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Variance in feeding on equivalent wood blocks by the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki)
1987 - IRG/WP 1325
We tested whether laboratory groups of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki forage randomly when they are given 4 equivalent wood blocks, and whether group size affects variance of feeding on equivalent blocks. In all cases, foraging was not random, but, rather, the termites concentrated on a few preferred blocks. Group size did not affect this pattern of non-randomness. These data are useful for designing choice tests, and recommended sample sizes for a simulated experiment are given.
J P La Fage, K S Delaplane

Feeding preference behaviour of Crytopermes cynocephalus Light and Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on twenty-eight tropical timbers
1985 - IRG/WP 1251
A study on the feeding preference behaviour of a dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light and a subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on 28 species of tropical timbers has been conducted. The weight-loss of individual timber and the mortality of termite was·recorded after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days of exposure. The results reveal that there are only five species among 28 species of wood which are completely repellent to both the dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus and the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus. These five wood species are Dalbergia latifolia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Intsia bijuga, Lagerstromia speciosa and Tectona grandis. There are eight wood species which are repellent to Cryptotermes cynocephalus and seven wood species which are repellent to Coptotermes curvignathus. There are also only seven wood species which are completely arrestant or highly arrestant to both species of termite. Agathis alba and Mangifera indica are classified as highly arrestant to both the dry-wood and the subterranean termites. Other species are classified between moderately repellent to highly arrestant.
Nana Supriana

Response of laboratory groups of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) to different quantities of food
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10489
As part of a project aimed at improving understanding of the foraging biology of Japan’s most widespread wood-destroying termite, different sized groups of Reticulitermes speratus (0.5; 1 and 2 g) from two colonies were kept on 16 or 64 cm3 of sapwood of Cryptomeria japonica for 12 weeks in the laboratory. Patterns of wood consumption, wood consumption rates and survival are discussed.
M Lenz, T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda

Notes on the resistance of tropical woods against termites
1985 - IRG/WP 1249
This paper deals with a descriptive account on the effect of experimental methods, matrix, species of termites, solid wood and wood extract on the resistance and repellency of woods against three species of termites, i.e. Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light; Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren and Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi). Two methods of experiment were used, the Forced Feeding Test and the Feeding Preference Test. The Feeding Preference Test method was found more appropriate for assessing the arrestancy and repellency of woods against termites. This method is probably appropriate for predicting the normal feeding behaviour of termites in the field.
Nana Supriana

Protection of beech veneer for fruit and vegetable boxes
1981 - IRG/WP 3176
In Yugoslavia about 50,000 m³ of low quality beech logs annually are rotary cut into veneer from which boxes are made for transporting fruit and vegetables. Because of steaming before rotary cutting, beech veneer becomes extremely sensitive to mould attack which decreases the quality and commercial value of the final product. To avoid mould attack, veneer sheets are dried to 16% moisture content immediately after cutting. However, during transportation or cold storage of fruit, veneers or ready-made boxes can become rewetted and the mould problem can appear again. Some research work to determine suitable and non-tainting chemicals to prevent mould attack on veneers and boxes is described in this paper.
N Vidovic

Preference of the Formosan subterranean termite for wood previously damaged by conspecifics
1988 - IRG/WP 1338
In a laboratory choice test, groups of termites from five colonies of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were presented with wood blocks which had sustained previous termite damage: 1) by nestmates, 2) by conspecifics from another colony, 3) by another termite species, Reticulitermes virginicus Banks, and 4) no damage. Coptotermes formosanus preferred wood previously damaged by conspecifics over that damaged by Reticulitermes virginicus. Woodfeeding rate was slightly, though not significantly, higher for conspecific treatments than for controls.
J P La Fage, K S Delaplane

Studies on the infesting behaviour of the Formosan termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and its physical control
1983 - IRG/WP 1174
An outline of termite damage to buildings in Japanese National Railways, wood-infesting behavior, attacked traces in PVC-sheathed cables by termites, detection method of termites and the physical control method of the Formosan termite are given in the present paper.
K Yamano

