Your search resulted in 63 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Conservation of Nypa fruticans and Indigenous Timber Species of Sundarban Mangrove Forest of Bangladesh by Using Preservative Treatment.
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40297
This report describes the possibilities and benefits of preservative treatment of some Bangladeshi wood species. It is concluded that: Heartwood of Sundri is not easily treatable. The treating schedule of 14.1 kg/cm² pressure and eight hours treatment period may be used for treating sundry logs. During the treatment of Sundri wood must not mix with other species. Other timber species such as Gewa, Keora, Baen, Goran etc are easily treatable by full cell pressure method using schedule of four to six hours treatment period and 14.1 kg/cm² pressure. All the timber species must be sufficiently dry up before preservative treatment. Moisture content should be less than 20% in 1.5 inch (37-38 mm) depth from wood surface. Treatment schedule may vary depending up on size of wood and purpose of use. Pressure treatment of Golpata is very easy, it may treat by dipping technique using schedule of over eight hours with more than 5% CCB preservatives.
G N M Ilias
Wood preservation in Nigeria - Its increasing relevance, observed constraints and potential as a forest conservation option
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3732
The paper discusses the demand and supply of wood and wood products in Nigeria and points out that in view of the large population (88 million) and search for wood for housing and furniture, the demand exceeds supply. There is great shortage of industrial and domestic woods resulting in underutilization of installed machineries in forest industries and low profit margin. Under this prevailing condition, wood preservation has a definite positive role to play in reducing pressure on productive high forests and timber plantations for logs by prolonging the service life of woods in storage and in service. However, factors such as high depreciation of the local currency, Naira against the U.S. Dollar and British Pound Sterling, high cost of imported wood preservatives, low income per capita especially in the rural areas where over 70% of the population live, have tended to slow the pace of advancement of wood preservation practice in the country. With rising costs of sawn timbers and other wood products coupled with the urgent need to enhance their performance and prolong their service life, the paper concludes that wood preservation has a bright future in Nigeria. Moreover, development of less-toxic and environmentally safe wood preservatives, application of fire retardant preservatives, remedial treatment of utility poles and timbers as well as dimensional stabilization of woods will help greatly to raise the status of wood preservation in Nigeria.
M A Odeyinde, S C Ifebueme
A new approach on conservation of wooden heritage
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40291
Biodeterioration of wooden art objects has to be treated in a more delicate manner than biodeterioration of wood. Any treatment applied to the art object should not alter the visual, structural or scientific integrity of the object. These requirements therefore restrict the use of biocides and some alternative treatment procedures like high and low temperatures and radiation. Fortunately, an alternate procedure is available, anoxic treatment using argon gas, that has so far proven to be effective at killing all insects stages of life and some fungi important in wood degradation. The argon anoxic procedure is described in this paper.
R J Koestler, C Tavzes, F Pohleven
Report an some aspects of forest and the timber preservation in Fiji 1999
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40189
This report is divided in two sections. One is the general description of some aspects of the Forest indicating timber availability in Fiji. The other Section is an "Status of Timber Preservation in Fiji in 1999".
S D Kumar
Conservation of wooden cultural property
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30038
A survey of the conservation of wooden archtitectual monuments, art objects and archaeological finds is presented. Each of the three areas has typical conservation problems which reqire the use of selected wood preservatives and consolidation agents. Furthermore specific protection and consolidation methods are necessary. A precise damage diagnosis with non-destructive testing methods is the first step in a careful conservation work.
A Unger, W Unger
Forest products laboratory methodology for monitoring decay in wood exposed above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20074
Research at the Forest Products Laboratory on the durability of wood in service has included a full complement of laboratory and field tests. In this report, we present a review of past and current methods used to evaluate the condition of preservative-treated wood exposed above ground. Current protocols are described for tests on wood packaging, roofing, and dimension lumber.
