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Phoracantha semipunctata Fab. dans le sud-ouest Espagnol: Lutte et dommages
1985 - IRG/WP 1250
L G Tirado


Trend in entomology of wood in use and in storage in Nigeria
1978 - IRG/WP 180
The current and potential impact of biotic agents of wood deterioration in Nigeria is reviewed, with emphasis on the insects and marine borers, their recognition and mode of damage. Some essential areas have no doubt been neglected and these are highlighted, while future lines of approach are outlined.
M O Akanbi


Studies on the infestation behaviour of the powder-post beetle Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) and its physical control in the wood yards of the Caspian forests of Iran
1985 - IRG/WP 1271
Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) is a pest which has not been previously thoroughly studied in Iran. It severely attacks Iranian hardwoods, especially those used in wooden houses and that have not been treated. Research work was necessary to determine the natural resistance of the most important timber species in Iran against this insect.
P Niloufari


Wood-destroying insects found in the Eastern Black Sea sub-region of Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 1153
The Eastern Black Sea subregion has important forest resources. The settlement areas are scattered at the countryside. That's why a good deal of wood and timber is used in the construction of buildings without sufficient protective measures in the rural areas. In the forests and rural buildings 52 wood-destroying insect species have been specified 35 of which are new in this subregion and 14 are new in Turkey.
O A Sekendiz


Lignocellulotitic Hymenomycetes from native forest and Pinus elliottii Engelm in the Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, São Paulo, Brazil
1991 - IRG/WP 1468
Results show a distinct microflora for each forest type. A total of 9 families, 45 genera and 67 species were distributed among the two forest ecosystems were studied. Antrodiella, Auricularia, Grammothele, Steccherinum, Stereum and Trametes were found only in the native forest, where Antrodiella hydrophila (Berk. & Curt.) Ryv., Grammothele sp, Phellinus gilvus (Schw.) Pat., Rigidoporus microporus (Fr.) Overeem, Schizopora flavipora (Cke.) Ryv. and Trametes versicolor (Fr.) Pilat. were the most frequent species. Logs associated with Dentipellis dissita (Berk. & Cke.) Mass., Hydnochaete badia Bres., Lentinus calyx (Speg.) Pegler, Lentinus nigroosseus Pilat., Phellinus gilvus (Schw.) Pat., Rigidoporus lineatus (Pers.) Ryv., Steccherinum reniforme (Berk. & Curt.) Banker., Tomentella pallida (Rick) Penteado, Trametes versicolor (Fr.) Pilat., showed rapid decay during the sampling period. The Pinus elliottii plantation demonstrated specificity for Cladoderris dendritica Pers., Skvortzovia furfurella (Bres.) Bononi & Hjortst. The majority of the logs in this type of forest yielded Scytinostroma basidiocarps. Cladoderris and Scytinostroma formed basidiocarps over the entire log. Logs with Hypochnicium punctulatum (Cke.) Erikss., H. Sphaerosporum (Hohn. & Litsch.) Erikss., Scytinostroma aff. galactinum (Fr.) Donk, Scytinostroma sp1, Scytinostroma sp2, Skvortzovia furfurella (Bres.) Bononi & Hjortst., Trechispora cohaereuns (Schw.) Julich. & Stalp., and Trechispora sp had apparently a higher rate of decay than others. Antrodiella hydrophila (Berk. & Curt.) Ryv., Hypochnicium sphaerosporum (Hohn. & Litch.) Erikss., Hymenochaete aff. dura (Berk. & Curt.), Lentinus calyx (Speg.) Pegler, Pachykytospora alabamae (Berg. & Cke.) Ryv., Porodisculus pendulus (Schw.) Murr., Schizopora flavipora (Cke.) Ryv., Scytinostroma aff. galactinum (Fr.) Donk and Trechispora cohaereuns (Schw.) Julich & Stalp., are reported for the first time in Brazil.
M Aparecida de Jesus


The true dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) found in the wild in the forests of the Himalayas
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10002
J Bech-Andersen, S A Elborne, F Goldie, J Singh, B Walker


Influence of abiotic factors on the production of Basidiocarps by lignocellulolitic Hymenomycetes from native forest and plantations of Pinus elliottii Engelm in the Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, São Paulo, Brazil
1991 - IRG/WP 1469
A report on the influence of abiotic factors on the production of basidiocarps by lignocellulotic Hymenomycetes of native forest and Pinus elliottii. It was concluded that the climatic conditions (temperature, humidity, microhabitat) and the decay stage of the logs affected the production of basidiocarps by Hymenomycetes.
M Aparecida de Jesus