Size of food resource determines brood placement in Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10351
Most species of subterranean termite house and care for larvae in specialised chambers or complex nurseries. In addition to these chambers, the genus Reticulitermes also keeps larvae at sites where foragers are feeding, a trait more commonly found in damp wood and dry wood termites. This phenomenon of holding larvae at foraging sites is quite well known among researchers who work with Reticulitermes, yet it has not been investigated to any extent. Consequently, the underlying causes of larvae placement at foraging sites are only poorly understood. During assessments of the resistance of materials to Reticulitermes flavipes attack at the Harrison Experimental Forest, near Saucier, Mississippi, USA, significant numbers of 1 st and 2 nd stage larvae were often found in Pinus spp bait wood stakes. This paper describes the results from the first of a series of ongoing experiments to test whether food resources affected termite presence and larval placement. The experiment used a variable number of pine stakes in eight plots (four in stands of pine, four in grassy forest clearings) where termites were offered a choice of food resources of different size (bundles of 1 to 4 pine stakes of equal size). The number of larvae recorded from feeding sites was a close reflection of the number of workers attracted to a given food source. The more substantial and suitable a food source is, the more foragers will visit it, and in turn the more likely that they will transport larvae and eggs to these feeding sites.
M Lenz, B M Kard, J K Mauldin, T A Evans, J L Etheridge, H M Abbey

Leaching from CCA-impregnated wood to food, drinking-water and silage
1987 - IRG/WP 3433
During the last years The Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology (NIWT) has analysed different foodstuff for contamination by copper, chrome and arsenic from CCA-impregnated wood. There has been some interest for using CCA-impregnated wood in contact with food and drinking-water. Before giving their permission the Norwegian Health Authorities want results from experiments. NIWT therefore started three experiments with 1) analysing stock-fish dried on CCA-treated rack, 2) analysing rainwater collected from wooden roofing of CCA- impregnated boards and 3) leaching from CCA-impregnated grass silos: 1) The results shows very little contamination of the stock-fish. Eating the stock-fish will cause no health hazard. 2) After two years of exposure we still find arsenic and copper in the collected rainwater. The water should not be used as drinking-water. 3) In the grass silo we find an extreme leaching of copper, chrome and arsenic. After exposure for two seasons we find that 20-50% of the copper compound, 50-60% of the chrome compound and 80% of the arsenic compound has leached from the boards. Calculation shows, however, that there is no poisoning hazard for the cattle eating the silage, but the silo's durability may be reduced.
F G Evans

Borate-treated food affects survival, vitamin B12 content, and digestive processes of subterranean termites
1990 - IRG/WP 1448
Toxicity of boron compounds was studied by analyzing survival rates and vitamin B12 contents in Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, that were exposed to dietary treatments for 10 days. The dietary treatments applied in moistened cellulose were (a) 0.05% boric acid equivalent (BAE) of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, (b) 0.05% BAE of anmonium pentaborate plus sodium sulfate, (c) antibacterial control 0.09% streptomycin D, (d) untreated control-moistened cellulose, and (e) starvation control-no food. The main effects - colony and treatment -, and their interaction were shown to be significant by analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. Survival of termites on diets (c) and (d) was not significantly different (P <0.05). Survival of termites on diet (d) was significantly higher than survival of termites exposed to diets (a), (b), and (e). Vitamin B12 content of termites exposed to diets (a), (b), (c), and (e) was significantly less than that of termites exposed to diet (d). Ingestion of borate-treated (and molybdate-treated) food by Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) suppressed the rates of methane production and H2-dependent reduction of CO2 to acetate by hindgut microbiota, apparently by indirect means. The mechanisms of how borate-treated food affects digestive processes or vitamin B12 contents of termites remains undefined. Results are discussed in relation to termite gut microecology and borate use for wood protection.
L H Williams, S I Sallay, J A Breznak