R C De Groot, T L Highley
Methods of treatment of wood preservatives. The selection of appropriate preservation process with particular reference to mixed tropical forest resources. A key address
1982 - IRG/WP 3177
All wood is biodegradable. Many timber species have, however, sufficient natural durability to permit their use, particularly in protected situations, without any special precautions. Many others, of course, are readily attacked by insects and where there is sufficient moisture and air, by wood-decaying fungi. It is these timber species which benefit most from treatment with wood preservatives. Even the so called durables may also benefit so since all sapwood is perishable and durable heartwood in the sea or in ground contact eventually fails from attack by animals and/or micro-organisms. In recent years it has become apparent that for high hazard end uses it is necessary to consider the timber species/preservative type/treatment method as a single unit. It is of course possible, after accumulation of experience and test data, to group certain timber species into classes which can be processed together but until this has been established it is necessary to consider each and every timber species as a distinct biological entity which will respond differently to other timber species to preservative treatment. It has also been found that the most widespread treatment process, vacuum/pressure treatment, is inappropriate for many of the timber species available from the world's forests, particularly hardwoods. In ground contact, the commercially available preservatives do not provide the needed protection against fungal decay and in low hazard uses other preservatives and processes may be used more cost effectively for at least equally satisfactory results. In many temperate countries depletion of durable hardwoods led to wide use of perishable conifers in high hazard sites; wood preservation using tar oils or water-borne fixed preservatives applied by pressure improved these conifers so that in many uses they outlasted the best of the durable hardwoods. Thus, and rightly so, emphasis has been placed in most temperate countries on this approach, non-leachable preservatives applied by pressure to permeable coniferous wood. It is thus reasonable to assume that wood preservation has been very successful. Or has it? It depends on the approach made, and whether the objectives of those using wood preservation have been met. The selection of treatment methods depends heavily upon the objectives and the way successful wood preservation is gauged.
C R Levy
Inventaire des "déchets" ou produits connexes de la filière bois
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-33
Wood preservation in China
1989 - IRG/WP 3546
Huiming Zhou, Zhongwei Jin
Influence of abiotic factors on the production of Basidiocarps by lignocellulolitic Hymenomycetes from native forest and plantations of Pinus elliottii Engelm in the Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, São Paulo, Brazil
1991 - IRG/WP 1469
A report on the influence of abiotic factors on the production of basidiocarps by lignocellulotic Hymenomycetes of native forest and Pinus elliottii. It was concluded that the climatic conditions (temperature, humidity, microhabitat) and the decay stage of the logs affected the production of basidiocarps by Hymenomycetes.
M Aparecida de Jesus
Role of Global Cooperation in Wood Protection for Conserving Forest Resources
2007 - IRG/WP 07-50249
The current uses of treated wood are discussed along with the emerging concerns for continued use of these products. The issues of new chemicals, treatments for wood based composites, migration of chemicals from treated wood, and the disposal of these products at the end of their useful life are all outlined. The potential for the IRG to serve as the focus for research discussion as well as collaborative projects to help enhance wood performance are discussed.
J J Morrell, G Deroubaix
Lignocellulotitic Hymenomycetes from native forest and Pinus elliottii Engelm in the Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, São Paulo, Brazil
1991 - IRG/WP 1468
