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Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French


A survey to assess the current and future usage of timber in British port structures
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10247
Port engineers responsible for 30 British ports were surveyed by questionnaire or interview to establish current and prospective usage of timber in those ports. The ports surveyed account for about 25% of total cargo handled annually in Britain and being located all around the British mainland, were considered to form a representative sample. The survey identified the hardwoods and softwoods in use for various applications in port structures, the criteria for selecting materials for these structures, the materials considered most suitable for piles and fenders and the types of preservative specified. Additional data was collected on the current condition of structures, incidence of marine borers, experience and training of port engineers and their attitude towards timber.
G S Sawyer, S E M Plaster


Current and future options for managing used preservative-treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50042
The amount of preservative-treated wood available for disposal will continue to increase exponentially in the next several decades as landfill availability declines. At the same time, recent legal ruling on competitiveness among utilities and disposal of ash has clouded the economic outlook for combustion of treated wood for energy recovery. This report identifies current and future options for managing used preservative-treated wood, as well as technological and environmental/regulatory limitations to these options. Re-use, recycling (particularly through the manufacture of wood-based composites), and biodegradation are described as primary alternatives to land disposal and combustion. The report also describes supporting technologies (analytical methods and comminution) for managing used treated wood.
R C De Groot, C Felton


Some thoughts on the future strategy for eradicating Serpula lacrymans from a building
1989 - IRG/WP 1405
We now have a clear view of the mechanism of translocation of nutrients in the mycelium of Serpula lacrymans which is one of the physiological processes underlying the remarkable capacity of this fungus to spread through a building. Here the elements of the mechanism of translocation are dissected out to suggest avenues which might be followed in the search for new ways for eradicating the fungus from buildings.
D H Jennings


A Vision for the Future
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20257
This paper focuses on the future of the pressure preservative treatment industry in North America, but also considers the potential role of aspects now considered peripheral. It puts forward the premise that the wood preservation industry risks extinction if it does not evolve. The driving forces for evolution are reviewed and the internal constraints are discussed. A number of alternative strategies are considered and some opportunities are outlined. The merits of specific technologies will not be argued. It is suggested this industry rethink itself as a Wood Improvement industry, relying on diversification to ensure adaptability to an unpredictable future. Key to the future of the wood preservation industry is engaging the wood industry, which is currently suffering from a Durability Squeeze.
P I Morris


A wood preservative for the future: Copper dimethyldithiocarbamate
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30045
The development of a new wood preservative, copper dimethyl-dithiocarbamate (CDDC) is reviewed in this paper. CDDC is formed in situ by dual pressure treatments. Laboratory and field efficacy trials, physical and chemical properties of the preservative solutions and treated wood, and plant handling characteristics of the system are examined.
D K Stokes, M H Freeman, T L Woods, R D Arsenault


Report on the Organization of Future IRG Meetings
1975 - IRG/WP 63
R Cockcroft


On the future financing of the IRG Secretariat
1977 - IRG/WP 75
B Henningsson


Strategy development in 2008/2009
2008 - IRG/WP 08-60265
J Norton


Industrial wood preservation in Kenya. Present status – future prospects
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30385
Although some 50 years old, industrial wood preservation in Kenya does not appear to have technically, scientifically, and commercially evolved and contributed to significantly extend service lives of timbers, protect health and the environment, and curb unnecessary over-exploitation of forests. The population of the country has increased by 530% over the past 50 years; regular excisions have reduced forests to less than 2% of the land area. Wastage of wood during processing, through decay, and due to ineffective chemical treatment remains high and unchecked. At present, four treating chemicals and three treatment techniques are commonly and inefficiently used by the industry. The industry started with no expertise in wood preservation or wood properties, the situation being still the same. Without research, testing, monitoring, assessments and service records, appropriate standards, specifications and legislations cannot be easily formulated. Less costly chemicals and simpler techniques of treatment have not been introduced in the country yet, especially in the rural areas, where about 80% of the population is located. The main stakeholders in trees and timber do not appear to have fully understood the necessity to effectively preserve timber with the additional objectives of conserving forests and protecting the environment. Training in decay and preservation has not been extended to architects, engineers, builders, and wood-based industries in general. It is now urgent that the industry, the producers of wood and those who use or recommend the use of timber, examine new approaches to wood preservation through the choice of safer, more effective chemicals, and cleaner, more appropriate techniques of production. Legislations, Codes of good practices, and Guidelines to minimise or prevent soil and water contamination, or risks to human health, are urgent necessities that have persisted to escape the attention of the relevant authorities in the country.
R Venkatasamy