Health and safety regulations on the use of wood preservatives in Switzerland
1980 - IRG/WP 3148
There is not any doubt that the chemical protection of wood (besides the architectional-constructional wood protection) is of utmost importance for the increase of the durability of technically used timber. The toxic properties of wood preservatives make certain legal regulations necessary for the protection of human beings, animals and the environment. Thereby wood preservatives fall under the poison law, the food law and the waters protection law. An appropriate and reasonable application of these three laws can protect human beings and animals from injurious effects of wood preservatives. The absence of any legal obligation for compulsary examination of efficiency of wood preservatives against wood pests is a fault. It makes it impossible to eliminate products of low efficiency which nevertheless encumber the environment.
O Wälchli

Preference of swarming termites for various colored lights
1984 - IRG/WP 1238
The ability of the alates of the drywood termite Bifiditermes beesoni (Gardner) to discriminate ten different colored lights was studied. When an alternative choice of any of two colors was offered, the light-blue was preferred to all other tested colors by 97.7% of the alates. A lower degree of attractivity was found for some other colors and certain other colors were indistinguishable. Furthermore, the effects of light intensity and preconditioning to certain colors have been studied and finally the response of swarming alates from natural colonies is compared to that of the individuals from laboratory colonies.
M Afzal

Quality and safety scheme for wood in food contact
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-11
When there is no tolerance concerning the content in food of potential contaminants the scheme is limited to a ban of any contaminant with objectives of undetectable amounts at the limits of detection of the chemical analysis. When some tolerances exist, there is a need to check the compliance of a production to such requirements, putting in place the necessary prevention of any accidental situation, within the frame of a clean production flow-sheet. In both cases the introduction of quality assurance, namely at the stage of records and treatability, combined with adapted statistical control on the input and output of a production process and generalisation of cleaner production principles gives a high level of confidence to the wood products. A practical experience is described in this document.
G Deroubaix

Effects of wood-inhabiting marine fungi on food selection, feeding intensity and reproduction of Limnoria tripunctata Menzies (Crustacea, Isop.)
1981 - IRG/WP 480
The paper gives a condensed survey on laboratory tests with Limnoria tripunctata Menzies and pure cultures of 9 different marine wood-inhabiting fungi. Limnoria is able to distinguish between fungus-infested and non-infested wood. Wood with dead mycelium mostly proved to be less attractive or even repellent and was initially consumed less than with living fungi. On non-infested wood, initial feeding is retarded by 2 to 4 days. On fungus-infested wood less eggs degenerated and the number of reproductives was higher than on non-infested wood. Humicola alopallonella-infested wood yielded the highest number of reproductives. But the attractiveness of a fungus, the feeding stimulus produced by it and its nutritional value often did not correspond. It was not possible to make generally valid conclusions for one fungus species.
H Geyer

Plant uptake of CCA components from contaminated soil
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50043
The above ground portions of lettuce and rye grass grown in CCA contaminated soil collected at the base of CCA-C treated poles in service did not absorb appreciable amounts of copper, chromium and arsenic, even at soil concentrations above the recommended levels for soil remediation for agricultural uses. At high soil arsenic levels whole radish plants absorbed more As, but not the other elements. The uptake of all elements by the root portion of rye grass increased with increased soil contaminant levels. The Cr, Cu and As content of lettuce roots was more than double that of the leaves and for copper appeared to increase with increasing soil concentration. Natural growing horsetails (Equisetum) accumulated all three elements in proportion to the soil concentration; cattails did not accumulate the elements appreciably and grass growing close to CCA treated poles had relatively higher concentrations of Cr and As compared to other plants.
P A Cooper, E Jasonek, J-P Aucoin