Results show a distinct microflora for each forest type. A total of 9 families, 45 genera and 67 species were distributed among the two forest ecosystems were studied. Antrodiella, Auricularia, Grammothele, Steccherinum, Stereum and Trametes were found only in the native forest, where Antrodiella hydrophila (Berk. & Curt.) Ryv., Grammothele sp, Phellinus gilvus (Schw.) Pat., Rigidoporus microporus (Fr.) Overeem, Schizopora flavipora (Cke.) Ryv. and Trametes versicolor (Fr.) Pilat. were the most frequent species. Logs associated with Dentipellis dissita (Berk. & Cke.) Mass., Hydnochaete badia Bres., Lentinus calyx (Speg.) Pegler, Lentinus nigroosseus Pilat., Phellinus gilvus (Schw.) Pat., Rigidoporus lineatus (Pers.) Ryv., Steccherinum reniforme (Berk. & Curt.) Banker., Tomentella pallida (Rick) Penteado, Trametes versicolor (Fr.) Pilat., showed rapid decay during the sampling period. The Pinus elliottii plantation demonstrated specificity for Cladoderris dendritica Pers., Skvortzovia furfurella (Bres.) Bononi & Hjortst. The majority of the logs in this type of forest yielded Scytinostroma basidiocarps. Cladoderris and Scytinostroma formed basidiocarps over the entire log. Logs with Hypochnicium punctulatum (Cke.) Erikss., H. Sphaerosporum (Hohn. & Litsch.) Erikss., Scytinostroma aff. galactinum (Fr.) Donk, Scytinostroma sp1, Scytinostroma sp2, Skvortzovia furfurella (Bres.) Bononi & Hjortst., Trechispora cohaereuns (Schw.) Julich. & Stalp., and Trechispora sp had apparently a higher rate of decay than others. Antrodiella hydrophila (Berk. & Curt.) Ryv., Hypochnicium sphaerosporum (Hohn. & Litch.) Erikss., Hymenochaete aff. dura (Berk. & Curt.), Lentinus calyx (Speg.) Pegler, Pachykytospora alabamae (Berg. & Cke.) Ryv., Porodisculus pendulus (Schw.) Murr., Schizopora flavipora (Cke.) Ryv., Scytinostroma aff. galactinum (Fr.) Donk and Trechispora cohaereuns (Schw.) Julich & Stalp., are reported for the first time in Brazil.
M Aparecida de Jesus
Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Forestry Training College, Forest Products Training Institute and Moi University. A number of publications, mostly an biological control of termites, are available and they range from workshop and conference proceedings to theses and journal publications. Wood-destroying termite species include several genera in Macrotermitidae and one drywood termite genus. Wood preservation facilities are available in Kenya, mainly for assorted timber products, sleepers and utility poles. The major preservatives used are CCAs, PCP and Creosote oil. There are still no set standards, specifications and requirements for wood preservatives and little, if any information exists on the marketing aspects of wood preservatives. The yet to be established Industrial Chemicals Act and the recently introduced Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999) may be able to handle regulatory, environmental, health and safety aspects of wood preservation in Kenya.
Comparative study of termite diversity in moist evergreen forest and dry evergreen forest, Chanthaburi province, Thailand
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10480
Sixty out of one hundred plots of two forest types (moist evergreen forest (MEF) and dry evergreen forest (DEF)) in Chanthaburi Province, eastern Thailand, were randomly surveyed for the presence of termites from all possible habitats. Three hundred and forty-five samples were collected from December 1999 – April 2000. Morphological identification of the 345 samples gave results for 3 families, 8 subfamilies, 20 genera and 42 species, of which 37 species of 19 genera were recorded from MEF and 27 species of 15 genera from DEF respectively. One undetermined species of the genus Angulitermes was recorded, which represents a new addition to the termite list of Thailand. Microcerotermes crassus Snyder, classified as a wood feeder, was found to be the dominant species in MEF and DEF, while Globitermes sulphureus (Haviland) was the second most dominant species. Ancistrotermes pakestanicus (Silverstri, 1912) a fungus growing termite, was another dominant species in MEF. In the cool-dry season, MEF showed an H’-index value of 2.415 and in the hot-dry season an H’-index value of 2.284. The H’-index values of DEF in the cool-dry and the hot-dry seasons were 2.121 and 1.67 respectively. Identification of specimens from a different survey revealed that seasonal changes did not greatly affect termite species richness in all study sites. Species diversity and species richness or termite activity tend to be lower in the hot-dry season (April).
Wood preservation in Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 3216
The report reviews the forestry potential of Turkey and also the historical background of wood preservation in the country. The wood preservation industry in Turkey is mainly concentrated on the treatment of poles and railway sleepers. There is no official body responsible for wood preservation activities, and therefore its promotion depends mainly on the voluntary research efforts carried out by the universities and the Forest Research Institute. Present standards are inadequate to meet contemporary standards of wood protection used in other countries. These should be completely revised and updated. Its forest products potential and geographical location combine to give Turkey a great advantage for exportation of its timber to the Middle East countries. But first of all Turkey has to solve its own problems of promoting a productive industry and efficient wood preservation.
