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FTIR-ATR monitoring of chemical changes of thermo-chemically modified beech wood degraded by brown-rot fungus
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40823
Wood chemical modification with lactic acid oligomers (OLA) has been reported to confer promising properties for wood outdoors applications. To better understand the lactic acid interaction with wood, chemical changes following biological degradation have been characterized with a battery of tests. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been proved to be a valuable tool for studying fu...
C Grosse, M Noël, M-F Thevenon, P Gérardin


Detection of incipient brown rot decay in wood by fourier transform infrared spectrometry
1987 - IRG/WP 2275
Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was evaluated as a possible method for detecting different levels of brown-rot decay in pine sapwood. By using first derivative spectra and regression analysis, an equation based on 4 absorption peaks, normalized with an internal standard peak, was developed. The correlation between weight loss and absorption was highly significant indicating that this is a ...
D D Nicholas, T Schultz


Photo-discoloration and Degradation of Wood and its Stabilisation by Modification with Benzoyl Chloride
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40274
Photo degradation of Pinus roxburghii (chir pine) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber wood) was studied under artificial accelerated weathering conditions in a Xenon test chamber. The irradiated samples were analyzed for color changes and chemical changes. Analysis of colour changes in wood surfaces by UV-Vis. irradiation was carried out using a colour measuring (CIELAB) system and chemical changes ...
K K Pandey


Correlation between changes in colour and chemical composition during photo-degradation of wood surfaces
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40301
Changes in colour of wood (yellowing) during photo degradation or weathering reflect chemical changes in wood. Therefore, the relationship between changes in chemical composition and CIELAB colour parameters is very important to characterize photodegradation of lignocellulosic surfaces. In this study, the changes in chemical composition and yellowing due to photo-degradation was studied by expos...
K K Pandey


The influence of copper (II) chemicals on the weathering of treated wood. Part 1: ACQ treatment of wood on its weathering
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30040
Wood weathering can be accelerated by alkylammonium compound (AAC) treatment, and slowed by ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) treatment. This study aims at investigating the influence of ACQ treatment of wood, especially the present of copper (II), on its weathering. ACQ, CCA and DDAC treated microtomed sections of southern yellow pine earlywood were prepared and naturally weathered for five periods, t...
Ruiying Liu, J N R Ruddick, L Jin


Analysis of water repellents in wood treated with water borne formulations using FTIR
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40176
The use of aqueous water repellent emulsion formulations has increased significantly in the wood treatment industry. These products are primarily used to enhance the weathering characteristics of wood products treated with water borne preservatives systems used in exterior above ground applications. They are also used in pole treatments to improve climbing characteristics and in low VOC millwork t...
P J Walcheski, L Jin


Rapid loss of lignin at wood surfaces during natural weathering
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2390
Thin veneers of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) were exposed to natural weathering over a period of 30 days. Incident UV radiation was monitored at the test site. FTIR internal reflectance spectroscopy was used to study the chemical changes taking place at the veneer surface during weathering. Spectra obtained show that after only 3 days exposure there was substantial delignification at veneer...
P D Evans, K J Schmalzl, A J Michell


Weathering of copper-amine treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40155
Copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated southern pine (SP) were artificially weathered with a QUV Weathering Tester. The weathering regime was composed of a continuous UV-light irradiation for 2 hours followed by a water spray for 18 minutes for a total time of 1200 hours. The changes on the surface of the weathered samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis,...
J Zhang, D P Kamdem


Surface characteristics of wood treated with various AAC, ACQ and CCA formulations after weathering
1991 - IRG/WP 2369
Wood samples treated with various alkylammonium compounds (AACs) as well as ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) have been studied in accelerated weathering experiments. Microscopic examination of the surfaces of these samples after exposure in a weatherometer revealed several different changes. Samples treated with didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) show consider...
L Jin, K J Archer, A F Preston


FTIR characterization of copper ethanolamine - wood interaction
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20154
The interaction of copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) and wood components was studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In Cu-EA treated wood, significant reduction was noticed on the band attributed to carbonyl vibration from carboxylic groups at 1735±5 cm-1 and an increase in band intensity was obtained from carbonyl in carboxylate at 1595±5 cm-1. The same observation was made ...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem


A spectroscopic investigation of copper ethylenediamine fixation in wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20160
The fixation reaction which take place between copper ethylenediamine (Cu-en) solution and wood were expolored using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR spectra revealed that copper reacts with the carboxylic acid and phenolic groups in wood to form stable complexes. The copper ethylenediamine complexes formed in wood were identifie...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick


FTIR studies on the weathering of didecyldimethylammonium compound (DDAC) treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30013
Wood treated with alkylammonium compounds (AACs), such as DDAC, weathered more rapidly than untreated wood. In order to examine the influence of DDAC treatment of wood on its weathering, treated and untreated microtomed sections of southern yellow pine earlywood of various thicknesses, were prepared and weathered for approximately one month. The changes in these samples were monitored using FTIR. ...
R Liu, J N R Ruddick


A comparison of analytical and visual techniques used for assessment of weathering properties of chromium and copper azole treated timber
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20023
The weathering properties of preservative treated timber were studied by measuring surface lignin loss and by microscopic examination after weathering, and results were related to qualitative assessments of visual appearance after weathering. Measurement of relative rates of delignification of untreated and preservative treated timber obtained by FTIR analysis, and weight loss determined on thin v...
J A Cornfield, M D C Hale, G Fettis