Le pin: Matériau à contact alimentaire [Pine wood as a material for food contact]
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-01
Monoterpenes emitted to air from woods of pine (Pinus nigra, Pinus laricio, Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris) were determined on the one hand by static analysis and by other hand by sampling on the Tenax adsorbent, followed by analysis using thermal desorption, both being combined with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. The major monoterpenes were alpha-pinene and 3-carene from Pinus sylvestris and alpha-pinine and beta-pinene from Pinus pinaster. Camphene, myrcene and limonene were also detected at lower concentration. Alpha-pinene is the major component of Pinus nigra and Pinus laricio. A toxicological evaluation in bibliography was carried out. It suggests in terms of toxicology that pine is a suitable wood species for food contact. At this stage, the study concludes that this conclusion must be confirmed by a panel of experts on organoleptic/olfactive effects of above sustances.
A Waymel, M Lamour, G Labat

Development of microbiological test methods for the wooden packaging of foodstuffs
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20453
Whereas different sampling methods already exist for analysing contaminated surfaces or packaging made of plastic or paper, there is no methodology that enables the sampling and quantification of microorganisms in packaging made of wood. The objective of this study was to compare the most commonly used microbiological methods and to develop a reliable quality control test adapted to wooden packaging of foodstuffs. In the first step, poplar specimens were artificially contaminated with Bacillus stearothermophilus, Micrococcus luteus and Penicillium expansum. Then, we applied current sampling methods such as agar-contact plates, stomacher and ultrasonic sound and compared their efficiency. The results showed that only very low rates of viable microorganisms removal were possible with these methods. Afterwards, we developed new methods that led to a high exchange between the contaminated wooden matrix and the diluent used to remove the microorganisms. The developed grinding-based method allowed to remove about 37% of the inoculated viable cells. An innovative method which consisted in coupling ultrasonic sound and vacuum pressure led to the removal of 72% of the viable cells. These new methods might promote the use of wood packaging for foodstuffs by providing an efficient quality control test as required by the existing regulations. They are now being validated.
I Le Bayon, H Callot, M Kutnik, C Denis, A-M Revol-Junelles, J-B Millière, M Giraud, M Gabillé, N Passédat

Preference of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) for Southern Pine Blue-Stained Sapwood from Beetle-Killed Trees
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10763
Bark beetles and their associated Ophiostomatiod fungi are the major pests of pine forests in the southeastern USA, and termites are the major insect decomposers of dead trees and wood products in the southeastern USA. While both are the principal destructive insects of southern pine trees and southern pine lumber, respectively, no relationship between the two has apparently been reported in the literature. While recently inspecting bark beetle-killed southern pine trees, we noticed that subterranean termites were often present in the lower trunk of pines with incipient bark beetle infestations and always present in trees that had been dead for several months. This unusually rapid termite infestation suggested a possible attraction of termites to beetle-killed wood. AWPA E1 choice termite tests with three colonies of the subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) always showed a significant feeding preference for both air-dried and kiln-dried blue-stained southern pine sapwood compared to unstained southern pine sapwood. These initial results indicate that subterranean termites play a significant role in the ecosystem of southern pine forests and carbon recycling, and termite attack on southern pine lumber cut from beetle-killed trees may be associated with the death of the host tree. As the implications of these results may be of major importance to forest health, ecology, and utilization of wood products from the southern pines, we are conducting additional laboratory and field studies.
N S Little, J J Riggins, A J Londo, T P Schultz, D D Nicholas

Laboratory and Field evaluation on Natural Resistance and Feeding Preference of Different Wood Species to Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae) in Pakistan
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10769
The resistance of twenty four different woods to attack and damage by subterranean termite species Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) and Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann) was evaluated by choice and no choic in laboratory and field trials. Mean wood mass loss was calculated for both laboratory and field trials results using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Mean percentage termite mortality was calculated for laboratory trials only. Results revealed that mean percentage mortality and feeding varied with different wood species. The loss in weight served as a measure of termite attack. Each wooden block was also graded by the amount of termite damage using American Wood Preservation Association (AWPA) scale 1997. Two weeks of no choice laboratory trials against H. indicola and C. heimi for all types of wooden blocks oven dried at 100°C) were used in setting the feeding preference for each species to arrange the 24 woods in descending order. Impact of temperature exhibited as directly proportional to the increased wood consumption. Choice feeding tests in laboratory and field for both test termite species exposed that both species Populus deltoides was most preferred and Dalbergia sissoo was the least preferred wood. Smilarly, same wood preference was observed for no choice field test against H. indicola. The no choice field test against C. heimi result indicated D. sissoo was least palatable and Mangifera indica was most palatable wood.
S A Malik; F Manzoor, B M Ahmed (Shiday)