Isolation of the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, from the forests of the Himalayan Foothills
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10129
Previous expeditions to the Himalayas (Singh 1993, 1994) have reported on the presence in this area of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. However, attempts to isolate the organism from material brought back from these expeditions were not successful. In this paper we report on the isolation of Serpula lacrymans from spores and cord material brought back from the Narkanda region of the Himalayas. Whilst morphological analysis suggested the nature of the material as being Serpula lacrymans confirmation of this has been via protein fingerprint studies using SDS-PAGE. In this paper the natural habitat of the dry rot fungus will be discussed and compared with the building environment in which the organism grows in Europe, Japan, etc. In addition information on a range of other assowiated fungal species, also isolated from the Himalayan forest, will be given.
N A White, J W Palfreyman, J Singh, S Singh


List of wood-destroying fungi in Iran
1976 - IRG/WP 138
This list gives information on the wood-destroying fungi collected in the Iranian forests and from felled logs and boards in sawmills until now. They are mainly from the region of the Caspian Forests and from the climatically dry region between Teheran and Azarbaidjan, North Iran. It is understood, that this document may help to give more knowledge outside the country about the specific problems of Iran, or concerned with the regions of the Middle East with great varieties of climate. The collection, which is far from complete, includes 76 species of fungi belonging to 46 different genera. Several of the species have been published already nationally, some internationally. Some species have just been recognised recently in Iran and are mentioned for the first time. These species are marked with (+). All samples of fungi collected are conserved and kept in the laboratories of the Department of Wood Science at the Faculty of Natural Resources, Karadj. Their identification was undertaken by the author and with help of the Centre Technique du Bois, Services des Recherches et Essais (Lab Mycologie du Bois), Paris, and of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
P Soleimani


Wood preservation in Australia
1984 - IRG/WP 3316
Wood preservation in Australia is presented as an integral part of the forest products industry. The history of its development, as well as its current status and activities are described. Preservation operations in Australia are broadly based, and the industry diversified to combat a wide range of hazards, and to utilise many wood species, for differing end-uses. The Timber Preservers’ Association of Australia is the industry’s affiliating body, listing 99 members, made up of treaters, suppliers and associates. In all, some 208 treatment plants provide about 0.9-1.0 million m3 of treated commodities per annum, utilising about 5000 t of CCA, boron and fluoride compounds and light organic solvent preservatives, together with 8 million litres of creosote and oil-based preservatives. The annual retail value of the industry is estimated at $94 million*). The details of standards, legislation and registration requirements which affect the industry’s operations are presented, together with a comment on the impact of environmental restrictions and union attitudes. Research and development spending is about $1.5 million per annum, 78% of which is accounted for by government bodies, with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation committing approximately $1 million of this. The industry spends about $150.000 per annum in direct funding for R & D work. The main projects being carried out in Australia have been listed. It is concluded that wood preservation has a sound future in Australia. However, all concerned must come to terms with health and safety aspects associated with the industry. In addition, standards and legislation requirements must move closer together, there should be much better promotion of wood preservation, and, finally, the industry must strive towards a more integrated structure. *) All dollars mentioned in the text refer to the Australian dollar.
H Greaves


Venezuelan net of test fields for the study of the effectiveness of treatments of non commercial timbers from natural tropical forests
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20318
A net of 13 tests fields were established in Venezuela for the study of the effectiveness of the CCA and CCB treatment in secondary or non commercial woods from natural forests, two woods from fast growth plantations wee included for promote them as treated timber mainly for fence posts uses. Partial results after two years are presented and discussed the preliminary results obtained both in field and in laboratory. Those studies showed the termites and soft rot attack as major wood biodegradation agents in the country, independently of the geographical situation. The considered combinations of woods, sites and treatments, together the characteristic of each site, shown possibilities for the use of non commercial woods from results with CCA salt at higher retentions. A special call for collaboration between North - South and South - South and advice of researchers is made.
O Encinas, N Mora


Research studies on infecting behaviour of Fomes fomentarius (L. ex FR) Fr. and its physical control in the wood yards of the Hyrcanian (Caspian) forests of Ira
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10179
Due to illegal cutting, girdling and ringbarking many damages of tinder fungus (Fomes fomentarius (L. ex Fr) Fr.) are seen on beech, poplar, oak and birch at Hyrcanian (Caspian) forests of Iran. The beeches (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) are damaged highly and the beech community of Fagetum are infected from 800 meter altitudes at Gorgan (East of Caspian forests) to 600 meters altitudes at Gilan (West of Caspian Forests belt of Iran) and totally the damage is seen up to a height of 2000 meters.
P Niloufari