Future Directions Regarding Research on the Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood: Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood. February 8-11, 2004, FL, USA Workshop – Research Needs
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50222
This paper presents a series of documents that focus on research needs for potential future work focusing on the environmental impacts of preservative-treated wood. These documents were developed through a conference sponsored by the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions (FCES), located in Gainesville, Florida. The conference was held in Orlando, Florida, February 8 – 11, 2004 and the title of the conference was, “Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood.” Approximately 150 people from 15 countries attended the conference. The “research needs” documents developed to date were summarized from: 1) feedback received from conference participants prior to the conference and 2) a two hour workshop held at the conclusion of the conference. A draft voting ballot has been prepared from these documents. This ballot is currently being reviewed by the FCES conference Technical Advisory Committee and a final ballot will be released in mid-April for a vote among the conference participants. A copy of the draft voting ballot is included at the end of this document. Results of the vote will be released at the 35th Annual IRG Meeting in Slovenia.
H M Solo-Gabriele, J D Schert, T G Townsend


International standards – which future?
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20277
A review of past and current activities at CEN/TC/38, within the scope of "wood durability, in relation with exposure" suggest that former activities linked to wood preservative efficacy shall formally include the balance safety/efficacy as a main part of the risk/benefit patterns. One way is an extensive development of liaisons. The case of OECD/CEN cooperation on emission assessment is a positive example. Matters of international harmonization ISO/CEN are perceived as maintenance. Risk reduction shows serious potentialities at the local, application stage, which is typically a sector of services aiming to limit the widespread use of substances and doses (baiting, on-site preventive and curative, maintenance), opening a scope of guidance for services where the skill is based on local adaptation, optimization and pre-estimated options. More accurate parameters are necessary to facilitate prescription.
G Ozanne


Future insecticidal treatments for wood products
1980 - IRG/WP 3140
Protective measures involving chemical treatment of wood use only a narrow range of toxic materials which are divisible into two groups, (i) those that are water-soluble, (ii) those that are soluble only in organic solvents. It is generally true to say that, as far as protection against insects is concerned, the former are stomach poisons while the latter are largely (though not exclusively) contact poisons (i.e., the commonly termed "insecticides"). In both groups, the most frequently used materials are currently under some pressure because of environmental considerations, but economic problems, related to supply of raw materials, also exist. In common with other organisations involved with the preservation of wood products, the N.Z. Forest Research Institute has recently put a lot of emphasis on finding new, or alternative, treating systems and this paper presents the entomological aspects of the work to date.
D J Cross


Objectives of future collaborative soft rot tests
1972 - IRG/WP 209
Progress has been made towards acceptance of a defined laboratory test method for determining the toxicity of preservatives against soft rot fungi (Documents IRG/WP/201 and IRG/WP/208) and, at the 1971 meeting in Brussels, the framework of collaboration for the next phase of testing was discussed. Time available at Brussels did not permit restatement of objectives, consideration of the stages by which they may be achieved or the difficulties likely to be encountered in interpreting test results.
J G Savory


Benzalkonium chloride (an AAC preservative): Criteria for approval, performance in service, and implications for the future
1985 - IRG/WP 3328
The data base generated for benzalkonium chloride was considered adequate for commercial approvals, particularly after revision in late 1982. Field trials, although not part of the approval criteria, generally supported commercial use; decay observed in one test (post and rails) after 6 years' exposure would have resulted in some caution in setting retentions. No laboratory trial, nor field trial, could have predicted the problems experienced during commercial operations. Substandard treatment was interpreted as being responsible for most of the insect attack and decay problems. The remainder were caused by misuse in service, depletion (by chemical or, less likely, by biological mechanisms) during long-term wet storage, or attack by apparently highly AAC-tolerant Coniophora spp. A strict protocol for preservative approvals is now being drawn up which will reflect a higher degree of conservatism and much more reliance on long-term field trials, even of above-ground commodities.
J A Butcher


The future for chromium in wood preservation
1985 - IRG/WP 3332
Most water-borne preservatives contain CrVI compounds, originally to reduce corrosion although now also to improve toxicant fixation. Chromium contributes to preservation and this is recognised in, for example, New Zealand and USA where chromium contents are included in calculations of overall preservative activity of CCA formulations, but chromium may also have anti-stain and joinery (millwork) primer functions. CrVI can represent health and environment risks but only if a preservative is carelessly handled; chromium is fixed in treated wood which does not present a risk. CrVI is essential for fixation in preservatives such as CCA formulations but the development of new preservative uses for chromium should be directed towards CrIII which is virtually nontoxic.
B A Richardson, T R G Cox


