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Classification of wood materials using Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy and multivariate analysis
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20471
A distinction between preservative-treated wood and non-treated wood can be demonstrated by the combination of Fourier Transform-Near Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) and Multivariate Analysis (MVA). This technique is non-destructive, quick, easy to use and can be portable. The calibration models for different heavy metals are set up using principal component analysis (PCA) to classify species of t...
M A Bouslamti, M A Irle, C Belloncle, V Salvador, S Hulot, B Caron, E M Qannan

Rapid detection of the Alaska yellow cedar, Callitropsis nootkatensis (Cupressaceae) extractives using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20612
Global changes in wood harvesting towards plantation species grown on much shorter rotations has the potential to markedly alter wood quality perceptions. Nowhere is this more risky than with naturally durable species where there is compelling evidence that faster grown woods tend to be less durable. The ability to non-destructively assess durability may allow growers to identify materials that re...
S Lipeh, J J Morrell

Detection of incipient brown rot decay in wood by fourier transform infrared spectrometry
1987 - IRG/WP 2275
Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was evaluated as a possible method for detecting different levels of brown-rot decay in pine sapwood. By using first derivative spectra and regression analysis, an equation based on 4 absorption peaks, normalized with an internal standard peak, was developed. The correlation between weight loss and absorption was highly significant indicating that this is a ...
D D Nicholas, T Schultz

Prediction of Weight Percent Gain (WPG) of furfurylated wood by FT-NIR spectroscopy
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20295
Wood modification based on furfuryl alcohol improves several important wood properties, such as the resistance to fungal decay and insect attack, hardness, dimensional stability, bending strength and stiffness. The improvements of wood properties depend on the weight percent gain (WPG) due to furfurylation. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was used to calibrate PLS-regression ...
M Eikenes, P O Flæte, E Ystrøm Haartveit, S Lande

Investigation of chemical changes in acetylated beech wood during weathering
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40460
In this study Beech wood (Fagus orientalis) acetylated and has been subjected to a variety of artificial weathering conditions (water only, light only, water and light together)in difference times (0,50,150 and 300 h), then wood surface analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).Results shown that weathering process affected the functional groups on the wood surface. Light and w...
M Akhtari, M Arefkhani

Natural durability, ethanol-toluene extractives and phenol content prediction of eight wood species from Madagascar using NIRS multispecific models
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10926
Madagascar has nearly 4000 species of trees and shrubs, but wood properties of only 200 species have been studied. Some properties, such as the natural durability or chemical composition are of importance for adequate and optimal use of these timber species. Since durability tests take long time and chemical analyzes can be very expensive, alternative methods such as near infrared spectroscopy (NI...
A R Razafimahatratra, H Rakotovololonalimanana, M-F Thévenon, C Belloncle, G Chaix, T Ramananantoandro

NIR spectroscopy for rapid estimation of decay resistance
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20294
In Scandinavia Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is an important commercial tree species. Its heartwood has traditionally been used in constructions exposed to risk of decay. In a laboratory experiment Scots pine wood specimens sampled from inner heartwood, outer heartwood and sapwood were exposed to the brown rot fungus Poria placenta. In general outer heartwood was more resistant than inner heart...
P O Flæte, E Ystrøm Haartveit

Differentiation of Scots pine heartwood and sapwood by near infrared spectroscopy
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10459
In Scandinavia Scots pine heartwood has, in recent years, gained popularity as material for external structures exposed to moderate risk of decay. As non-durable sapwood surrounds the heartwood in pine trunks it is of crucial importance to separate this wood from the heartwood during log processing into heartwood products. Heartwood and sapwood can be differentiated by visual evaluation of colour ...
P O Flæte, E Ystrøm Haartveit

Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chemicals used for wood durability improvement by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20349
The Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could be a suitable technique to assess chemicals used for wood durability improvement in the forest products industry. NIRS methodology can be used to obtain results more quickly, less costly and without damaging the wood. In this study, wood samples selected from heartwood and sapwood of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) were prepared to assess the artificial d...
S Zahri, F Charrier, H Baillères, B Charrier

Near infrared spectroscopy for the quantification of wood preservatives
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20391
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid, flexible, inexpensive and non-destructive technology that has many applications, including the evaluation of many wood properties. Initial studies have indicated the potential to apply NIRS for the quantification of wood preservatives. However, further evaluation with borate and azole preservative systems has revealed that NIRS technology is challenged ...
A M Taylor, Seung H Baek, Myong K Jeong, J D Lloyd, J J Morrell

The Use of Micro-Tensile Testing to Assess Weathering Decay and Oxidative Degradation of Wooden Items
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20433
This paper presents a method to study the weathering performance of wooden items and to assess the oxidative degradation of wood via the Fenton reaction. Weathering resistance and photo-stability of wood was tested using pine wood (Pinus sylvestris) veneer strips measuring approximately 60 µm in thickness. The veneer strips were treated using a reactive chemical to impart surface protection. The ...
C Mai, Yanjun Xie, Zefang Xiao, P D Evans, H Militz

NIR spectroscopy for rapid determination of permethrin or bifenthrin retention in P. radiata sapwood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20507
Near infrared spectroscopy of permethrin or bifenthrin treated radiata pine (P. radiata D.Don) has been used to develop calibration models to later predict the active retention in unknown samples. Calibrations were developed for both a laboratory NIR and a portable NIR using laboratory-prepared calibration samples at a range of target retention levels. Correlations were established between the act...
R Meder, N Ebdon

