growth of crops of Lolium perenne and Secale cereale seeded on soilbeds of different texture in close proximity to remedially treated creosoted pole sections. Lolium perenne sward samples were subjected to chemical analysis for fluoride and chromium content to identify bio-accumulation of these toxic preservative components. Significant but variable reductions in the dry weight yields of Lolium perenne samples were found in conjunction with increased fluoride and chromium contents, together with significant reductions in the density of Lolium perenne swards. The difference in soil texture however was found to be a more significant influence on the growth of Secale cereale than the presence of treated timber. Secale cereale plants within a crop canopy established on the lighter textured soil were characteristically larger and more numerous than plants from canopies on heavier soils. Results are discussed as part of an overall environmental assessment of the remedial treatment and in terms of the suitability of the physical field model as a testbed for such plant studies.
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines


Leaching and fixation characteristics of chrome-copper-fluoride-zinc (CCFZ) treated wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30096
The leaching characteristics of radiata pine sapwood blocks treated with CCFZ were evaluated by the AWPA standard leaching test. The rate of fixation of the preservative components in CCFZ treated radiata pine were also evaluated by quantitative analysis of solution expressed from the treated wood. Both leaching and fixation characteristics of CCFZ were compared with CCA-Type C treated wood samples. The permanence of CCFZ is excellent and comparable to that of CCA-Type C, and the rates of CCFZ fixation were similar to those found for CCA-Type C. These results suggest that CCFZ has a potential as alternative preservative for the replacement of CCA-Type C.
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Jong-Bum Ra


Assessment of dehydrogenase activity, fluoride content and total chromium content of soil profiles exposed to preservative treated wood within a model system
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10015
The development and prospective use of a closed model system to facilitate study of a number of indicators of environmental impact of wood preservatives laboratory conditions has been described (IRG/WP/2395-92). Chemical analysis of leachate samples collected from drained soil profiles containing creosoted pole sections remedially treated with a chromated fluoride preservative indicated small increases in fluoride and chromium concentrations. This paper details measurement of dehydrogenase activity and chemical analysis of soil samples recovered from the surface layers of the model soil profiles adjacent to treated pole sections. Reduced levels of dehydrogenase activity were associated with increased soil concentrations of leached preservative components and lower organic matter content. Findings are discussed as part of an assessment of environmental impact of the remedial treatment in the field
G M Smith, D C R Sinclair, A Bruce, H J Staines


Initial results and observations of a model system to assess the efficacy and environmetal impact of preservative treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-02
The development of a closed model system for the laboratory assessment of the efficacy and environmental impact of a chromated fluoride remedial treatment for creosoted distribution poles has been described (IRG/WP/2395-92). The model consists of a precipitation apparatus above a treated pole section positioned in a soil profile from which leachate was collected via a series of simulated field drains. Chemical analyses of leachate and soil provided data indicating movement of toxic preservative constituents from the treated pole section to the model environment. These data were complemented by physical and chemical analysis of a sward of perennial ryegrass supported by the soil profile. This paper reports initial results and observations in terms of the models' suitability for assessment purposes. The advantages of the model system over traditional field studies are discussed.
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines


A laboratory evaluation of the fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride (VikaneR), against the Formosan termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1982 - IRG/WP 1164
A series of laboratory experiments showed that the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (VikaneR) was effective against small groups of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki exposed to the gas directly at temperatures from 20-40°C. At 10°C fumigations failed regardless of initial gas concentration. Very high or total mortality was observed at concentrations of 0.79 cc/L or higher. A second series of experiments was designed to evaluate Vikane's ability to penetrate the carton nest matrix. At 30°C penetration was sufficient to produce high mortality with gas concentrations > 1.06 cc/L. The results suggest that current dosage recommendations for the control of Coptotermes formosanus infestations in structures (4 lbs/1000 cubic feet) are too high and should be reevaluated.
J P La Fage, M Jones, T Lawrence


Performance of boron and fluoride based rods as remedial treatments in Douglas-fir poles
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30070
Boron and fluoride are widely used for remedial internal treatments, but their use in North America has been limited. Recently, however, interest in these chemicals has increased as the result of concerns about the risks of fumigant usage. The performance of boron or a boron/fluoride combination was assessed in Douglas-fir poles over 1 to 3 year periods. Both chemical formulations diffused well through the wetter, groundline zone of the poles, although the initial release rate of the boron in the fused borate rods was somewhat slower than that found with the combination. Chemical levels in the groundline zone remain above those required for control of active fungal attack. Chemical levels above the groundline varied widely reflecting the moisture variations present and highlighting the need for adequate moisture to produce uniform diffusion.
J J Morrell, P F Schneider