R Ilhan, R Cockcroft
Chemical, physical and biological factors affecting wood decomposition in forest soils
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20281
Organic matter (OM) decomposition is an important variable in determining the potential of forest soils to sequester atmospheric CO2. Studies using OM from a particular location gives site-specific decomposition information, but differences in OM type and quality make it difficult to compare results among soils and forest ecosystems. By using a “standard” OM in decomposition studies, OM quality is held constant, and decomposition is a function of soil abiotic (moisture, temperature, O2/CO2, redox potential, pH, N, P, etc), and biotic (microbial biomass, functional diversity) properties. Wood is a good standard material to use in soil OM decomposition studies, since it is a normal soil component (woody residue, coarse roots), and a slow decomposition rate allows wood to remain in the soil for a number of years. In 1998 a wood stake study was initiated on both public and industry land throughout the U.S., Canada, and Europe. These sites represent a variety of climatic conditions and forest types, which cover a wide range of soil chemical, physical, and biological properties. Wood stakes of two tree species are being used to contrast different lignin types present in wood: loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), and aspen (Populus tremuloides). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the effects of abiotic soil properties on wood decomposition, and (2) to assess how these soil properties affect microbial activity and diversity during wood decomposition. This paper will present an overview of the study protocols, field and laboratory methods used, and discuss preliminary results from several of the study sites in North America and Europe.
M Jurgensen, P Laks, D Reed, A Collins, D Page-Dumroese, D Crawford
Physical properties variation of sound and top dying affected sundriwood (Heritiera fomes) in mangrove forest of Bangladesh
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10504
Top dying of sundri (Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham.) in the Sundarbans is considered to be the most severe of all the diseases of tree crops in Bangladesh. The wood samples from sound, moderately affected and severely affected sundri trees from three different tree heights for every individual test were collected and their respective physical properties were examined to make a comparison. It was found that density decreased with the increase of disease severity and was found 5% for both the cases. The volumetric shrinkages also increased due to top dying and were found 6.42% and 3.34% higher for moderately affected and severely affected trees respectively. Similarly the initial moisture contents also decreased due to top dying and were found 5.34% and 16.19% lower for moderately affected and severely affected trees respectively.
S C Ghosh, A K M A Bosunia, M A Islam, A K Lahiry
Summaries of two Russian papers received from Professor Dr. D.A. Belenkov and V.A. Seletskaya of the Ural Forest Engineering Institute, Sibirsky Trakt, 37, Sverdlovsk, USSR, on the toxicity to Coniophora cerebella of salts of hydrofluoric acid and some fluoroborates
1977 - IRG/WP 298
1) Evaluation of the toxicity of some salts of hydrofluoric acid against the house cellar fungus (Coniophora cerebella Schroet) Data are presented on the method of probability evaluation of the toxicity of the fluorides of sodium, ammonium, potassium, zinc and iron. On the retention of fluorine in wood all salts, except iron, possess practically equal toxicity at the standard level of the probability of the protection of the wood - 0.95 . There is good agreement between the analytically and graphically determined dose level. Evidence is given for dose variabitility, probabilities of wood protection at 0.5 and 0.95, the curve of efficacy - activity and the construction of the empirical probit graph. 2) Investigation of the toxicity of some borofluorides towards the house cellar fungus Probability evaluation of the toxicity of borofluorides against the cellar fungus, and probit analysis evidence show that toxicity decreases in the sequence sodium borofluoride, copper borofluoride, tributyltin borofluoride. The effectiveness of protection method is able to evaluate the amount of fluorine and boron required in the wood.
Environmentally benign biological wood preservatives by Streptomyces rimosus, SC-36
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10196
Microbiocides obtained from mutant culture Streptomyces rimosus SC-36 were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit the growth of brown-rot, soft-rot, white-rot, and sapstain fungi on wood. The test fungi were the brown-rot fungi Antrodia carbonica, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Neolentinus lepideus, and Postia placenta; soft-rot fungi Chaetomium globosum, Paecilomyces variotti, Phialocephala dimorphospora, Phialophola mutabilis, Scytalidium lignicola; and white-rot fungi Flammulina velutipes, Phanerocheate chrysosporium, Shizophyllum commune, and Trametes versicolor. The SC-36 treatment inhibited basidiospore germination and mycelial growth of test fungi in plate assay, plate bioassy, and wood-block (southern yellow pine and sweetgum) tests. Metabolites from SC-36 inhibited the growth of all test fungi. In field trials, the metabolites and living cell treatment of green pine log sections and field wood-blocks (eastern white pine and red maple) inhibited natural spore germination and mycelial growth of all forest-inhabiting fungi, thus preventing wood biodeterioration and biodiscoloration. Our results demonstrated that SC-36 can be used as an alternative to synthetic chemicals and an environmentally benign biological wood preservative.