Mechanical, Physical and Biological Properties of Sandwich Biocomposites Panels manufactured from Food Packaging Waste
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40791
Recently, recycling of Tetra Pak® packaging material has attracted many attention, particularly in composite industries. In this work, novel biocomposites sandwich structures were manufactured using TetraPak waste materials as core component and various kind of natural and artificial woven fabrics as skin elements. Mechanical, physical and biological performances of the developed composite panels were evaluated. The results showed that using a layer of woven fabric made of either Jute (J) or Glass (G), has a significant effect on MOR of TetraPak panels. MOR value of the stand-alone TetraPak panels (TP) [No-Skin] was 9.75 MPa while MOR values of J-TP-J and G-TP-G are 20.31 MPa and 22.67 MPa, respectively. Distinct observations have been remarked concerning the physical performance of the developed biocomposites. In general, significant improvements in water absorption and dimension stability were recorded with all TetraPak based specimens compared with the control particleboard specimens. After 12 weeks of fungal exposure, mass losses in TetraPak based composite specimens were considerably lower. However, TetraPak panels overlaid with fiberglass fabrics showed the highest decay resistance against test white and brown rot fungi. The results of termite screening tests showed that all reinforced TetraPak samples were gained significant enhancements against termite attack compared with the solid wood reference specimens. Therefore, the resulting composites seem to possess a great potential to replace wood based products in broad range of applications.
A S O Mohareb, A H Hassanin, K Candelier, M F Thévenon, A Kilic, Z Candan

Wood protection techniques and natural weathering: their effect on aesthetics and preference of people
2019 - IRG/WP 19-50351
Current research successfully contributes to improving wood protection techniques. However, the vast majority of research on preventing degradation of wood ignores a critical aspect of making successful products and processes – user selection of materials, which may largely depend on the aesthetical qualities. Wood treatments change the tactile and visual properties of wood substantially and they are further altered by weathering. No matter how useful the wood treatment is, people will be reluctant to select materials they do not find appealing. For this reason, many valuable wood protection techniques may find it hard to reach their full potential on the market. To confront this challenge, we must carefully analyse how the visual and tactile qualities of treated (and weathered) wood influence human preference and material selection. To investigate this, we prepared 30 wood samples from several species that are either untreated or treated. As a first step, we assessed several sensory (i.e., colour CIE L*a*b*, gloss) and evaluative (e.g., naturalness) attributes of the materials. After this, we conducted a study in two phases. In the first phase, we presented all 30 samples simultaneously to 25 participants and asked them to choose their favourite five materials to be used as an outdoor table top surface based on their combined tactile and visual inspection (and rank these five favourite materials from most to least favourite). From the initial group of 30 materials, we selected the 10 wood samples that received the highest rankings. These 10 samples were then ranked from the most to least favourite by a new group of 50 participants. Following this, we carried out both phases once again with yet another two groups of participants (another 75 persons), except here, we used the naturally weathered versions of the initial 30 wood samples. The results demonstrate how preference and selection of wood vary with treatment types, species, weathering, and sensory and evaluative properties. As such, they can guide future research in creating and adapting materials and treatment techniques in line with human preference. With this, effective materials and treatments can become more widespread and thus ensure long-term protection of wood as well as economic and environmental sustainability.
D Lipovac, M D Burnard, A Sandak, J Sandak