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Quality and safety scheme for wood in food contact
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-11
When there is no tolerance concerning the content in food of potential contaminants the scheme is limited to a ban of any contaminant with objectives of undetectable amounts at the limits of detection of the chemical analysis. When some tolerances exist, there is a need to check the compliance of a production to such requirements, putting in place the necessary prevention of any accidental situati...
G Deroubaix


Le pin: Matériau à contact alimentaire [Pine wood as a material for food contact]
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-01
Monoterpenes emitted to air from woods of pine (Pinus nigra, Pinus laricio, Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris) were determined on the one hand by static analysis and by other hand by sampling on the Tenax adsorbent, followed by analysis using thermal desorption, both being combined with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. The major monoterpenes were alpha-pinene and 3-c...
A Waymel, M Lamour, G Labat


Progress report on co-operative research project on L-joint testing
1983 - IRG/WP 2192
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson, M Fougerousse


Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destr...
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory


Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions....
M Fougerousse


Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Performance of Preservatives in the BAM Fungus Cellar Test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20149
The fungus cellar test is a common means to get reliable data on the long term performance of treated wood in soil contact. A constantly high humidity and a suitable of water holding capacity for a range of micro-organisms provide high decay rates in untreated wood and produce intensive microbial pressures on wood treated with biocides. Presently a range of biocides are under test in the BAM fungu...
I Stephan, M Grinda, D Rudolph


Field trials of groundline remedial treatments on soft rot attacked CCA treated Eucalyptus poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3222
A total of 17 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles, which were found to contain 2-5 mm of soft rot in October, 1980, were reinspected in October, 1982. In 1980, 11 of the poles were given a supplemental groundline bandage treatment of either Osmoplastic or Patox, while 6 of the poles were designated as untreated controls. Two years after remedial treatment, samples were removed from the poles for microsco...
W S McNamara, R J Ziobro, J F Triana


Wood furfurylation process and properties of furfurylated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40289
The first processes for “furfurylation” of wood (wood modification with furfuryl alcohol) were developed several decades ago. Furfuryl alcohol is a renewable chemical since it is derived from furfural, which is produced from hydrolysed biomass waste. Over the last decade modernised processes for furfurylation of wood have been developed. These new processes are based on new catalytic systems a...
M Westin, S Lande, M Schneider


Screening-method for the examination of the resistance against contact-insecticides of Lyctus brunneus Steph. beetles
1981 - IRG/WP 2148
A serie of filter-paper rondelles is treated with different concentrations of an organic insecticide dissolved in aceton. Beetles of Lyctus brunneus are put onto the dry surfaces. During the impact of the poison the knock-down is observed and after a following poisonfree holding, the knock-down and mortality are registred....
E Graf, B Lanz


Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
M Fougerousse


Durability of pine modified by 9 different methods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40288
The decay resistance was studied for pine modified by nine methods of wood modification: 1) Acetylation, 2) Treatment with methylated melamine resin (MMF), 3) Acetylation followed by post-treatment with MMF-resin, 4) Thermal modification, 5) Furfurylation, 6) Maleoylation (using water solution of MG or ethanol solution of maleic anhydride), 7) Succinylation, 8) NMA-modification and 9) modification...
M Westin, A O Rapp, T Nilsson


Short-term field test method with accelerated infection of Basidiomycetes in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 2155
In the ŠIPAD - IRC Wood Protection Laboratory an attempt has been made to develop a simple short-term method for field testing out-of-ground contact wood using accelerated infections with Basidiomycetes. This method makes it possible to obtain a preliminary assessment of a preservative's quality and to estimate the possibility of achieving promising results in more expensive long-term te...
N Vidovic


Microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion as a soil termiticide
1991 - IRG/WP 1478
The efficacy and the mode of action of a microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated. The physicochemical property that this formulation does not allow the active ingredient to diffuse through the capsule wall contributed to a long lasting efficacy and safety for the men spraying. The residual effect of the fenitrothion microcapsule in soil was...
H Teshima, T Itoh, Y Abe