Future Directions for Biological Control & BioActivity
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10416
Future directions for biological control of deleterious organisms on wood, and commercial market success, are dependent upon efficacy, cost and shelf life in comparison to other available means, and appropriate fulfilment of registration requirements. Basic and applied research involving ascomycete and/or basidiomycete fungi are described regarding solid wood applications of biocontrol of sapstain, and pulp and paper applications of pitch removal. Crucial to the efficacy assessment for the biological control agent is methodology to determine deterioration and diagnostics. Critical parameters that affect biological control efficacy in the field from our experience are as follows: 1. Cause of the deleterious condition, including presence of deleterious organism(s) and/or the environment in which they thrive. 2. Biochemical activity and growth characteristics of the biological control agent, what we call BioActivity. 3. The wood resource and the environment in which it needs to be controlled.
R L Farrell, J M Thwaites


Wood preservation in Nigeria - Its increasing relevance, observed constraints and potential as a forest conservation option
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3732
The paper discusses the demand and supply of wood and wood products in Nigeria and points out that in view of the large population (88 million) and search for wood for housing and furniture, the demand exceeds supply. There is great shortage of industrial and domestic woods resulting in underutilization of installed machineries in forest industries and low profit margin. Under this prevailing condition, wood preservation has a definite positive role to play in reducing pressure on productive high forests and timber plantations for logs by prolonging the service life of woods in storage and in service. However, factors such as high depreciation of the local currency, Naira against the U.S. Dollar and British Pound Sterling, high cost of imported wood preservatives, low income per capita especially in the rural areas where over 70% of the population live, have tended to slow the pace of advancement of wood preservation practice in the country. With rising costs of sawn timbers and other wood products coupled with the urgent need to enhance their performance and prolong their service life, the paper concludes that wood preservation has a bright future in Nigeria. Moreover, development of less-toxic and environmentally safe wood preservatives, application of fire retardant preservatives, remedial treatment of utility poles and timbers as well as dimensional stabilization of woods will help greatly to raise the status of wood preservation in Nigeria.
M A Odeyinde, S C Ifebueme


Future termite control requires partnership between industry, government and people
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10586
Given the behaviour of the pest control industry, together with the housing and timber industries, and performance of the State regulatory agencies, it is not surprising that all of these groups were philosophically ill-prepared to consider alternative measures in June 1995. However, conditions have altered and there is an awareness of such alternatives. In future, termiticides will have properties and characteristics vastly different from the chemicals previously used as termiticides in the ‘organochlorine-era’. Thus, innovative, flexible and performance based evaluative methods are required to screen potential termiticides that may act as bait, dust, or soil barrier toxicants. Furthermore, physical barrier methods will need to be coupled with chemical systems. Suggestions are offered for the pest control industry, government, the building and the timber industries and the general public to pursue and engage in an integrated pest management (IPM) approach to termite control based on sound ecological parameters and social priorities. These include adopting a mix of alternative strategies as mentioned above, plus planning to ensure continuous funding for termite R&D and training and education programs necessary to supply ‘termite expertise’ in the future. Screening and evaluation methods of new generation termiticide have to be flexible and considerate of the ecological impact. The assessors would require having a broader knowledge than just termiticide toxicity data and termite control.
J R J French, B M Ahmed


The amazing wooden churches from Northern Romania - learning from the past, restoring for the future, preserving the present valuable heritage of forgotten wood building tradition
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10683
The beauty and the uniqueness of the north-western region of Romania called “Maramureş” are well known in Europe. Surrounded by mountains, the region remained to some extend isolated from modern influences, preserving the local village architecture and craftsman traditions learnt and passed on from generation to generation. Local folklore and past heritage sets you back centuries ago when the manual work and wood in particular was the only way to build. Wood construction with specific architecture has developed in this region. Houses and churches were erected in a way in which even today some of these building are still standing and integrate nicely with the landscape. As always good time and bad time are cycles in the human history and time have its impact on the any wooden construction. Restoring and preserving these unique wooden churches from Maramureş is not only a necessity for the local people but an honour and duty in order to preserve their heritage and traditions. In this study, a biological evaluation of the aged and destroyed wood from an historical wooden church from Maramureş, Romania, recently restored, is being investigated and discussed. The aged oak material used in the initial construction is compared with today’s oak wood material available on the market. The option of using VPT treated wood as a material of choice for restoring these monuments are being suggested and eventually considered as a recommendation. The knowledge, the talent and the traditional craftsman type of work used in building these churches are slowly disappearing and somehow needs to be preserved by maintaining this knowledge through restoration work. The question which remains to be answered is whether this material will last centuries like the original one used for construction?
R Craciun, R Möller