S C Croan
Forest management policies and timber supplies in British Columbia
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10244
British Columbia has a huge wealth of timber resources, currently exceeding 7 billion m3 of mature timber on about 43 million ha classified as productive forest lands. That land area also supports a current volume of over 2 billion m3 of timber in immature stands. How much of the volume will be made available as an annual timber supply for the forest industry is dependent upon a set of policies governing timber harvest regulation, including social decisions on land and resource allocations, such as parks, and required resource management practices, such as environmental protection measures. These policies are considered by the province's Chief Forester along with detailed inventory data when determining an Allowable Annual Cut for each sustained-yield management unit. This paper provides an overview of timber harvest regulation in British Columbia and examines some of the major policy initiatives affecting timber supplies. Results of the recent Timber Supply Review are presented, along with a forecast of timber supply trends over the next several decades. Opportunities for increasing future supplies are identified.
R B Addison
Wood preservation in Portugal
1985 - IRG/WP 3325
This report deals with the forest potential of Portugal and its timber industry and outlines the evolution of wood preservation in the country. The main hazards to timber in service are noted and the timbers used classified according to their natural durability and treatability. The wood preservatives used are detailed with estimates of the total consumption of the different types. Addresses are listed, of the known manufacturers and importing agencies, of the firms that treat by vacuum/pressure and those that employ the double-vacuum process, and of the organizations concerned with wood preservation research and wood preservation in general. Only two firms specialize in remedial treatments and there are two institutions which are responsible for restoring cultural properties. Information is given on requirements and approvals. The relevant standards are listed and the main Portuguese papers on wood preservation.
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, R Cockcroft
Effect of test site, preservative and wood species on decay type Glenbervie pastoral and radiata pine forest sites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30248
Pinus radiata stakes were treated with 0.8, 1.2, 1.8, 2.7 and 4.1 kg/m3 of CCA and Fagus sylvatica with 2.7, 4.1 and 6.1 kg/m3 of CCA. Both wood species were also treated with equivalent retentions of a copper plus triazole preservative (CT) (0.89, 1.3, 2 and 3 kg/m3 of copper for pine & 2.5 and 4 for beech) and chlorothalonil plus chlorpyriphos in oil (CC) (1.4, 2.1, 3.2 and 4.8 kg/m3 of chlorothalonil for pine and 3.2 and 7.2 for beech). Furthermore, P. radiata was treated with ammoniacal copper plus a quaternary ammmonium compound (ACQ) (0.8, 1.1, 1.7 and 2.6 kg/m3 copper) and a 60/40 mixture of high temperature creosote plus oil (C) (18, 27, 41 and 61 kg/m3). Treated and untreated stakes were exposed in the ground at 13 sites in New Zealand and Australia for between 4 and 6 years. This paper reports the significance of site, timber species, preservative and its concentration and time of exposure, on extent and type of decay, at two sites in Northland, New Zealand. The two sites were adjacent (200 metres), appeared to have essentially similar clay loam soil and climate but one was pastoral and the other was situated within a radiata pine forest. Most types of decay reported in the literature, were observed in this study but other undescribed or only partially characterised types were also found. The decay types found differed between test sites, preservative and timber species. The significance of tunnelling hyphae, which often caused severe decay of wood treated with the higher retentions of various preservatives, appears much greater than the prior literature would suggest. For pine the highest retentions of CC, CT and ACQ gave at least equivalent performance to the reference standards creosote and CCA, after approximately 5 years, at both test sites. For beech CC and CT both gave superior protection to CCA, at both sites. All the preservatives tested exhibited some weaknesses in terms of resistance to the various decay types observed.