The effect of different concentrations of polesaver rods on the survival of selected decay fungi in liquid culture
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30166
An in-vitro method was developed to determine the effect of solutions of Polesaver Rods on the survival of selected decay fungi. Polesaver Rods are a diffusing preservative treatment containing fluorine and boron designed for the internal remedial treatment of power poles. Two white-rot fungi, Perenniporia tephropora and Trametes versicolor, and two brown-rot fungi, Polyporus verecundus and Gloeophyllum abietinum, were grown in flasks of liquid growth media containing one of eight different concentrations of Polesaver Rods. Subcultures were made from the mycelium in the flasks after 1 day, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks exposure. Sampled mycelium was inoculated onto a malt agar medium and emergent fungi were identified to determine survival of the original inoculum. Media aliquots were taken at each sample time for confirmatory analysis of boron and fluorine concentrations as well as the determination of residual glucose. All four test fungi exhibited increasing susceptibility to the Polesaver Rod solutions with time. Exposure for one week to the highest concentration (1.6% Polesaver Rod) was sufficient to kill all test fungi. Three of the fungi survived 2 weeks exposure to a 0.4% Polesaver Rod solution. After 8 weeks exposure to this concentration only one of the test fungi that was selected in this experiment for its known tolerance to boron, Polyporus verecundus, was able to survive.
M A Powell, T Deldot, C McEvoy


Determination of total fluoride and boron in preservative-treated wood fluoride by ion selective electrode without steam distillation, and boron colorimetrically using azornethine-h
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20135
An analytical method was developed to determine total fluoride and boron in wood treated with aqueous or solid diffusing fluoride or borate-fluoride formulations. Ground wood was mixed with 30% sodium hydroxide solution and oven-dried for 2 hours before furnacing at 600° C for 1 hour. The cool fused product was dissolved in hot water, transferred to a plastic beaker and neutralised. Fluoride was measured by ion-selective electrode (ISE), after adding Ionic Strength Adjustment Buffers (ISAB), against appropriately pH and matrix-matched calibration standards containing 1, 3, 5, 10 and 50 ppm F. Boron was determined colorimetrically on the same neutralised solution using azomethine-H chemistry. Citric acid, sulphuric acid and nitric acid were evaluated as neutralising agents. While the choice of neutralising acid had no significant influence on the determination of boron by azomethine-H, speed and stability of the ISE for fluoride was best with nitric acid at 3.75M. The ISABs Sulphosalicylic acid and EDTA (SSA-EDTA); tri-sodium citrate and potassium nitrate; tiron and sodium nitrate; and TISAB were all evaluated for fluoride determination. Only SSA-EDTA was found to complex aluminium adequately, also accommodating borate, silicate and iron. Although SSA-EDTA has been traditionally used at pH 9.5 for the determination of fluoride in large amounts of aluminium, we found that use at this pH led to significant problems from hydroxide ion interference, slow electrode response, and pH changes due to loss of ammonia, all resulting in poor detection limits and reproducibility. To improve method performance, the pH of standards and samples was adjusted to 8.7, and all samples were spiked with an additional 1 mg/L fluoride. Interference from aluminium increased marginally, but the SSA-EDTA buffer was still capable of masking aluminium at a ratio of 20:1 AI:F, when measuring solutions containing 5 mg(F)/L. The method compared favourably with two alternatives; one employed the time-consuming distillation step included in the AWPA A2-1994 method, with a titration finish, and the second employed a double fusion and ISE finish, using TISAB buffer. Mean recovery from spiked Tasmanian oak (Eucalyptus regnans) at 0.05% - 0.20% m/m B/F was 95-105%. Precision at 0.2% m/m B/F in wood was about 3% for F and 1% for B. Detection limits of 30 mg/Kg for F and 20 mg/Kg for B were adequate for monitoring movement of toxicants within remedially-treated hardwood poles.
P A Collins, M J Kennedy