Correlation between modulus of elasticity, mass losses and FTIR spectra of copper treated decayed wood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10580
The composition of copper-based preservatives will change from copper-chromium to copper-ethanolamine, due to environmental demands. The most important drawback of copper-impregnated wood is the presence of tolerant fungal organisms that have developed an ability to degrade such preserved wood. In order to elucidate these processes, specimens (0.5×1.0×15 cm) made of Norway spruce (Picea abies) w...
M Humar, B Bucar, F Pohleven


Chemical reactions involved in furfurylation of solid wood - An investigation by ATR-IR spectroscopy
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40347
Wood modification with furfuryl alcohol (FA) has gained renewed interest during the last five to ten years because of advances in process technology and because of increased focus on the environmental hazards of traditional wood impregnation. The reaction mechanisms involved in the furfurylation process are not yet understood in detail. In the work presented here, the chemical reactions and their ...
T Mark Venås, L Garbrecht Thygesen, S Barsberg


Influence of ring width and wood density on durability of oak heartwood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10639
Oak (Quercus sp.) is considered as one of the most durable European wood species. The most important factor influencing oak durability was extractive content. In our work, we were interested in if oak-wood durability is affected by ring-width and related density. Therefore, oak heartwood specimens made of boards with different ring widths were exposed to five different fungal species Daedelea quer...
M Humar, P Oven, F Pohleven


Vacuum drying of European oakwood: Color, chemistry and anti-oxidant potency of wood. Improving appearance in forest value added products
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40432
In hardwoods used for decorative and appearance purposes, wood colour is one of the most important factors of wood quality; in addition colour is related with durability and biological decay of wood. Wood discolouration during drying is mainly affected by heat, light, physiological reactions, combinations of reactions, biochemical and chemical reactions, and micro-organisms attack. In freshly fell...
S Sandoval, W Jomaa, F Marc, J-R Puiggali


Assessment of mould growth on coated wood - methods and application
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20423
Discolouring fungi reduce the service life of coated wooden claddings in façades and increase the total cost of ownership due to shorter maintenance intervals. The project “Enhanced service life on coated wooden facades” has as its main objective to develop new methods for early prediction of durability and longer aesthetic service life of coated wooden cladding related to consumer needs and ...
L Ross Gobakken, C M Whist, O Høibø, P J Hovde, E Larnøy


Investigation of chemical changes in acetylated beech wood during weathering
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40460
In this study Beech wood (Fagus orientalis) acetylated and has been subjected to a variety of artificial weathering conditions (water only, light only, water and light together)in difference times (0,50,150 and 300 h), then wood surface analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).Results shown that weathering process affected the functional groups on the wood surface. Light and w...
M Akhtari, M Arefkhani


New insights from NMR, FTIR, X-ray diffraction and physical chemistry into digestive processes in the wood-boring marine crustacean Limnoria quadripunctata
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10732
This paper summarises preliminary findings of a multi-technique exploration of the degradation of lignocellulose in the marine isopod Limnoria quadripunctata. Scanning electron microscopy revealed connections between the digestive gland and the hindgut that would permit the exchange of fluids between the two organs while the food mass is retained in place within the hindgut. This enables enzymes t...
G P Malyon, S LaBarre, N Kervarec, P Carey, J McGeehan, X Xie, A Klüppel, S M Cragg


Photostabilization of Wood with Higher Molecular Weight UV Absorbers
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30524
Higher molecular weight UV absorbers were created by reacting the epoxy-functionalized UV absorber 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) with maleic, phthalic or succinic anhydride. The ability of the UV absorbers to photostabilize wood was then examined. FTIR-spectroscopy confirmed that HEPBP reacted with phthalic anhydride to create a polyester that preserved the UV-absorbing benzop...
P D Evans, M J Chowdhury


Silicon compounds as additives improving alkyd-based wood coatings performance
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40531
The reactivity of cellulose with solvent-born alkyd-based wood coatings supplemented with organosilanes was analyzed. Structural analysis of cellulose subjected to the reaction with organosilanes and following extraction with water was performed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The analyzed IR spectra comprise bands 1250 cm-1 typical for the SiC group and 800 cm-1 typical for ...
B Mazela, I Ratajczak, K Wichłacz-Szentner, P Hochmańska


Multilayer hot-press drying and chemical modifying of poplar wood with urea-formaldehyde prepolymer
2011 - IRG/WP 10-40539
The objective of this study was to determine the technology of chemical modifying and multilayer hot-press drying on poplar wood. The chemicals were impregnated into cell lumen space by pulse-dipping machine to improve the dimension stability and mechanical property of timber. The timbers were compressed and dried by the multilayer hot-press drying to increase the density of timber. Results indica...
Guofeng Wu, Yifei Jiang, Sheng Yao, Junwen


Characterisation and evaluation of various chitosan oligomers, and decay resistance
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30562
Chitosan, a polymer of D-glucosamine, is known for its antimicrobial activity. However, the physicochemical properties of chitosan depend upon three principal factors, i.e. source of raw material, molecular weight and degree of deacetylation. Here, we report synthesis and characterization of chitosan oligomers prepared by deaminative depolymerization of chitosan (s) obtained from Sigma Aldrich and...
I Hussain, C Chittenden, T Singh


Study of UV resistance and natural weathering of coatings on chemically modified wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40629
In this study, UV resistance and weathering performance of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata) modified with benzoyl chloride and acetic anhydride was studied. Performance of polyurethane based wood coatings on modified wood was also evaluated. Unmodified and chemically modified specimens were exposed to accelerated and natural weathering. Modified and unmodified woo...
K K Pandey, K Srinivas


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