Performance of surface-treated hardwoods and softwoods out of ground contact
1990 - IRG/WP 3592
A number of fungicides were tested as brush treatments for protection of southern pine, Douglas-fir, maple, and red oak against decay above ground. Cross-brace and L-joint test units were treated just before assembly and exposed from 3-10 years. Untreated Douglas-fir cross-brace units were not decayed at either the Mississippi or Madison, WI, site. Untreated red oak cross-brace units were not deca...
T L Highley


A new ground-contact wide-spectrum organic wood preservative: DNBP
1986 - IRG/WP 3358
A new organic wood preservative, which 25 years field tests have proved to be of efficiency and effectiveness comparable to CCA wood preservatives for ground-contact applications, is presented. Physical and chemical tests, supporting the long term field test results as well as indicating the characteristics of this preservative, are also presented....
W E Conradie, A Pizzi


Response of laboratory groups of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) to different quantities of food
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10489
As part of a project aimed at improving understanding of the foraging biology of Japan’s most widespread wood-destroying termite, different sized groups of Reticulitermes speratus (0.5; 1 and 2 g) from two colonies were kept on 16 or 64 cm3 of sapwood of Cryptomeria japonica for 12 weeks in the laboratory. Patterns of wood consumption, wood consumption rates and survival are discussed....
M Lenz, T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda


Forest products laboratory methodology for monitoring decay in wood exposed above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20074
Research at the Forest Products Laboratory on the durability of wood in service has included a full complement of laboratory and field tests. In this report, we present a review of past and current methods used to evaluate the condition of preservative-treated wood exposed above ground. Current protocols are described for tests on wood packaging, roofing, and dimension lumber....
R C De Groot, T L Highley


Short term preconditioning of preservative-treated wood in soil contact in relation to performance in field trials
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20185
The effect of pre-exposure to primary colonising micro-organisms on preservative-treated wood, prior to a basidiomycete decay test, was determined by preconditioning in two soil types. Scots pine EN 113 blocks treated with 3 model systems (a triazole, a copper quaternary compound and a copper boron triazole) were leached according to EN 84 and subjected to 6 weeks and 8 weeks burial in either John...
S Molnar, D J Dickinson


A note on testing the efficacy of wood preservatives above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20078
A number of test methods have been used to evaluate the performance of wood preservatives in above ground situations. These have included EN 113 tests following natural exposure weathering (NEWT), L-joint or T-joint tests, lap-joint tests, and decking tests. A new test referred to as the A-frame test has been developed and is under evaluation. This is based on a sandwich-type test in which a thin ...
G R Williams, J A Drysdale, R F Fox


Durability of different heat treated materials from industrial processes in ground contact
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40312
In this study the durability of heat treated wood originating from four different European industrial heat treatment processes in ground contact was examined. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood/Finland, New Option Wood/France and Menz Holz/Germany where Oil-Heat treated Wood (OHT) is produced. All heat treated materials showed significantly i...
C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp


Effect of sterilization method on germination of spores of wood decay fungi observed by contact agar block method
1978 - IRG/WP 2117
Previous studies of germination of spores of wood decay fungi on wood have generally concluded that method of wood sterilization has little significant effect on germination response. This study expands the numbers of test fungi as well as number of sterilization methods employed to determine the influence of sterilization method on spore germination response of decay fungi. Germination was assess...
E L Schmidt, D W French


Preventive action against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on the effects of natural and artificial infection of wood by Basidiomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 2160
M Fougerousse


The isolation of actinomycetes from wood in ground contact and the sea
1980 - IRG/WP 1110
M S Cavalcante, R A Eaton


Soft rot decay of 23 CCA-treated hardwoods from Sabah, Malaysia, in ground contact in Australia
1986 - IRG/WP 1280
The performance against soft rot decay of 23 CCA-treated hardwoods from Sabah, Malaysia, was examined after 20 months in ground contact at Pennant Hills, Australia. The results indicate that between these species soft rot decay is excluded by different levels of CCA salt suggesting that the threshold level for exclusion of soft rot in these hardwoods is a function of anatomical structure/ultrastru...
R S Johnstone


Testing wood in ground contact: An artificial soil
1977 - IRG/WP 280
This document is an interim report on the development of the artificial soil medium. It includes some information on the relationship between soil, wood and water which is of relevance in testing....
E F Baines, D J Dickinson, J F Levy


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