Risk of pulmonary damage as a result of an evaporation of ca. 50 ppb = 42 mg HF, evaporated from wood treated by difluorides
1987 - IRG/WP 3401
In this review of the literature the effects of fluorides and fluorine on man are described, especially the low level effects of inhaled HF on human beings. The term "fluoride" is used as a general term everywhere, where exact differentiation between ionic and moluecular forms or between gaseous and particulate forms is uncertain or unnecessary. The term covers all combined forms of the element, regardless of chemical form, unless there is a specific reason to stress the gaseous elemental form F2, in which case the term "fluorine" is used.
H F M Nijman


Emissions from the combusting of boron and fluoride containing wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-18
The combustion properties of waste wood and wood residues containing wood preservatives were investigated in several test series after having been blended with untreated wood at a ratio of 1:4. The results for CFB, SF and boric salt show that, provided an optimized combustion, the concentrations of the stack pollutants correspond approximately with those found for untreated wood. Only during the combustion of chipboard bonded with aminoplast and the preservative KHF, higher emissions in nitrogen oxide were observed which, however, were due to the nitrogen-containing binder. The results of tests made with other preservative components described in a recent work are confirmed.
T Salthammer, H Klipp, R-D Peek


Development of a model system to assess the efficacy and environmental impact of a chromated fluoride remedial treatment for creosoted distribution poles
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2395
A closed model system was designed to facilitate a controlled study of the leachability and environmental fate of a remedial preservative under laboratory conditions. The elements of the model include a precipitation apparatus above a treated pole section which is positioned in a representative soil profile supporting a sward of perennial ryegrass. The model will allow detailed examination of the movement of any toxic preservative constituents, in soil and water, released by an accelerated regime of simulated rainfall. Chemical analysis of soil and leachate will be complimented by plant analysis to identify bioaccumulation of any soil contaminants leached from the treated pole section. This paper details the design and development of the system from earlier environmental models, the difficulties encountered in construction and the sampling regimes to be employed. The benefits of such a system for inclusion in preservative testing protocols is discussed.
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, B King


Diffusion of chromium and fluoride in Rentex treated creosoted pole sections
1991 - IRG/WP 3659
A chromated fluoride preservative was applied by injection to the groundline regions of creosoted distribution pole sections and these were erected at a filed site in Scotland. Wood samples were recovered for chemical analysis at one week, two, five and twelve months after treatment. Small sample mass and destructive nature of the analysis necessitated modification of an alkali fusion technique to allow a single analysis for both fluroide and chromium. This paper details the methodology employed and reports on the extent to which diffusion of chromium and fluoride has occurred. The implications on the efficacy of the preservative formulation for use in distribution poles is discussed.
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, B King, H J Staines


Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) during the combustion of impregnated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-19
Wood waste and industrial wood residues often contain various preservatives. The waste management for these residuals can be recycling, deposition or combustion. Among the three possibilities, combustion seems to be the most efficient way of disposal. To obtain detailed information about emissions of organic compounds with environmental impact, especially polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF), different impregnated wood materials were incinerated in two furnaces after mixing with non-treated wood in a ratio of 1:4. The combustion process of residues containing organic or inorganic preservatives is influenced by the elementary composition of the preservative and the thermal and oxidative reaction paths in the flame. It was found that the concentrations of PCDD and PCDF in the exhaust gas can be kept low under good combustion conditions. However, a non-regular incineration process strongly supports increased emissions of PCDD and PCDF.
T Salthammer, H Klipp, R-D Peek


Fluoride movement through Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber following dipping in potassium/ammonium bifluoride
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40040
The ability of ammonium and potassium fluoride to diffuse through Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber was evaluated over a 90 day period. Boards were dipped in a solution containing 10% (by weight) of ammonium and potassium bifluoride, then stored under cover for 90 days. Samples removed 30, 60 and 90 days after treatment indicated that the fluoride was unable to completely penetrate the wood. Penetration was markedly better in hem-fir, reflecting the greater permeability of this species. Increasing the dipping time had only a marginal effect on chemical uptake. Longer diffusion periods also had little effect on fluoride movement. Chemical assays of increment cores removed from the boards indicated that most of the chemical was detected in the outer 5 mm, although fluoride was present 5 to 15 mm from the surface. The results suggest that fluoride treatment can not completely diffuse through freshly sawn lumber at levels which would confer protection against many wood inhabiting organisms.
J J Morrell, C S Love


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