Cell wall properties of softwood deteriorated by fungi: combined chemical analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, nanoindentation and micromechanical modelling
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20527
Mechanical properties of wood are determined by its inherent hierarchical microstructure, starting at the nanometer scale, where the elementary components cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin build up the wood cell wall material. Fungi cause degradation and decomposition of these components and, thus, alter the mechanical properties of wood. The aim of this study is to gain new insight into these...
L Wagner, T K Bader, K de Borst, T Ters, K Fackler

A review on prediction methods of wood natural durability
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10892
Natural durability of timber may be defined as “inherent ability of timber to attack by wood destroying organisms (bacteria, fungi, insects, marine borers) without preservative treatment. On the base of biological tests, EN-350-2 standard (Afnor, 1994), describe the classification of wood species according to their natural durability. But these specifications are not adapted in the case of wood ...
N Amusant, C Flora, J Beauchène, E Houël, C Duplais

Monitoring of wood biodeterioration by infrared spectroscopy
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20607
The susceptibility of wood to deterioration by rotting fungi is intrinsically related to its chemical composition and the environmental conditions at its place of use, and if not detected in time, can cause enormous financial losses. The process of wood biodeterioration by decay fungi can be evaluated through laboratory accelerated test, in specific field tests, or through non-destructive techniqu...
E Meneses Oliveira, A Florian da Costa, J W Batista Braga

The use of bicine and tricine as possible Maillard reagents in a combined thermal/chemical modification of beech
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40852
The effects of thermal modification have been well established, particularly in terms of reductions in mechanical performance. In recent years, there has been an increase in studies related to the Maillard reaction. More commonly associated with food chemistry, it involves the reaction of amines and reducing sugars during cooking procedures. This paper has attempted to combine the use of amines an...
D Jones, C-M Popescu, D Krzisnik, M Hocevar, M Humar, M-C Popescu

Evaluation of decay and energy properties from thermally modified biomasses during fungal deterioration by NIR-spectrometry
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40922
This study is focused on the prediction of fungal weight loss (WL) and high heating value (HHV) from raw and torrefied waste lignocellulosic feedstocks, according to their exposure duration to wood-destroying fungi, using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and chemometrics models. Sugarcane bagasse, coffee husk, eucalyptus and pine shavings were torrefied at 290 °C in a screw reactor, during 5, 7...
B de Freitas Homem de Faria, P Santana Barbosa, J Valente Roque, A de Cassia Oliveira Carneiro, P Rousset, K Candelier, R F Teofilo

Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi

Fungal degradation of wood treated with metal-based preservatives. Part 2: Redox states of chromium
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10164
Concerns have arisen about the leaching of heavy metals from wood treated with metal-based preservatives, such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Of particular concern is the toxic redox state of chromium and arsenic in aging and decayed CCA-treated wood. Generally, hexavalent chromium is more toxic than trivalent chromium and trivalent arsenic is more toxic than pentavalent arsenic. The desired ...
B Illman, S Bajt, T L Highley

An insight into brown rot decay of timber as revealed by 13C CP/MAS NMR
1985 - IRG/WP 1259
L E Leightley

The use of ESR spectroscopy to assess the photostabilising effects of wood preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20186
The degradation of wood surfaces exposed to UV light which leads to poor performance of clear coatings is understood to be due to delignification via a mechanism involving free radicals. Certain wood preservatives most notably CCA are able to photostabilise wood and therefore they may reduce the concentration of free radicals formed when treated wood is exposed to ultraviolet light. As a first ste...
S Schmid, R D Webster, P D Evans

Bioefficacy of boric acid grafted onto wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30202
The use of borate treated wood in outdoor is limited because of the migration of borate. The objective of this study is to investigate the fixation of boric acid in wood using polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) to form polyester borate and isocyanato group as coupling agent. FT-IR was used to monitor the reaction between boric acid and PEG. Elemental analysis was conducted to evaluate the C, H, and N v...
Weining Cui, D P Kamdem

EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) - a technique for quantification of nitrogen and other light elements in the cell wall
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20163
A literature survey was performed to find progress in techniques for monitoring penetration of synthetic resins in wood cell walls. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was successfully applied for the high resolution examination of the distribution of a partly methylated hydroxymethyl melamine resin in Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst...
A O Rapp, H Bestgen, W Adam, R-D Peek

An investigation of organotin compounds in treated wood using Mössbauer spectroscopy
1983 - IRG/WP 3249
The influence of sample preparation on the 119mSn Mössbauer spectrum of tributyltin chloride in ponderosa pine was investigated. Initial studies with sawdust and compressed discs concluded that the latter were clearly superior. Further studies showed that compressed discs prepared from 0.4 g of treated wood and 0.1 g of cellulose were robust and gave excellent Mössbauer spectra. The possibility ...
J N R Ruddick, J K Ingram

UV-microspectrophotometry of lignin and accessory compounds in wood cell walls of conifers
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20171
The distribution of lignin in the cell wall of conifer tracheids was determined by UV-VIS microspectro-photometer. Wood sections of one micron thickness were measured between the wavelength 240 and 700 nm. Spectral analyses revealed that the conifer lignin associated with the tracheid secondary wall and middle lamella is composed of guiacylpropane units which exhibit a characteristic UV absorption...
G Kleist, G Koch, J Bauch

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