Supply of wooden transmission and telephone poles in Tanzania: Problems and possible solutions
1987 - IRG/WP 3424
The eucalypts which have been used widely for utility poles for more than 30 years have dwindled remarkably from traditional supply areas. Consequently, pole-using authorities are considering importing poles from abroad. This alternative is considered unrealistic and costly. The aims of this paper are: - to dispel fears of pole scarcity and to show that an abundant resource of a variety of tree species, consisting of both hardwoods and softwoods, considered suitable for poles, is available; - to point out obstacles that hinder the full utilization of this natural and renewable wealth; - and to suggest workable solutions to the pole supply problems.
K K Murira, S A Diwani


Natural decay resistance of some lesser known /used timber species from the forests of Tanzania
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10557
In order to manage the Tropical forest in a sustainable manner and increase the resource base for their wood industries, many Tropical African timber producing countries including Tanzania are promoting the many lesser known/used timbers in their forests as alternative sources of wood to the over-exploited primary timber species. Four lesser known/utilized timber species from the forests of Tanzania namely: Polyscias fulva (Mdeki), Prunus africana (Mwiluti), Bridelia micrantha (Mwisa) and Myrianthus holstii (Mfusta) were exposed to the wood decay fungi Goeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora puteana and Coriolus versicolor in order to determine their natural decay resistance to the fungi according to the EN 113 (1993) standard. Results obtained were used to rank the timbers into natural durability classes according to EN 350-1 (1993). B.micrantha and M. holstii were found to be very durable timbers but P. fulva and P. africana were not durable. B. micrantha and M. holstii can therefore be used as alternative timbers to the well known but rather over-exploited durable timbers such as Burkea africana and Tectona grandis for certain end uses.
S A Amartey, P R Gillah, R C Ishengoma, J Gabriel, D H Kitojo


Note and literature survey on the "Eucalyptus borer" Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col.; Cerambycidae), a pest in between forest and wood
1984 - IRG/WP 1228
In the Eucalyptus-forests of Huelva, Spain, Phoracantha semipunctata appears as a severe forest-pest fatal to trees impaired by drought. The population snowballed in two and a half years, millions of larvae reduce the value of wood to "papermill-quality''. One of the intentions of the paper is to collect knowledge for help and cure. A literature survey forms the main part of the paper.
S Cymorek


Molecular characterization of M’jej, decaying agent of cedar forests in Morocco
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10593
Cedar wood is well appreciated since thousand years even though its economical importance is limited because of its world distribution restricted to some Mediterranean countries and Himalaya. The most important species, Cedrus atlantica have its biggest population in Morocco (130 000 ha) where it is submitted to fungal diseases. Among them, the locally named “M’jej” reduced notably saw mile harvest, with about 12 % infection rates. “M’jej” induced fibrous rot of heartwood. Among the various genera and species described as responsible for M’jej, all are synonyms of Phellinus chrysoloma or P. pini. Identified according to fruit bodies morphological, anatomical and ecological characters, both species would be responsible for M’jej. Molecular characterisation based on samples collected from infested trees and the comparison with reference data base sequences allowed us to evidence very close taxonomical relationships between these two species suggesting their putative synonymy.
A Zaremski, S Bakkali-Yakhlef, C Chaintreuil, Y Abbas, Y Prin, M Abourouh, M Ducousso


Opportunities and Needs with Treatments for the Protection of Plantation Species
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40438
The future of the wood treating industry lies increasingly on the treatment of wood derived from plantation forests. Plantation softwoods and hardwoods both provide significant opportunity for utilization coupled with protection technologies, but development programs will require much more focus and funding than is currently available. Manufacturing and treating of products from plantation forests will be subject to much trade, as potential output from southern hemisphere forests is higher than from northern forests, while human populations are much higher in the northern hemisphere.
A F Preston


Survey of termites in forests of Punjab: Pakistan
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10726
Termites were surveyed in seven forests in the Punjab (Bhagat, Kamalia, Chichawatni, Changa Manga, Jallo Forest park, Daphar and Attock) during 2008. Twelve termite species were observed from soil, dead logs, live wood and living trees. Host trees were also identified. The percentage of infested plants in Kamalia, Bhagat, Chichawatni, Changa Manga, Jallo Forest park, Daphar and Attock forests were 22.50%, 20.00%, 19.60%, 15.45%, 10.00%, 20.00% and 12.10% respectively. Examination of dead wood in seven forests showed that an average of three quarters of wood sampled were attacked by termites. The number of termites per unit volume of dead wood were also determined in these forests and it was almost similar (0.4 per cm3). The size of colony was correlated with the volume of dead wood and it ranged from 26-2,784 termites, the soldier caste ranged from 2.1% to 20.00% of the total population of the termite colony. In all these forests, 20% of the dead wooden logs and branches showed signs of subterranean termite (‘termite’).
F Manzoor, B M Ahmed Shiday, S Malik, A Rahim, B Habibpour, J R J French