The Present Situation and Future Development in Quality Assurance for Wood Protection in China
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20418
This paper provides a comprehensive review of the quality assurance program for wood protection industry in China in term of guiding policies, standardization and implementation activities. The potential deficiencies with the existing practices regarding to the quality of wood protection products and suggestions for the further research and development directions to improve the system are also discussed. Author is confident that with the guidance of the government policy and support; the active involvement of The Timber Value Promotion and Substitution Administration Center of China, Universities and Research Institutes; and the participation of the industry members, future working in the area could be expected to intensify to meet the demands for the country’s rapid economic developments and to ensure the quality of the wood protection products.
Kang Hua Cheng


Future Directions in Wood and Engineered Wood Products Research in China
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40479
This paper has summarized the research advance of basic wood science and engineered wood products in the 20th century in China and introduced the research advance and directions of basic wood science, engineered wood products and the extensive researches based on the basic wood science such as wood chemical rheology, wood fractal analysis, wood environmental science and nano-wood material etc in the near future. Based on these, the future research directions for wood science in conformity with Chinese actual conditions have been put forward. The objective of this paper is to promote the extensive exchanges of researchers in the wood science field and find out the new approaches of research and application for wood science and wood engineered composite material.
Guangjie Zhao


Chemical protection of historic timber structures: Results and future needs
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40487
The paper concentrates on the analysis of the effectiveness of chemical protection for timber structures in the Russian State Museums “Kizhi” (Karelia) and “Vitoslavlitsy” (Novgorod). The condition of historic timber was tested at the monuments treated with PCP, borax, potassium carbonate, boric acid, Pinotex chemicals in the 1970-80. Long-term analysis revealed that in many cases the deep-treatment with PCP and borax chemicals proved to be efficient only for a short period of time. Profound activity of wood-borers was noted in the structures deep-treated with preservative chemicals. Deep treatment caused emergence of new cracks of timber and enlargement of existed ones. Changes in absorption and desorption processes are occurred. Changes in color are easily seen in a majority of the treated monuments. The treatment also deteriorated the ecological situation. Modern chemicals (Rocima-243, Rocima-293, ULTAN (CCA-type), Ventti, etc.) were tested on pilot structures established in the “Kizhi” museum in 2005. The results of the microscopical investigation of the samples after 3-year - long exposure are given. The chemicals appropriate for restoration and conservation of wooden architectural monuments are presented. The need of environmentally save approaches to preserve an essential part of our cultural heritage – historical wooden structures is emphasized.
M Kisternaya, V Kozlov


Encapsulation Systems Combined with DOT Borate Treatments – The Future of Treated Crossties
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40670
Borates have been utilized in wood protection systems for many decades but only recently have been used in North America to treat crossties. This colorless, ordorless and very effective wood protection chemical has the ability to arrest and prevent the colonization of wood by both basidiomycete decay fungi and insects such as beetles and termites while ties are air seasoning or in service. Since borates are water-diffusible, they will eventually leach from the wooden substrate if exposed to prolonged outdoor exposure conditions without a water-repellent encapsulation dual treatment. The decay and insect damage that occurs in crossties during the 6-9 month air seasoning process prior to preservative treatment has been determined to be a major factor in the premature failure of in-service crossties. In an AAR/RTA/MSU-sponsored study, DOT borate in a heated 30% wt/wt solution was applied before air seasoning and then standard creosote treatments were applied over the borate treated ties after seasoning. The actual creosote retentions of the original test ties has not been reported in detail and are very important to consider as the commercialization of this new wood protection system matures. It was shown that when ties are properly treated with DOT borate, allowed to establish a distributed borate reservoir, and air seasoned to industry standard, the creosote retentions can be decreased from standard specifications by as much as 50% and tie life can be increased by as much as three times over ties treated with creosote alone at current specifications.
S C Kitchens, T L Amburgey


Exterior paint for the future - Will there be any dry-film preservatives left?
2017 - IRG/WP 17-50332
Wooden houses have a long tradition in several of the Nordic countries. Wood can be protected in various ways; constructional, chemically and by surface treatment. The use of various types of exterior paints as a surface treatment is a common way to prolong the durability of the wood. To further protect the painted surface against growth of fungi and algae, dry-film biocides remains an essential part of a high quality exterior paint. In Europe, the use of biocides is regulated by the Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR). Dry-film preservatives are just beginning to be evaluated, and already several of the well-known dry-film biocides face challenges with being approved under BPR. This paper will discuss the purpose of applying exterior paint(s), biological growth on painted facades, and the uncertain future of the dry-film biocides in Europe.
H Jensen, M Sandve, S M Lystvet


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