R N Wakeling
Laboratory trial to identify potential in-forest treatments to control fungal pre-infections of radiata pine logs
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30220
Development of fungal infections of radiata pine logs by wood degrading fungi commences immediately after tree felling. In general, subsequent antisapstain treatments are unable to control fungal degrade on logs where the pre-treatment log storage time exceeds 2-5 days. However, use of an in-forest treatment of logs may be advantageous to log exporters to control fungal pre-infections during the pre-treatment log storage time, possibly for up to four weeks. In the current study, the outer surface of each freshly cut branch wood billets (200 mm long) was damaged to simulate conditions occurring in the field, by scraping off some bark and also bruising bark with a hammer. Damaged billets were individually sprayed with biocontrol agents (Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Phlebiopsis gigantea, Brie fungus), integrated biocontrol agents (T. viride plus fluoride, T. viride plus Sentry® , T. viride plus fluoride and Sentry® ) and dairy products (brie, camembert, egg white and milk). After two days incubation, a cocktail of common sapstain fungi was sprayed onto each billet before incubation for four weeks. After two and four weeks of incubation, billets were cut into discs and eleven newly exposed cross-cut faces were assessed for fungal degrade. The results of this laboratory study showed that Camembert blended in pasteurised milk virtually controlled fungal degrade in billets. This treatment likely meets the criterion of being environmental acceptable.
D R Eden, B Kreber, R N Wakeling, J G Van der Waals, C M Chittenden
Wood preservation in Yugoslavia
1984 - IRG/WP 3319
This report, which is one in a series written by some of the most eminent experts in wood preservation in the world, is meant to serve as a practical guide to all those, both in Yugoslavia and in other countries, who wish to collaborate in the field of wood preservation production, wood preservation treatments and in the development and research work necessary in this subject. The report offers the essential data concerning the timber resources in Yugoslavia, the country's most dangerous wood-destroying organisms, the wood preservatives available and their manufacturers, as well as giving information about the facilities that exist in the country for wood preservation, and the universities, research institutes and other institutions that are concerned with protecting wood. The publication also gives information on the current regulations, standards and other specifications relevant to the subject in Yugoslavia. The report concludes with a bibliography which should be of help to those who are interested in the wood preservation projects and publications of Yugoslavia.
N Vidovic, D Murko, R Cockcroft
Use of mixed populations of microflora to control sapstain on radiata pine
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10427
Most methods of biological control in the wood products field have focused on the use of single species of fungi or bacteria to control sapstain or decay. The approach taken in this study involved applying soil microorganisms, in combination with nutrients and various adjuvants that collectively form the biological control system. Radiata pine branch discs, autoclaved or fresh, were dipped in a forest soil suspension (FS) or FS plus a cocktail containing alkaline adjuvants (ammonia, ethanolamine and lime) and nitrogen rich (urea and DIFCO nutrient media) compounds (AC). Treated discs were pre-incubated for either 48 or 72 hours prior to spray application of challenge sapstain fungi and subsequently assessed at weekly intervals for sapstain. The effects of FS alone, adjuvant concentration, autoclaving the radiata pine discs, and the difference in time interval prior to challenge with staining fungi were determined. A commercial antisapstain product was included as a benchmark. After three weeks, fresh wood pre-incubated for 48 hours with FS plus 5.0 % w/w AC gave the best performance out of the experimental treatments. This treatment had a mean surface coverage of 31.5%, compared to 24.5% for the lower and 10.2% for the higher concentration of the commercial benchmark and 88% for the controls. However, for similarly treated discs incubated for 72 hours prior to spraying with the challenge fungi, mean surface coverage was reduced to 17.5%. In general, a 72 hour interval between treatment and challenge with staining fungi reduced surface coverage regardless of treatment. Overall, the experimental treatments on fresh wood discs were more effective than on autoclaved discs but a reversed trend was seen for the commercial benchmark product. These results are discussed within the context of fungal ecology.
C Chittenden, R Wakeling, B Kreber