Commercial Timbers of Kenya
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10876
The global timber trade has for years been too familiar with an assortment of available African timbers, reputed for their appearance in terms of colour, grain, pattern and durability. African forests are fast disappearing through over-exploitation as a result of demand for agricultural land. Kenya, the home of some of these valuable hardwoods, has been similarly affected, with its forest land cover declining from high 28% to a low 1.7% within the last 5 decades. Today Kenyan forests consist mainly of exotic fast-growing species (Eucalypts, Cypress and Pines), that supply the local demand for industrial timbers (utility poles, posts, construction timbers, pulp and paper, veneer and board materials). The furniture industry now relies on hardwoods imported from Central and Western Africa, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and S. Africa. The wood carving industry, with some 30,000 wood carvers engaged in the industry, still depends on hardwood species available locally. Being still a heavy consumer of fuelwood and charcoal, with indigenous hardwood species being preferred, it is to be expected that indigenous hardwood forests in Kenya will decline further, with fewer of what used to be a an extensive list of indigenous species that provided the source of commercial timbers of the country. The list of exotic and indigenous species presented in this paper, not exhaustive by any means, comprises mainly the common commercial species, with brief notes on appearance, properties, availability and uses There is a number of the lesser known species, about which little or no information is available, mainly used for artisanal work, fuelwood and charcoal.
R Venkatasamy


From fungal detoxification systems to wood durability in neotropical forests
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10946
White-rot fungi are able to mineralize all the wood components due in particular to an efficient detoxification system. We hypothesised that components of this detoxification systems, glutathione transferases, could be used as tools to explore the natural durability of neotropical wood species. Analysis of the interactions between six glutathione transferases of Trametes versicolor and extracts of 21 wood species from French Guiana revealed a positive correlation between natural durability of the tested wood species (soil tests) and these interactions (Glutathione Transferase Assay). The obtained data suggest that the developed biochemical test could be used to estimate wood natural durability
T Perrot, G Salzet, N Amusant, J Duchene, E Gelhaye


Wood Protection in Canada
2019 - IRG/WP 19-50360
Wood Preservation Canada is dedicated to promoting and supporting a stronger Canadian wood treating industry. In this presentation, wood protection in Canada will be reviewed through the lens of IRG’s five sections. Canada has 10% of the world’s forests, harvests 155 million cubic metres annually, and exports more than $17.5 billion CAD of wood products. Decay is the primary cause of wood biodegradation in Canada, but there are some areas with termites, and marine borers can also be a factor. In Canada, preservatives are regulated by the federal government’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). The CSA O80 standard covers most of the uses of preserved wood in Canada, though it is not always specified. There are more than 50 pressure treating plants in Canada. On the industrial side, CCA, ACZA, creosote and pentachlorophenol are used in specific applications. On the residential side, the most common preservatives are ACQ, CA-B and MCA. There is a small amount of thermally modified wood produced in Canada. No chemically modified wood is produced as most Canadian species are difficult to impregnate. Key industry challenges include treating refractory species, gaining regulatory acceptance for new protection systems, and reducing maintenance for appearance applications. Canada is a major global supplier of sustainable wood products. Effective protection of these products is critical for safety and sustainability.
M Tauvette, R Sterling


The influence of climate changes on Central European forests with an emphasis on Slovenia
2022 - IRG/WP 22-50368
When forests are managed sustainably, they play an essential role in protecting climate and biodiversity. They protect soils and water resources, provide livelihoods, and contribute to the well-being of rural and urban communities. European forests are multifunctional and provide a range of ecosystem services. These include the production of renewable materials that can replace materials with a larger environmental footprint, thus also contributing to climate neutrality and overall sustainability. Forestry is one of the key sectors capable of reducing dependence on non-renewable resources, mitigating climate change, and thus enabling the transition to a circular bioeconomy. At the same time, forest ecosystems worldwide face a number of threats that are exacerbated by climate change. Global warming will affect future species distribution, timber supply and wood properties (quality). Conservation and management of forest genetic resources, the base of forest biodiversity and productivity, is an essential component of sustainable forestry. In addition, sustainable forestry requires a constant and efficient supply of high-quality seed and seedlings of forest trees. With a high share of forest cover and abundant natural resources, Slovenia shows great potential for transition into a circular bioeconomy. Due to the impact of climate change, recognition of the importance of biodiversity and the concepts of sustainable forest management, changes in the species composition of Slovenian forests are expected in the near future, which will be reflected in a higher proportion of deciduous tree species, affecting all actors in the forest-wood value chain. This paper aims to highlight up-to-date facts about the state of forests in Europe, forests and forestry in Slovenia, the importance of sustainable forest management for forest-based climate change mitigation and adaptation, the role of forest genetic resources and provision of tree seeds and seedlings for sustainable forest development.
J Gričar, L Krajnc, M Westergren, S Rus, H Kraigher